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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066136

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) is a multi-functional protein, playing a critical role in viral replication and in regulating host antiviral innate immunity. In this study, we demonstrate that nsp3 from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) directly interacts with melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), rendering an inhibitory effect on the MDA5-mediated type I interferon (IFN) response. By the co-expression of MDA5 with wild-type and truncated nsp3 constructs, at least three interacting regions mapped to the papain-like protease (PLpro) domain and two other domains located at the N- and C-terminal regions were identified in SARS-CoV-2 nsp3. Furthermore, by introducing point mutations to the catalytic triad, the deubiquitylation activity of the PLpro domain from both SARS-CoV-2 and IBV nsp3 was shown to be responsible for the suppression of the MDA5-mediated type I IFN response. It was also demonstrated that both MDA5 and nsp3 were able to interact with ubiquitin and ubiquitinated proteins, contributing to the interaction between the two proteins. This study confirms the antagonistic role of nsp3 in the MDA5-mediated type I IFN signaling, highlighting the complex interaction between a multi-functional viral protein and the innate immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Interferon Type I , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitinated Proteins , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(11): e276-e288, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062013

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread worldwide, there have been increasing reports from Europe, North America, Asia, and Latin America describing children and adolescents with COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory conditions. However, the association between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and COVID-19 is still unknown. We review the epidemiology, causes, clinical features, and current treatment protocols for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. We also discuss the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for COVID-19-induced inflammatory processes, which can lead to organ damage in paediatric patients who are severely ill. These insights provide evidence for the need to develop a clear case definition and treatment protocol for this new condition and also shed light on future therapeutic interventions and the potential for vaccine development. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Chinese, Arabic, Spanish and Russian translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(5): e12481, 2020 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025763

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread to many countries around the world, but the infection and death rates vary widely. One country that appeared to have kept the infection under control despite limited societal restrictions is Japan. This commentary explores why Japan may have, up to now, been spared an escalation of the SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Culture , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Genetic Variation , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Virol ; 96(18): e0102422, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008764

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic coronaviruses represent an ongoing threat to public health. The classical porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the early 1970s. Since 2010, outbreaks of highly virulent PEDV variants have caused great economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. However, the strategies by which PEDV variants escape host immune responses are not fully understood. Complement component 3 (C3) is considered a central component of the three complement activation pathways and plays a crucial role in preventing viral infection. In this study, we found that C3 significantly inhibited PEDV replication in vitro, and both variant and classical PEDV strains induced high levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in Huh7 cells. However, the PEDV variant strain reduces C3 transcript and protein levels induced by IL-1ß compared with the PEDV classical strain. Examination of key molecules of the C3 transcriptional signaling pathway revealed that variant PEDV reduced C3 by inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ß (C/EBP-ß) phosphorylation. Mechanistically, PEDV nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) inhibited C/EBP-ß phosphorylation via amino acid residue 50. Finally, we constructed recombinant PEDVs to verify the critical role of amino acid 50 of NSP1 in the regulation of C3 expression. In summary, we identified a novel antiviral role of C3 in inhibiting PEDV replication and the viral immune evasion strategies of PEDV variants. Our study reveals new information on PEDV-host interactions and furthers our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of this virus. IMPORTANCE The complement system acts as a vital link between the innate and the adaptive immunity and has the ability to recognize and neutralize various pathogens. Activation of the complement system acts as a double-edged sword, as appropriate levels of activation protect against pathogenic infections, but excessive responses can provoke a dramatic inflammatory response and cause tissue damage, leading to pathological processes, which often appear in COVID-19 patients. However, how PEDV, as the most severe coronavirus causing diarrhea in piglets, regulates the complement system has not been previously reported. In this study, for the first time, we identified a novel mechanism of a PEDV variant in the suppression of C3 expression, showing that different coronaviruses and even different subtype strains differ in regulation of C3 expression. In addition, this study provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of the PEDV variant in immune escape and enhanced virulence.


