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Medwave ; 20(11)31-12-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1067938


INTRODUCCIÓN: El SARS-CoV-2 tiene una rápida expansión por todo el mundo, sin embargo, su capacidad para causar enfermedad grave no es homogénea según sexo y edad. OBJETIVO: Determinar las características perinatales, morbilidad, mortalidad y resultados serológicos en neonatos de gestantes seropositivas para SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Participaron todos los neonatos cuyas madres presentaron resultado seropositivo para SARS-CoV-2 antes del parto, entre el 15 de abril y 10 de mayo de 2020 en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal de Perú. Se recogió información materna y neonatal a partir de sus historias clínicas. En el análisis se usó estadística descriptiva y prueba exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 114 neonatos, el 36,8% presentó inmunoglobulinas M y G positivas para SARS-CoV-2; el 7% inmunoglobulinas G y 56,2% fue no reactivo. Las complicaciones obstétricas más frecuentes fueron rotura prematura de membranas (14,9%) y parto pretérmino (8,8%). El 8,8% de los neonatos presentaron un puntaje Apgar al minuto menor o igual a seis, y de ellos solo uno persistió a los cinco minutos; tres neonatos fallecieron. Se evidenció asociación entre el tipo de inmunoglobulina materna y la serología de su recién nacido (p < 0,05). No se observó asociación entre resultados perinatales y el tipo de inmunoglobulinas materna (p > 0,05), ni con los resultados serológicos en el neonato para SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El 43,9% de neonatos de madre seropositiva a SARS-CoV-2 tuvo un resultado serológico positivo, siendo más frecuente de tipo Inmunoglobulinas M e Inmunoglobulinas G. El 10,5% de los neonatos presentó alguna morbilidad, siendo más frecuente prematuridad y bajo peso al nacer y el 2,6% falleció. Los resultados perinatales no estuvieron asociadas al tipo de inmunoglobulina de las madres seropositivas a SARS-CoV-2. De igual modo, los resultados perinatales no estuvieron asociados a los resultados serológicos en el neonato.

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly throughout the world. However, its ability to cause severe disease is not homogeneous according to sex and the different age groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine perinatal characteristics, morbidity, mortality, and serological results in neonates from seropositive pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. We included all newborns from positive pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2, between April 15 and May 10, 2020, who delivered in the National Perinatal Maternal Institute of Peru. The study extracted maternal and neonatal variables collected from the medical charts. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: One hundred fourteen neonates were identified, 36.8% IgM/IgG positive for SARS-CoV-2, 7% IgG, and 56.2% had negative serology. The obstetric complications were premature rupture of membranes (14.9%) and preterm birth (8,8%). 8.8% of newborns had an Apgar score of less than or equal to six minutes, and of those, only one persisted after five minutes; three newborns died. There was an association between the type of maternal immunoglobulin and the serology of the newborn (p < 0.05). No association was observed between perinatal results and maternal immunoglobulin type (p > 0.05) or serological results in the newborn for SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: 43.9% of seropositive mothers' neonates to SARS-CoV-2 had a positive serological result, more frequently type IgM/IgG. 10.5% of the neonates had some morbidity, more frequent prematurity, low birth weight, and 2.6% died. Perinatal results were not associated with the type of immunoglobulin of mothers seropositive to SARS-CoV-2; similarly, perinatal results were not associated with serological results in the newborn.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Science ; 371(6530): 741-745, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029163


We are currently faced with the question of how the severity of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may change in the years ahead. Our analysis of immunological and epidemiological data on endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) shows that infection-blocking immunity wanes rapidly but that disease-reducing immunity is long-lived. Our model, incorporating these components of immunity, recapitulates both the current severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the benign nature of HCoVs, suggesting that once the endemic phase is reached and primary exposure is in childhood, SARS-CoV-2 may be no more virulent than the common cold. We predict a different outcome for an emergent coronavirus that causes severe disease in children. These results reinforce the importance of behavioral containment during pandemic vaccine rollout, while prompting us to evaluate scenarios for continuing vaccination in the endemic phase.

/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Adaptive Immunity , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Epidemics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , /pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(9): 1832-1837, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023848


BACKGROUND: Obesity is an epidemic in New York City, the global epicenter of the coronavirus pandemic. Previous studies suggest that obesity is a possible risk factor for adverse outcomes in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between obesity and COVID-19 outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 hospitalized patients tested between March 10 and April 13, 2020. SETTING: SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, a COVID-only hospital in New York. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 684 patients were tested for COVID-19 and 504 were analyzed. Patients were categorized into three groups by BMI: normal (BMI 18.50-24.99), overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99), and obese (BMI ≥ 30.00). MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes were intubation, acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and acute cardiac injury (ACI). RESULTS: There were 139 patients (27%) with normal BMI, 150 patients who were overweight (30%), and 215 patients with obesity (43%). After controlling for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and qSOFA score, there was a significantly increased risk of mortality in the overweight (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) and obese groups (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7) compared with those with normal BMI. Similarly, there was a significantly increased relative risk for intubation in the overweight (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3) and obese groups (RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0) compared with those with normal BMI. Obesity did not affect rates of AKI, ACI, or ARDS. Furthermore, obesity appears to significantly increase the risk of mortality in males (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0, P = 0.03), but not in females (RR 1.2, 95% CI 0.77-1.9, P = 0.40). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that patients with overweight and obesity who have COVID-19 are at increased risk for mortality and intubation compared to those with normal BMI. These findings support the hypothesis that obesity is a risk factor for COVID-19 complications and should be a consideration in management of COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Lung ; 198(5): 771-775, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756086


