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2.
Life Sci ; 324: 121750, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310496

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Millions of people died during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the vast majority of infected individuals survived. Now, some consequences of the disease, known as long COVID, are been revealed. Although the respiratory system is the target of Sars-CoV-2, COVID-19 can influence other parts of the body, including bone. The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of acute coronavirus infection in bone metabolism. MAIN METHODS: We evaluated RANKL/OPG levels in serum samples of patients with and without acute COVID-19. In vitro, the effects of coronavirus in osteoclasts and osteoblasts were investigated. In vivo, we evaluated the bone phenotype in a BSL2 mouse model of SARS-like disease induced by murine coronavirus (MHV-3). KEY FINDINGS: Patients with acute COVID-19 presented decreased OPG and increased RANKL/OPG ratio in the serum versus healthy individuals. In vitro, MHV-3 infected macrophages and osteoclasts, increasing their differentiation and TNF release. Oppositely, osteoblasts were not infected. In vivo, MHV-3 lung infection triggered bone resorption in the femur of mice, increasing the number of osteoclasts at 3dpi and decreasing at 5dpi. Indeed, apoptotic-caspase-3+ cells have been detected in the femur after infection as well as viral RNA. RANKL/OPG ratio and TNF levels also increased in the femur after infection. Accordingly, the bone phenotype of TNFRp55-/- mice infected with MHV-3 showed no signs of bone resorption or increase in the number of osteoclasts. SIGNIFICANCE: Coronavirus induces an osteoporotic phenotype in mice dependent on TNF and on macrophage/osteoclast infection.


Subject(s)
Bone Resorption , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , COVID-19/metabolism , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts/metabolism , Osteoprotegerin/metabolism , Pandemics , Phenotype , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , RANK Ligand/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism
3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(10): 902-905, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248197

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected children differently from adults worldwide. Data on the clinical presentation of the infection in children are limited. We present a detailed account of pediatric inpatients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus at our institution during widespread local transmission, aiming to understand disease presentation and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of children, ages 0 to 18 years, with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to our hospital over a 4-week period. We present clinical data from 22 patients and highlight the variability of the presentation. In our study, most children presented without respiratory illness or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19; many were identified only because of universal testing. Because children may have variable signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection, targeted testing may miss some cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Neoplasms/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , United States
4.
J Virol ; 97(4): e0021023, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254654

ABSTRACT

Porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV) is a new bat HKU2-like porcine coronavirus, and its endemic outbreak has caused severe economic losses to the pig industry. Its broad cellular tropism suggests a potential risk of cross-species transmission. A limited understanding of PEAV entry mechanisms may hinder a rapid response to potential outbreaks. This study analyzed PEAV entry events using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, and dominant-negative mutants. PEAV entry into Vero cells depended on three endocytic pathways: caveolae, clathrin, and macropinocytosis. Endocytosis requires dynamin, cholesterol, and a low pH. Rab5, Rab7, and Rab9 GTPases (but not Rab11) regulate PEAV endocytosis. PEAV particles colocalize with EEA1, Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Lamp-1, suggesting that PEAV translocates into early endosomes after internalization, and Rab5, Rab7, and Rab9 regulate trafficking to lysosomes before viral genome release. PEAV enters porcine intestinal cells (IPI-2I) through the same endocytic pathway, suggesting that PEAV may enter various cells through multiple endocytic pathways. This study provides new insights into the PEAV life cycle. IMPORTANCE Emerging and reemerging coronaviruses cause severe human and animal epidemics worldwide. PEAV is the first bat-like coronavirus to cause infection in domestic animals. However, the PEAV entry mechanism into host cells remains unknown. This study demonstrates that PEAV enters into Vero or IPI-2I cells through caveola/clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, which does not require a specific receptor. Subsequently, Rab5, Rab7, and Rab9 regulate PEAV trafficking from early endosomes to lysosomes, which is pH dependent. The results advance our understanding of the disease and help to develop potential new drug targets against PEAV.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Caveolae , Clathrin , Pinocytosis , Virus Internalization , rab GTP-Binding Proteins , Alphacoronavirus/physiology , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Dynamins/metabolism , Caveolae/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Pinocytosis/physiology , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287228

