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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2013880, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621959

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, case reports have suggested that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may lead to adverse outcomes. Objective: To study the association of NSAID use with adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized with influenza or influenza pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used propensity score matching among 7747 individuals aged 40 years or older who were hospitalized with influenza, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or antigen testing, between 2010 and 2018. Data were collected using Danish nationwide registers. All analyses reported were performed on May 29, 2020. Exposures: Prescription fill of an NSAID within 60 days before admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk ratio (RR) and risk difference (RD) with 95% CIs for intensive care unit admission and death within 30 days of admission. Results: A total of 7747 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 71 [59-80] years, 3980 [51.4%] men) with confirmed influenza were identified. Of these, 520 (6.7%) were exposed to NSAIDs. In the unmatched cohorts, 104 of 520 patients (20.0%) who used NSAIDs and 958 of 7227 patients (13.3%) who did not use NSAIDs were admitted to the intensive care unit. For death within 30 days of admission, we observed 37 events (7.1%) among those who used NSAIDs compared with 563 events (7.8%) among those who did not. Current NSAID use was associated with intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.81; RD, 6.7%; 95% CI, 3.2% to 10.3%), while NSAID use was not associated with death (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.26; RD, -0.7%; 95% CI, -3.0% to 1.6%). In the matched cohorts, risks were unchanged for patients who used NSAIDs, while 83 ICU admissions (16.0%) and 36 deaths (6.9%) were observed among matched individuals who did not use NSAIDs. Matched (ie, adjusted) analyses yielded attenuated risk estimates for intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.63; RD, 4.0%; 95% CI, -0.6% to 8.7%) and death (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.60; RD, 0.2%; 95% CI, -2.9% to 3.3%). Associations were more pronounced among patients who used NSAIDs for a longer period (eg, for intensive care unit admission: RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.06; RD, 13.4%; 95% CI, 4.0% to 22.8%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of adult patients hospitalized with influenza, the use of NSAIDs was not associated with 30-day intensive care unit admission or death in adjusted analyses. There was an association between long-term use of NSAIDs and intensive care unit admission.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
4.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 06 26.
Article in Swedish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618554

ABSTRACT

A large proportion of deaths worldwide have occurred among elderly living in nursing homes. Sweden is no exception with a comparable proportion making up around half of all deaths. The elderly, frail individuals living in nursing homes are among the most vulnerable and with the highest risk to die of covid-19. In spite of that we see almost two-thirds of the infected are still alive with a majority recovering fully after receiving treatment at the nursing home. Of 8 057 residents living in nursing homes in Stockholm, 1 464 (18 %) individuals have so far been diagnosed  with covid-19 and 532 have died (6 % of all residents). Importantly, this means that a great majority of the residents are still alive including almost two-thirds (932/1 464) of the infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Frail Elderly , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Survival Analysis , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
F1000Res ; 9: 570, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769915

ABSTRACT

The 2019-2020 global pandemic has been caused by a disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease has been caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). By April 30 2020, the World Health Organization reported 3,096,626 cases and 217,896 deaths, which implies an exponential growth for infection and deaths worldwide. Currently, there are various computer-based approaches that present COVID-19 data through different types of charts, which is very useful to recognise its behavior and trends. Nevertheless, such approaches do not allow for observation of any projection regarding confirmed cases and deaths, which would be useful to understand the trends of COVID-19. In this work, we have designed and developed an online dashboard that presents actual information about COVID-19. Furthermore, based on this information, we have designed a mathematical model in order to make projections about the evolution of cases and deaths worldwide and by country.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Data Analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Software , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Internet , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics
9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Vomiting/etiology
10.
Saudi Med J ; 41(9): 907-915, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the outcomes of the coronavirus disease 2019 infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in the first 4 months of the pandemic. METHODS: A meta-analysis approach was used in this context. We used the aggregate data from the World Health Organization Regional Office for the EMRO (until 26 May 2020) to generate this report. RESULTS: An analysis of official data from all 22 countries and territories in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Central Asia K=22 (a total of 438,717 cases) was performed. The total number of cases, recovered cases were 438,717,228,986,  and deaths was 11,290 in the EMR. Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of recovery rate per country in the EMR was 52.5% (95% CI 52.3% - 52.6%). The lowest recovery rates were in Somalia (4.3%), and the highest rates were in Tunisia (87.4%). Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of death rate per country in the EMR yielded 3.85% [95% CI 3.80% - 3.9%]. Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of recovery rate per country in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries was 46.1% (95% CI 45.8% - 46.3%). Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of death rate per country in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries was 0.6% (95% CI 0.50% - 0.65%). CONCLUSION: Wide variability was found between EMR countries in recovery and mortality, implying the possible impact of resource availability, and genetic and environmental factors on the morality and recovery of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Survival Rate , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Mortality , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Somalia/epidemiology
11.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 576-581, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore and analyze the epidemic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hunan Province from January 21, 2020 to March 14, 2020, as well as to investigate the COVID-19 epidemics in each city of Hunan Province. METHODS: The epidemic data was obtained from the official website of Hunan Province's Health Commission. The data of each city of Hunan Province was analyzed separately. Spatial distribution of cumulative confirmed COVID-19 patients and the cumulative occurrence rate was drawn by ArcGIS software for each city in Hunan Province. Some regional indexes were also compared with that in the whole country. RESULTS: The first patient was diagnosed in January 21, sustained patient growth reached its plateau in around February 17. Up to March 14, the cumulative confirmed COVID-19 patients stopped at 1 018. The cumulative occurrence rate of COVID-19 patients was 0.48 per 0.1 million person. The number of cumulative severe patients was 150 and the number of cumulative dead patients was 4. The mortality rate (0.39%) and the cure rate (99.6%) in Hunan Province was significantly lower and higher respectively than the corresponding average rate in the whole country (0.90% and 96.2%, Hubei excluded). The first 3 cities in numbers of the confirmed patients were Changsha, Yueyang, and Shaoyang. While sorted by the cumulative occurrence rate, the first 3 cities in incidence were Changsha, Yueyang, and Zhuzhou. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic of COVID-19 spread out smoothly in Hunan Province. The cities in Hunan Province implement anti-disease strategies based on specific situations on their own and keep the epidemic in the range of controllable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 549-554, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745324