Subject(s)
Complement C3 , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Complement C3/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0074122, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992937

ABSTRACT

Within the past 2 decades, three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses have emerged, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The health threats and economic burden posed by these tremendously severe coronaviruses have paved the way for research on their etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Compared to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV genome encoded fewer accessory proteins, among which the ORF4b protein had anti-immunity ability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our work for the first time revealed that ORF4b protein was unstable in the host cells and could be degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system. After extensive screenings, it was found that UBR5 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5), a member of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, specifically regulated the ubiquitination and degradation of ORF4b. Similar to ORF4b, UBR5 can also translocate into the nucleus through its nuclear localization signal, enabling it to regulate ORF4b stability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Through further experiments, lysine 36 was identified as the ubiquitination site on the ORF4b protein, and this residue was highly conserved in various MERS-CoV strains isolated from different regions. When UBR5 was knocked down, the ability of ORF4b to suppress innate immunity was enhanced and MERS-CoV replication was stronger. As an anti-MERS-CoV host protein, UBR5 targets and degrades ORF4b protein through the ubiquitin proteasome system, thereby attenuating the anti-immunity ability of ORF4b and ultimately inhibiting MERS-CoV immune escape, which is a novel antagonistic mechanism of the host against MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE ORF4b was an accessory protein unique to MERS-CoV and was not present in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 which can also cause severe respiratory disease. Moreover, ORF4b inhibited the production of antiviral cytokines in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, which was likely to be associated with the high lethality of MERS-CoV. However, whether the host proteins regulate the function of ORF4b is unknown. Our study first determined that UBR5, a host E3 ligase, was a potential host anti-MERS-CoV protein that could reduce the protein level of ORF4b and diminish its anti-immunity ability by inducing ubiquitination and degradation. Based on the discovery of ORF4b-UBR5, a critical molecular target, further increasing the degradation of ORF4b caused by UBR5 could provide a new strategy for the clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Host Microbial Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
9.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969491

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute, high-mortality-rate, severe infectious disease caused by an emerging MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes severe respiratory diseases. The continuous spread and great pandemic potential of MERS-CoV make it necessarily important to develop effective vaccines. We previously demonstrated that the application of Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as a bacterial vector displaying the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS vaccine candidate that is capable of producing potential neutralization antibodies. We have also used the rabies virus (RV) as a viral vector to design a recombinant vaccine by expressing the MERS-CoV S1 (spike) protein on the surface of the RV. In this study, we compared the immunological efficacy of the vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice in terms of the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. The results show that the rabies virus vector-based vaccine can induce remarkably earlier antibody response and higher levels of cellular immunity than the GEM particles vector. However, the GEM particles vector-based vaccine candidate can induce remarkably higher antibody response, even at a very low dose of 1 µg. These results indicate that vaccines constructed using different vaccine vector platforms for the same pathogen have different rates and trends in humoral and cellular immune responses in the same animal model. This discovery not only provides more alternative vaccine development platforms for MERS-CoV vaccine development, but also provides a theoretical basis for our future selection of vaccine vector platforms for other specific pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lactococcus lactis/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Rabies virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939012

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing antibodies that bind endemic human coronaviruses (eHCoVs) can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, which is the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, but whether these responses influence SARS-CoV-2 infection is still under investigation and is particularly understudied in infants. In this study, we measured eHCoV and SARS-CoV-1 IgG antibody titers before and after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in a cohort of Kenyan women and their infants. Pre-existing eHCoV antibody binding titers were not consistently associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in infants or mothers; however, we observed a very modest association between pre-existing HCoV-229E antibody levels and a lack of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants. After seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2, antibody binding titers to the endemic betacoronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1, and the highly pathogenic betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-1, but not the endemic alphacoronaviruses HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63, increased in the mothers. However, eHCoV antibody levels did not increase following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants, suggesting the increase seen in the mothers was not simply due to cross-reactivity to naively generated SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In contrast, the levels of antibodies that could bind SARS-CoV-1 increased after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in both the mothers and infants, both of whom were unlikely to have had a prior SARS-CoV-1 infection, supporting prior findings that SARS-CoV-2 responses cross-react with SARS-CoV-1. In summary, we found evidence of increased eHCoV antibody levels following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the mothers but not the infants, suggesting eHCoV responses can be boosted by SARS-CoV-2 infection when a prior memory response has been established, and that pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies are not strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in mothers or infants.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910522