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and severe atrophic enteritis caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that infects pigs and makes huge economic losses to the global swine industry. Previously, researchers have believed that porcine aminopeptidase-N (pAPN) was the primary receptor for PEDV, but it has been found that PEDV can infect pAPN knockout pigs. Currently, the functional receptor for PEDV remains unspecified. In the present study, we performed virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), found that ATP1A1 was the highest scoring protein in the mass spectrometry results, and confirmed that the CT structural domain of ATP1A1 interacts with PEDV S1. First, we investigated the effect of ATP1A1 on PEDV replication. Inhibition of hosts ATP1A1 protein expression using small interfering RNA (siRNAs) significantly reduced the cells susceptibility to PEDV. The ATP1A1-specific inhibitors Ouabain (a cardiac steroid) and PST2238 (a digitalis toxin derivative), which specifically bind ATP1A1, could block the ATP1A1 protein internalization and degradation, and consequently reduce the infection rate of host cells by PEDV significantly. Additionally, as expected, overexpression of ATP1A1 notably enhanced PEDV infection. Next, we observed that PEDV infection of target cells resulted in upregulation of ATP1A1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we found that the host protein ATP1A1 was involved in PEDV attachment and co-localized with PEDV S1 protein in the early stage of infection. In addition, pretreatment of IPEC-J2 and Vero-E6 cells with ATP1A1 mAb significantly reduced PEDV attachment. Our observations provided a perspective on identifying key factors in PEDV infection, and may provide valuable targets for PEDV infection, PEDV functional receptor, related pathogenesis, and the development of new antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Swine Diseases , Animals , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Small Interfering , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism
6.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2809-2819, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285958

ABSTRACT

Hexameric structure formation through packing of three C-terminal helices and an N-terminal trimeric coiled-coil core has been proposed as a general mechanism of class I enveloped virus entry. In this process, the C-terminal helical repeat (HR2) region of viral membrane fusion proteins becomes transiently exposed and accessible to N-terminal helical repeat (HR1) trimer-based fusion inhibitors. Herein, we describe a mimetic of the HIV-1 gp41 HR1 trimer, N3G, as a promising therapeutic against HIV-1 infection. Surprisingly, we found that in addition to protection against HIV-1 infection, N3G was also highly effective in inhibiting infection of human ß-coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV, HCoV-OC43, and SARS-CoV-2, possibly by binding the HR2 region in the spike protein of ß-coronaviruses to block their hexameric structure formation. These studies demonstrate the potential utility of anti-HIV-1 HR1 peptides in inhibiting human ß-coronavirus infection. Moreover, this strategy could be extended to the design of broad-spectrum antivirals based on the supercoiling structure of peptides.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Design , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/antagonists & inhibitors , HIV-1/drug effects , Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/metabolism , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
7.
J Virol ; 97(3): e0188422, 2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244413