PURPOSE: To investigate whether sarcoidosis patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for adverse disease outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in five hospitals within the Mount Sinai Health System during March 1, 2020 to July 29, 2020. All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in the study. We identified sarcoidosis patients who met diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis according to accepted guidelines. An adverse disease outcome was defined as the presence of intubation and mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality. In sarcoidosis patients, we reported (when available) the results of pulmonary function testing measured within 3 years prior to the time of SARS­CoV­2 infection. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to generate an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) to evaluate sarcoidosis as a risk factor for an adverse outcome. The same model was used to analyze sarcoidosis patients with moderate and/or severe impairment in pulmonary function. RESULTS: The study included 7337 patients, 37 of whom (0.5%) had sarcoidosis. The crude rate of developing an adverse outcome was significantly higher in patients with moderately and/or severely impaired pulmonary function (9/14 vs. 3/23, p = 0.003). While the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was not independently associated with risk of an adverse event, (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.6), the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in patients with moderately and/or severely impaired pulmonary function was associated with an adverse outcome (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 2.4-25.8). CONCLUSION: Moderate or severe impairment in pulmonary function is associated with mortality in sarcoidosis patients infected with SARS­CoV­2.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 94, 2020 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021357


INTRODUCTION: Headache is one of the most frequent neurologic manifestations in COVID-19. We aimed to analyze which symptoms and laboratory abnormalities were associated with the presence of headache and to evaluate if patients with headache had a higher adjusted in-hospital risk of mortality. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. We included all consecutive patients admitted to the Hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 8th and April 11th, 2020. We collected demographic data, clinical variables and laboratory abnormalities. We used multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: During the study period, 576 patients were included, aged 67.2 (SD: 14.7), and 250/576 (43.3%) being female. Presence of headache was described by 137 (23.7%) patients. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate was 127/576 (20.0%). In the multivariate analysis, patients with headache had a lower risk of mortality (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.88, p = 0.007). After adjusting for multiple comparisons in a multivariate analysis, variables that were independently associated with a higher odds of having headache in COVID-19 patients were anosmia, myalgia, female sex and fever; variables that were associated with a lower odds of having headache were younger age, lower score on modified Rankin scale, and, regarding laboratory variables on admission, increased C-reactive protein, abnormal platelet values, lymphopenia and increased D-dimer. CONCLUSION: Headache is a frequent symptom in COVID-19 patients and its presence is an independent predictor of lower risk of mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Headache/etiology , Headache/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
Public Health ; 188: 18-20, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002993


OBJECTIVES: With COVID-19 infections resulting in death according to a hierarchy of risks, with age and pre-existing health conditions enhancing disease severity, the objective of this study is to estimate the condition-specific case fatality ratio (CFR) for different subpopulations in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: The design of the study was to estimate the 'pre-existing comorbidity'-conditional CFR to eventually explain the mortality risk variability reported around in different countries. METHODS: We use the available information on pre-existing health conditions identified for deceased patients 'positive with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)' in Italy. We (i) estimated the total number of deaths for different pre-existing health conditions categories and (ii) calculated a conditional CFR based upon the number of comorbidities before SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Our results show a 0.6% conditional CFR for a population with zero pre-existing pathology, increasing to 13.9% for a population diagnosed with one and more pre-existing health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Condition-specific mortality risks are important to be evaluated during the COVID-19 pandemic, with potential elements to explain the CFR variability around the globe. A careful postmortem examination of deceased cases to differentiate death 'caused by COVID-19' from death 'positive with SARS-CoV-2' is therefore urgently needed and will likely improve our understanding of the COVID-19 mortality risk and virus pathogenicity.

Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106873, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002650


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 characterized by refractory hypoxemia increases patient mortality because of immunosuppression effects. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of immunomodulatory with thymosin α1 for critical COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed in 8 government-designated treatment centers for COVID-19 patients in China from Dec. 2019 to Mar. 2020. Thymosin α1 was administrated with 1.6 mg qd or q12 h for >5 days. The primary outcomes were the 28-day and 60-day mortality, the secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay and the total duration of the disease. Subgroup analysis was carried out according to clinical classification. RESULTS: Of the 334 enrolled COVID-19 patients, 42 (12.6%) died within 28 days, and 55 (16.5%) died within 60 days of hospitalization. There was a significant difference in the 28-day mortality between the thymosin α1 and non-thymosin α1-treated groups in adjusted model (P = 0.016), without obvious differences in the 60-day mortality and survival time in the overall cohort (P > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, it was found that thymosin α1 therapy significantly reduced 28-day mortality (Hazards Ratios HR, 0.11, 95% confidence interval CI 0.02-0.63, P=0.013) via improvement of Pa02/FiO2 (P = 0.036) and prolonged the hospital length of stay (P = 0.024) as well as the total duration of the disease (P=0.001) in the critical type patients, especially those aged over 64 years, with white blood cell >6.8×109/L, neutrophil >5.3×109/L, lymphocyte < 0.73 × 109/L, PaO2/FiO2 < 196, SOFA > 3, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II > 7. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that treatment with thymosin α1 can markedly decrease 28-day mortality and attenuate acute lung injury in critical type COVID-19 patients.

Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Critical Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thymalfasin/therapeutic use , APACHE , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Aged , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Thymalfasin/administration & dosage , Thymalfasin/adverse effects