ABSTRACT

The membrane protein M of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) is the most abundant component of the viral envelope. The M protein plays a central role in the morphogenesis and assembly of the virus through protein interactions of the M-M, M-Spike (S) and M-nucleocapsid (N) type. The M protein is known to induce protective antibodies in pigs and to participate in the antagonistic response of the cellular antiviral system coordinated by the type I and type III interferon pathways. The 3D structure of the PEDV M protein is still unknown. The present work exposes a predicted 3D model of the M protein generated using the Robetta protocol. The M protein model is organized into a transmembrane and a globular region. The obtained 3D model of the PEDV M protein was compared with 3D models of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein created using neural networks and with initial machine learning-based models created using trRosetta. The 3D model of the present study predicted four linear B-cell epitopes (RSVNASSGTG and KHGDYSAVSNPSALT peptides are noteworthy), six discontinuous B-cell epitopes, forty weak binding and fourteen strong binding T-cell epitopes in the CV777 M protein. A high degree of conservation of the epitopes predicted in the PEDV M protein was observed among different PEDV strains isolated in different countries. The data suggest that the M protein could be a potential candidate for the development of new treatments or strategies that activate protective cellular mechanisms against viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/chemistry , Swine Diseases/virology , Swine/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Models, Molecular , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Protein Conformation , Swine Diseases/immunology
12.
J Virol ; 96(14): e0073822, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909581

ABSTRACT

Respiratory coronaviruses cause serious health threats to humans and animals. Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV), a natural transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) mutant with partial spike deletion, causes mild respiratory disease and is an interesting animal respiratory coronavirus model for human respiratory coronaviruses. However, the absence of robust ex vivo models of porcine airway epithelium hinders an understanding of the pathogenesis of PRCoV infection. Here, we generated long-term porcine airway organoids (AOs) derived from basal epithelial cells, which recapitulate the in vivo airway complicated epithelial cellularity. Both 3D and 2D AOs are permissive for PRCoV infection. Unlike TGEV, which established successful infection in both AOs and intestinal organoids, PRCoV was strongly amplified only in AOs, not intestinal organoids. Furthermore, PRCoV infection in AOs mounted vigorous early type I and III interferon (IFN) responses and upregulated the expression of overzealous inflammatory genes, including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these data demonstrate that stem-derived porcine AOs can serve as a promising disease model for PRCoV infection and provide a valuable tool to study porcine respiratory infection. IMPORTANCE Porcine respiratory CoV (PRCoV), a natural mutant of TGEV, shows striking pathogenetic similarities to human respiratory CoV infection and provides an interesting animal model for human respiratory CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2. The lack of an in vitro model recapitulating the complicated cellularity and structure of the porcine respiratory tract is a major roadblock for the study of PRCoV infection. Here, we developed long-term 3D airway organoids (AOs) and further established 2D AO monolayer cultures. The resultant 3D and 2D AOs are permissive for PRCoV infection. Notably, PRCoV mediated pronounced IFN and inflammatory responses in AOs, which recapitulated the inflammatory responses associated with PRCoV in vivo infection. Therefore, porcine AOs can be utilized to characterize the pathogenesis of PRCoV and, more broadly, can serve as a universal platform for porcine respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Organoids , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus , Respiratory System , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/virology , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
13.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900503

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2123208119, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860508