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious disease, caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which causes huge economic losses. Tight junction-associated proteins play an important role during virus infection; therefore, maintaining their integrity may be a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of PEDV. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in numerous cellular functional activities, yet whether and how they regulate the intestinal barrier against viral infection remains to be elucidated. Here, we established a standard system for evaluating intestinal barrier integrity and then determined the differentially expressed lncRNAs between PEDV-infected and healthy piglets by lncRNA-seq. A total of 111 differentially expressed lncRNAs were screened, and lncRNA446 was identified due to significantly higher expression after PEDV infection. Using IPEC-J2 cells and intestinal organoids as in vitro models, we demonstrated that knockdown of lncRNA446 resulted in increased replication of PEDV, with further damage to intestinal permeability and tight junctions. Mechanistically, RNA pulldown and an RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay showed that lncRNA446 directly binds to ALG-2-interacting protein X (Alix), and lncRNA446 inhibits ubiquitinated degradation of Alix mediated by TRIM25. Furthermore, Alix could bind to ZO1 and occludin and restore the expression level of the PEDV M gene and TJ proteins after lncRNA446 knockdown. Additionally, Alix knockdown and overexpression affects PEDV infection in IPEC-J2 cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that lncRNA446, by inhibiting the ubiquitinated degradation of Alix after PEDV infection, is involved in tight junction regulation. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of intestinal barrier resistance and damage repair triggered by coronavirus. IMPORTANCE Porcine epidemic diarrhea is an acute, highly contagious enteric viral disease severely affecting the pig industry, for which current vaccines are inefficient due to the high variability of PEDV. Because PEDV infection can lead to severe injury of the intestinal epithelial barrier, which is the first line of defense, a better understanding of the related mechanisms may facilitate the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of PED. Here, we demonstrate that the lncRNA446 directly binds one core component of the actomyosin-tight junction complex named Alix and inhibits its ubiquitinated degradation. Functionally, the lncRNA446/Alix axis can regulate the integrity of tight junctions and potentially repair intestinal barrier injury after PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Calcium-Binding Proteins , Coronavirus Infections , RNA, Long Noncoding , Swine Diseases , Tight Junctions , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Tight Junctions/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Organoids , In Vitro Techniques , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Proteolysis
8.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Glucosides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Forsythia/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071840

ABSTRACT

Host-virus protein interactions are critical for intracellular viral propagation. Understanding the interactions between cellular and viral proteins may help us develop new antiviral strategies. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious coronavirus that causes severe damage to the global swine industry. Here, we employed co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize 426 unique PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein-binding proteins in infected Vero cells. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was created, and gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses revealed that the PEDV N-bound proteins belong to different cellular pathways, such as nucleic acid binding, ribonucleoprotein complex binding, RNA methyltransferase, and polymerase activities. Interactions of the PEDV N protein with 11 putative proteins: tripartite motif containing 21, DEAD-box RNA helicase 24, G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1, heat shock protein family A member 8, heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1, YTH domain containing 1, nucleolin, Y-box binding protein 1, vimentin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, and karyopherin subunit alpha 1, were further confirmed by in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay. In summary, studying an interaction network can facilitate the identification of antiviral therapeutic strategies and novel targets for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Karyopherins/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism
11.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0061822, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962091

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the globally distributed alphacoronavirus that can cause lethal watery diarrhea in piglets, causing substantial economic damage. However, the current commercial vaccines cannot effectively the existing diseases. Thus, it is of great necessity to identify the host antiviral factors and the mechanism by which the host immune system responds against PEDV infection required to be explored. The current work demonstrated that the host protein, the far upstream element-binding protein 3 (FUBP3), could be controlled by the transcription factor TCFL5, which could suppress PEDV replication through targeting and degrading the nucleocapsid (N) protein of the virus based on selective autophagy. For the ubiquitination of the N protein, FUBP3 was found to recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8, which was then identified, transported to, and degraded in autolysosomes via NDP52/CALCOCO2 (cargo receptors), resulting in impaired viral proliferation. Additionally, FUBP3 was found to positively regulate type-I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and activate the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting and increasing the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). Collectively, this study showed a novel mechanism of FUBP3-mediated virus restriction, where FUBP3 was found to degrade the viral N protein and induce IFN-I production, aiming to hinder the replication of PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV refers to the alphacoronavirus that is found globally and has re-emerged recently, causing severe financial losses. In PEDV infection, the host activates various host restriction factors to maintain innate antiviral responses to suppress virus replication. Here, FUBP3 was detected as a new host restriction factor. FUBP3 was found to suppress PEDV replication via the degradation of the PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein via E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 as well as the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2. Additionally, FUBP3 upregulated the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting with and increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) expression. This study further demonstrated that another layer of complexity could be added to the selective autophagy and innate immune response against PEDV infection are complicated.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferon Type I , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Transcription Factors , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3 , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Vero Cells
13.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0169521, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816694