ABSTRACT

Many countries in the world have faced with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic since December 2019, while the proportion of elderly patients with COVID-19 in severe and death cases is relatively high. At present, China is in the rapid development stage of population aging, and the demand of the elderly for medical care, health care, nursing and life services far exceeds that of other people. Especially in the period of COVID-19, it is particularly urgent to summarize more experience and methods in time to reduce the infection rate, the incidence of critical illness, and the mortality rate. Therefore, this review combines the existing research results with clinic experience of diagnosis and treatment for senile infectious diseases, summarizes the clinical characteristics and puts forward the prevention strategies of elderly COVID-19 patients, which provide evidence for effective prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients, improvement of cure rate, and reduction of severe incidence rate and mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , China , Humans , Pandemics
13.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 826-830, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745127

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively reviewed patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Daegu, South Korea. The outcomes of patients who did (cases) or did not (controls) receive darunavir-cobicistat (800-150 mg) therapy were compared. Fourteen patients received darunavir-cobicistat treatment, and 96 received other antiviral therapy (controls). Overall, the darunavir-cobicistat group comprised patients with milder illness, and the crude mortality rate of all patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group was lower than that in the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.89, p=0.035]. After 1:2 propensity-score matching, there were 14 patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group, and 28 patients in the controls. In propensity score-matched analysis, the darunavir-cobicistat group had lower mortality than the controls (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.52, p=0.009). In conclusion, darunavir-cobicistat therapy was found to be associated with a significant survival benefit in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Darunavir/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Case-Control Studies , Cobicistat/administration & dosage , Cobicistat/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Darunavir/administration & dosage , Darunavir/adverse effects , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
14.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(25): 432-433, 2020 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745124
15.
Trials ; 21(1): 758, 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tocilizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which targets and inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) and has demonstrated efficacy in treating diseases associated with hyper-inflammation. Data are suggestive of tocilizumab as a potential treatment for patients with COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of standard dose versus low dose tocilizumab in adults with severe, non-critical, PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection with evidence of progressive decline in respiratory function and evolving systemic inflammation on time to intubation, non-invasive ventilation and/or all-cause mortality. TRIAL DESIGN: This trial is a phase 2, open label, two-stage, multicentre, randomised trial. PARTICIPANTS: Adult subjects with severe, non-critical, PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection with evidence of progressive decline in respiratory function and evolving systemic inflammation requiring admission to hospital at St. Vincent's University Hospital and Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Inclusion criteria Aged 18 years or older. Confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection (as defined by positive PCR). Evidence of hyper inflammatory state as evidenced by at least three of the following: Documented temperature >38°C in the past 48 hours, IL6 >40 pg/ml, or in its absence D-dimer >1.5 µgFEU /ml, Elevated CRP (>100mg/L) and/or a three-fold increase since presentation, Elevated ferritin X5 ULN, Elevated LDH (above the ULN), Elevated fibrinogen (above the ULN). Pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Moderate to severe respiratory failure as defined by PaO2/FiO2≤300mmHg. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention for participants in this trial is SOC plus Tocilizumab compared to SOC alone (comparator). For Stage 1, following randomisation, subjects will receive either (Arm 1) SOC alone or (Arm 2) SOC plus Tocilizumab (standard single dose - 8mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes. Once stage 1 has fully recruited, subsequent participants will be enrolled directly into Stage 2 and receive either (Arm 1) SOC plus Tocilizumab (standard single dose - 8mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes or (Arm 2) SOC plus Tocilizumab (standard single dose - 4mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes). MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint for this study is the time to a composite primary endpoint of progression to intubation and ventilation, non-invasive ventilation or death within 28 days post randomisation. RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be randomised (1:1) using a central register. Randomisation will be performed through an interactive, web-based electronic data capturing database. In stage 1, eligible participants will be randomised (1:1) to (Arm 1) SOC alone or to (Arm 2) SOC with single dose (8mg/kg, maximum 800mg) intravenous tocilizumab infused over 60 minutes. In stage 2, eligible participants will be randomised (1:1) to receive either (Arm 1) single, standard dose (8mg/kg, maximum 800mg) intravenous tocilizumab infused over 60 minutes or (Arm 2) reduced dose (4mg/kg, maximum 800mg) intravenous tocilizumab infused over 60 minutes. BLINDING: This study is open label. The study will not be blinded to investigators, subjects, or medical or nursing staff. The trial statistician will be blinded for data analysis and will be kept unaware of treatment group assignments. To facilitate this, the randomisation schedule will be drawn up by an independent statistician and objective criteria were defined for the primary outcome to minimize potential bias. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED: In stage 1, 90 subjects will be randomised 1:1, 45 to SOC and 45 subjects to SOC plus Tocilizumab (8mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes). In stage 2, sample size calculation for the dose evaluation stage will use data generated from stage 1 using the same primary endpoint as in stage 1. TRIAL STATUS: The COVIRL002 trial (Protocol version 1.4, 13th May 2020) commenced in May 2020 at St. Vincent's University Hospital and Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Recruitment is proceeding with the aim to achieve the target sample size on or before April 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVIRL002 was registered 25 June 2020 under EudraCT number: 2020-001767-86 and Protocol identification: UCDCRC/20/02. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol for COVIRL002 is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Ireland , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Br J Nutr ; 124(7): 736-741, 2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744334