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged into humans in 2012, causing highly lethal respiratory disease. The severity of disease may be, in part, because MERS-CoV is adept at antagonizing early innate immune pathways­interferon (IFN) production and signaling, protein kinase R (PKR), and oligoadenylate synthetase/ribonuclease L (OAS/RNase L)­activated in response to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) generated during genome replication. This is in contrast to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which we recently reported to activate PKR and RNase L and, to some extent, IFN signaling. We previously found that MERS-CoV accessory proteins NS4a (dsRNA binding protein) and NS4b (phosphodiesterase) could weakly suppress these pathways, but ablation of each had minimal effect on virus replication. Here we investigated the antagonist effects of the conserved coronavirus endoribonuclease (EndoU), in combination with NS4a or NS4b. Inactivation of EndoU catalytic activity alone in a recombinant MERS-CoV caused little if any effect on activation of the innate immune pathways during infection. However, infection with recombinant viruses containing combined mutations with inactivation of EndoU and deletion of NS4a or inactivation of the NS4b phosphodiesterase promoted robust activation of dsRNA-induced innate immune pathways. This resulted in at least tenfold attenuation of replication in human lung­derived A549 and primary nasal cells. Furthermore, replication of these recombinant viruses could be rescued to the level of wild-type MERS-CoV by knockout of host immune mediators MAVS, PKR, or RNase L. Thus, EndoU and accessory proteins NS4a and NS4b together suppress dsRNA-induced innate immunity during MERS-CoV infection in order to optimize viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nasal Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uridylate-Specific Endoribonucleases
16.
J Virol ; 96(11): e0046922, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854236

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoV) nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) inhibits cellular gene expression and antagonizes interferon (IFN) response. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects pigs and causes high mortality in neonatal piglets. We hypothesized that a recombinant PEDV carrying mutations at the conserved residues N93 and N95 of nsp1 induces higher IFN responses and is more sensitive to IFN responses, leading to virus attenuation. We mutated PEDV nsp1 N93 and N95 to A93 and A95 to generate the recombinant N93/95A virus using the infectious clone of a highly virulent PEDV strain, PC22A (icPC22A), and evaluated N93/95A virus in vitro and in vivo. Compared with icPC22A, the N93/95A mutant replicated to significantly lower infectious titers, triggered stronger type I and III IFN responses, and was more sensitive to IFN treatment in vitro. To evaluate the pathogenicity and immunogenicity, 5-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were orally inoculated with the N93/95A or icPC22A strain or mock inoculated and then challenged at 22 days postinoculation (dpi) with icPC22A. icPC22A in all pigs (100% [5/5]) caused severe diarrhea and death within 6 dpi. Only one pig (25% [1/4]) died in the N93/95A group. Compared with the icPC22A group, significantly delayed and diminished fecal PEDV shedding was detected in the N93/95A group. Postchallenge, all piglets in N93/95A group were protected from severe diarrhea and death, whereas all pigs in the mock-challenged group developed severe diarrhea, and 25% (1/4) of them died. In summary, nsp1 N93A and N95A mutations attenuated PEDV but retained viral immunogenicity and can be targets for the development of live attenuated vaccines for PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV causes porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and remains a great threat to the swine industry worldwide because no effective vaccines are available yet. Safe and effective live attenuated vaccines can be designed using reverse genetics to induce lactogenic immunity in pregnant sows to protect piglets from the deadly PED. We found that an engineered PEDV mutant carrying N93A and N95A mutations of nsp1 was partially attenuated and remained immunogenic in neonatal pigs. Our study suggested that nsp1 N93 and N95 can be good targets for the rational design of live attenuated vaccines for PEDV using reverse genetics. Because CoV nsp1 is conserved among alphacoronaviruses (α-CoVs) and betacoronaviruses (ß-CoVs), it may be a good target for vaccine development for other α-CoVs or ß-CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferons , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Interferons/immunology , Mutation , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
17.
J Virol ; 96(11): e0036422, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854234