ABSTRACT

The replication of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by ER stress (ERS), is a typical outcome in coronavirus-infected cells and is closely associated with the characteristics of coronaviruses. However, the interaction between virus-induced ERS and coronavirus replication is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that infection with the betacoronavirus porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) induced ERS and triggered all three branches of the UPR signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ERS suppressed PHEV replication in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells primarily by activating the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) axis of the UPR. Moreover, another eIF2α phosphorylation kinase, interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), was also activated and acted cooperatively with PERK to decrease PHEV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PERK/PKR-eIF2α pathways negatively regulated PHEV replication by attenuating global protein translation. Phosphorylated eIF2α also promoted the formation of stress granules (SGs), which in turn repressed PHEV replication. In summary, our study presents a vital aspect of the host innate response to invading pathogens and reveals attractive host targets (e.g., PERK, PKR, and eIF2α) for antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus diseases are caused by different coronaviruses of importance in humans and animals, and specific treatments are extremely limited. ERS, which can activate the UPR to modulate viral replication and the host innate response, is a frequent occurrence in coronavirus-infected cells. PHEV, a neurotropic betacoronavirus, causes nerve cell damage, which accounts for the high mortality rates in suckling piglets. However, it remains incompletely understood whether the highly developed ER in nerve cells plays an antiviral role in ERS and how ERS regulates viral proliferation. In this study, we found that PHEV infection induced ERS and activated the UPR both in vitro and in vivo and that the activated PERK/PKR-eIF2α axis inhibited PHEV replication through attenuating global protein translation and promoting SG formation. A better understanding of coronavirus-induced ERS and UPR activation may reveal the pathogenic mechanism of coronavirus and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Stress Granules/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Biosynthesis , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5589089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736165

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused relatively high mortality in patients, especially in those with concomitant diseases (i.e., diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In most of aforementioned comorbidities, the oxidative stress appears to be an important player in their pathogenesis. The direct cause of death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is still far from being elucidated. Although some preliminary data suggests that the lung vasculature injury and the loss of the functioning part of pulmonary alveolar population are crucial, the precise mechanism is still unclear. On the other hand, at least two classes of medications used with some clinical benefits in COVID-19 treatment seem to have a major influence on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) production. However, oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms in the antiviral immune response and innate immunity. Therefore, it would be of interest to summarize the data regarding the oxidative stress in severe COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative and antioxidant mechanisms in severe COVID-19 based on available studies. We also present the role of ROS and RNS in other viral infections in humans and in animal models. Although reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play an important role in the innate antiviral immune response, in some situations, they might have a deleterious effect, e.g., in some coronaviral infections. The understanding of the redox mechanisms in severe COVID-19 disease may have an impact on its treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Nitrogen Species/immunology , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
15.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0208621, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736026