ABSTRACT

The WHO has announced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak to be a global pandemic. The distribution of community outbreaks shows seasonal patterns along certain latitude, temperature and humidity, that is, similar to the behaviour of seasonal viral respiratory tract infections. COVID-19 displays significant spread in northern mid-latitude countries with an average temperature of 5­11°C and low humidity. Vitamin D deficiency has also been described as pandemic, especially in Europe. Regardless of age, ethnicity and latitude, recent data showed that 40 % of Europeans are vitamin D deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels <50 nmol/l), and 13 % are severely deficient (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l). A quadratic relationship was found between the prevalences of vitamin D deficiency in most commonly affected countries by COVID-19 and the latitudes. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in the subtropical and mid-latitude countries than the tropical and high-latitude countries. The most commonly affected countries with severe vitamin D deficiency are from the subtropical (Saudi Arabia 46 %; Qatar 46 %; Iran 33·4 %; Chile 26·4 %) and mid-latitude (France 27·3 %; Portugal 21·2 %; Austria 19·3 %) regions. Severe vitamin D deficiency was found to be nearly 0 % in some high-latitude countries (e.g. Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Netherlands). Accordingly, we would like to call attention to the possible association between severe vitamin D deficiency and mortality pertaining to COVID-19. Given its rare side effects and relatively wide safety, prophylactic vitamin D supplementation and/or food fortification might reasonably serve as a very convenient adjuvant therapy for these two worldwide public health problems alike.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Age Factors , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy
17.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 442020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743198

ABSTRACT

Cumulatively to 16 August there have been 23,696 case notifications and 428 deaths. The number of new cases reported nationally this fortnight (3-16 August 2020) was 3,767, a 37% decrease from the previous fortnight (5,944). On average this represented 269 cases diagnosed each day over the reporting period, a decrease from 425 cases per day over the previous reporting period. 3,628 (96%) of all cases were reported in Victoria, with a smaller number of cases reported from NSW (125), Qld (2), WA (5), SA (6) and Tas (1). In Victoria, the majority of cases (3,284; 90%) were locally acquired, with a further 344 (10%) under investigation at the time of analysis, but likely also to be locally acquired. Of the remaining 139 cases reported, 26 (19%) were overseas acquired; 110 (80%) were locally acquired, predominantly in NSW, and 3 (2%) were reported as under investigation. The decrease in new cases observed this fortnight in Victoria is likely associated with the enhanced public health measures that are currently in place in Victoria. A total of 54 deaths were reported, all from Victoria: 52 (96%) were aged 70 years and over, and 2 (4%) were aged 30 to 69 years. Testing rates remain high across all jurisdictions, with an overall positivity rate for the reporting period of 0.6%. Victoria reported a positivity rate of 1.7% for this reporting period; in all other jurisdictions the positivity rate was 0.05% or lower.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Notification , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Population Surveillance , Young Adult
18.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(8): 1-3, 2020 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743030

ABSTRACT

The UK death toll from COVID-19 is currently the fourth worst in the world behind the USA, Brazil and Mexico. Possible reasons include delays in lockdown, the provision of scientific advice to government and the decisions that government made based on the information they were given. When we review our performance and plan for the next public health crisis, we need to be brave enough to dare to challenge the NHS and its advisors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , State Medicine/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Public Health Administration , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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