ABSTRACT

Effective broad-spectrum antivirals are critical to prevent and control emerging human coronavirus (hCoV) infections. Despite considerable progress made toward identifying and evaluating several synthetic broad-spectrum antivirals against hCoV infections, a narrow therapeutic window has limited their success. Enhancing the endogenous interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) response is another antiviral strategy that has been known for decades. However, the side effects of pegylated type-I IFNs (IFN-Is) and the proinflammatory response detected after delayed IFN-I therapy have discouraged their clinical use. In contrast to IFN-Is, IFN-λ, a dominant IFN at the epithelial surface, has been shown to be less proinflammatory. Consequently, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of IFN-λ in hCoV-infected airway epithelial cells and mice. Human primary airway epithelial cells treated with a single dose of IFN-I (IFN-α) and IFN-λ showed similar ISG expression, whereas cells treated with two doses of IFN-λ expressed elevated levels of ISG compared to that of IFN-α-treated cells. Similarly, mice treated with two doses of IFN-λ were better protected than mice that received a single dose, and a combination of prophylactic and delayed therapeutic regimens completely protected mice from a lethal Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) infection. A two-dose IFN-λ regimen significantly reduced lung viral titers and inflammatory cytokine levels with marked improvement in lung inflammation. Collectively, we identified an effective regimen for IFN-λ use and demonstrated the protective efficacy of IFN-λ in MERS-CoV-infected mice. IMPORTANCE Effective antiviral agents are urgently required to prevent and treat individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viral infections. The COVID-19 pandemic has catapulted our efforts to identify, develop, and evaluate several antiviral agents. However, a narrow therapeutic window has limited the protective efficacy of several broad-spectrum and CoV-specific antivirals. IFN-λ is an antiviral agent of interest due to its ability to induce a robust endogenous antiviral state and low levels of inflammation. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy and effective treatment regimen of IFN-λ in mice infected with a lethal dose of MERS-CoV. We show that while prophylactic and early therapeutic IFN-λ administration is protective, delayed treatment is detrimental. Notably, a combination of prophylactic and delayed therapeutic administration of IFN-λ protected mice from severe MERS. Our results highlight the prophylactic and therapeutic use of IFN-λ against lethal hCoV and likely other viral lung infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Interferons , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Mice
18.
J Mol Biol ; 434(6): 167438, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851578

ABSTRACT

Recognition of viral infections by various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates an inflammatory cytokine response that inhibits viral replication and orchestrates the activation of adaptive immune responses to control the viral infection. The broadly active innate immune response puts a strong selective pressure on viruses and drives the selection of variants with increased capabilities to subvert the induction and function of antiviral cytokines. This revolutionary process dynamically shapes the host ranges, cell tropism and pathogenesis of viruses. Recent studies on the innate immune responses to the infection of human coronaviruses (HCoV), particularly SARS-CoV-2, revealed that HCoV infections can be sensed by endosomal toll-like receptors and/or cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptors in various cell types. However, the profiles of inflammatory cytokines and transcriptome response induced by a specific HCoV are usually cell type specific and determined by the virus-specific mechanisms of subverting the induction and function of interferons and inflammatory cytokines as well as the genetic trait of the host genes of innate immune pathways. We review herein the recent literatures on the innate immune responses and their roles in the pathogenesis of HCoV infections with emphasis on the pathobiological roles and therapeutic effects of type I interferons in HCoV infections and their antiviral mechanisms. The knowledge on the mechanism of innate immune control of HCoV infections and viral evasions should facilitate the development of therapeutics for induction of immune resolution of HCoV infections and vaccines for efficient control of COVID-19 pandemics and other HCoV infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Drug Development , Immune Evasion , Interferon Type I , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(7): 442-447, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830064

ABSTRACT

A male bias in mortality has emerged in the COVID-19 pandemic, which is consistent with the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Biological sex differences may manifest themselves in susceptibility to infection, early pathogenesis, innate viral control, adaptive immune responses or the balance of inflammation and tissue repair in the resolution of infection. We discuss available sex-disaggregated epidemiological data from the COVID-19 pandemic, introduce sex-differential features of immunity and highlight potential sex differences underlying COVID-19 severity. We propose that sex differences in immunopathogenesis will inform mechanisms of COVID-19, identify points for therapeutic intervention and improve vaccine design and increase vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Sociological Factors
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