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections induce the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that in cells infected with gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-8 were drastically upregulated, and the MAP kinase p38 and the integrated stress response pathways were implicated in this process. In this study, we report that coronavirus infection activates a negative regulatory loop that restricts the upregulation of a number of proinflammatory genes. As revealed by the initial transcriptomic and subsequent validation analyses, the anti-inflammatory adenine-uridine (AU)-rich element (ARE)-binding protein, zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36), and its related family members were upregulated in cells infected with IBV and three other coronaviruses, alphacoronaviruses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43, respectively. Characterization of the functional roles of ZFP36 during IBV infection demonstrated that ZFP36 promoted the degradation of transcripts coding for IL-6, IL-8, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), through binding to AREs in these transcripts. Consistently, knockdown and inhibition of JNK and p38 kinase activities reduced the expression of ZFP36, as well as the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. On the contrary, overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2), the upstream and downstream kinases of p38, respectively, increased the expression of ZFP36 and decreased the expression of IL-8. Taken together, this study reveals an important regulatory role of the MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis in coronavirus infection-induced proinflammatory response. IMPORTANCE Excessive and uncontrolled induction and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the so-called cytokine release syndrome (CRS), would cause life-threatening complications and multiple organ failure in severe coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and COVID-19. This study reveals that coronavirus infection also induces the expression of ZFP36, an anti-inflammatory ARE-binding protein, promoting the degradation of ARE-containing transcripts coding for IL-6 and IL-8 as well as a number of other proteins related to inflammatory response. Furthermore, the p38 MAP kinase, its upstream kinase MKK3 and downstream kinase MK2 were shown to play a regulatory role in upregulation of ZFP36 during coronavirus infection cycles. This MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis would constitute a potential therapeutic target for severe coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Tristetraprolin/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenine/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Uridine/metabolism , Vero Cells
17.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 115-119, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute stroke remains a medical emergency even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most patients with COVID-19 infection present with constitutional and respiratory symptoms; while others present with atypical gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, or neurological manifestations. Here we present a series of four patients with COVID-19 that presented with acute stroke. METHODS: We searched the hospital databases for patients that presented with acute stroke and concomitant features of suspected COVID-19 infection. All patients who had radiographic evidence of stroke and PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection were included in the study. Patients admitted to the hospital with PCR- confirmed COVID-19 disease whose hospital course was complicated with acute stroke while inpatient were excluded from the study. Retrospective patient data were obtained from electronic medical records. Informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: We identified four patients who presented with radiographic confirmation of acute stroke and PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We elucidate the clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and the clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: Timely assessment and hyperacute treatment is the key to minimize mortality and morbidity of patients with acute stroke. Stroke teams should be wary of the fact that COVID-19 patients can present with cerebrovascular accidents and should dawn appropriate personal protective equipment in every suspected patient. Further studies are urgently needed to improve current understandings of neurological pathology in the setting of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
18.
Protein J ; 39(3): 198-216, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718840

ABSTRACT

The devastating effects of the recent global pandemic (termed COVID-19 for "coronavirus disease 2019") caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) are paramount with new cases and deaths growing at an exponential rate. In order to provide a better understanding of SARS CoV-2, this article will review the proteins found in the SARS CoV-2 that caused this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Drug Discovery/methods , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Polyproteins , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins
19.
J Biol Chem ; 298(2): 101584, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699145

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronaviruses have begun to attract great attention across the world. Of the known human coronaviruses, however, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the most lethal. Coronavirus proteins can be divided into three groups: nonstructural proteins, structural proteins, and accessory proteins. While the number of each of these proteins varies greatly among different coronaviruses, accessory proteins are most closely related to the pathogenicity of the virus. We found for the first time that the ORF3 accessory protein of MERS-CoV, which closely resembles the ORF3a proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, has the ability to induce apoptosis in cells in a dose-dependent manner. Through bioinformatics analysis and validation, we revealed that ORF3 is an unstable protein and has a shorter half-life in cells compared to that of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a proteins. After screening, we identified a host E3 ligase, HUWE1, that specifically induces MERS-CoV ORF3 protein ubiquitination and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This results in the diminished ability of ORF3 to induce apoptosis, which might partially explain the lower spread of MERS-CoV compared to other coronaviruses. In summary, this study reveals a pathological function of MERS-CoV ORF3 protein and identifies a potential host antiviral protein, HUWE1, with an ability to antagonize MERS-CoV pathogenesis by inducing ORF3 degradation, thus enriching our knowledge of the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and suggesting new targets and strategies for clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV treatment.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
20.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(5)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675573

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury is associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, host cell changes underlying infection of renal cells with SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown and prevent understanding of the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to renal pathology. Here, we carried out quantitative translatome and whole-cell proteomics analyses of primary renal proximal and distal tubular epithelial cells derived from human donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 or MERS-CoV to disseminate virus and cell type-specific changes over time. Our findings revealed shared pathways modified upon infection with both viruses, as well as SARS-CoV-2-specific host cell modulation driving key changes in innate immune activation and cellular protein quality control. Notably, MERS-CoV infection-induced specific changes in mitochondrial biology that were not observed in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we identified extensive modulation in pathways associated with kidney failure that changed in a virus- and cell type-specific manner. In summary, we provide an overview of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 or MERS-CoV infection on primary renal epithelial cells revealing key pathways that may be essential for viral replication.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Kidney , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Proteome , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Distal , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Proteomics/methods , Virus Replication
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