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1.
Arch Virol ; 168(6): 166, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238472

ABSTRACT

Clostridium perfringens is a constituent of the normal gut microbiome in pigs; however, it can potentially cause pre- and post-weaning diarrhea. Nevertheless, the importance of this bacterium as a primary pathogen of diarrhea in piglets needs to be better understood, and the epidemiology of C. perfringens in Korean pig populations is unknown. To study the prevalence and typing of C. perfringens, 203 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal piglets on 61 swine farms during 2021-2022 and examined for the presence of C. perfringens and enteric viruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). We determined that the most frequently identified type of C. perfringens was C. perfringens type A (CPA; 64/203, 31.5%). Among the CPA infections, single infections with CPA (30/64, 46.9%) and coinfections with CPA and PEDV (29/64, 45.3%) were the most common in diarrheal samples. Furthermore, we conducted animal experiments to investigate the clinical outcome of single infections and coinfections with highly pathogenic (HP)-PEDV and CPA in weaned piglets. The pigs infected with HP-PEDV or CPA alone showed mild or no diarrhea, and none of them died. However, animals that were co-inoculated with HP-PEDV and CPA showed more-severe diarrheal signs than those of the singly infected pigs. Additionally, CPA promoted PEDV replication in coinfected piglets, with high viral titers in the feces. A histopathological examination revealed more-severe villous atrophy in the small intestine of coinfected pigs than in singly infected pigs. This indicates a synergistic effect of PEDV and CPA coinfection on clinical disease in weaned piglets.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Clostridium perfringens , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/veterinary , Weaning , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/pathology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Patient Acuity
2.
J Virol ; 97(6): e0068923, 2023 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245290

ABSTRACT

Goblet cells and their secreted mucus are important elements of the intestinal mucosal barrier, which allows host cells to resist invasion by intestinal pathogens. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteric virus that causes severe diarrhea in pigs and causes large economic losses to pork producers worldwide. To date, the molecular mechanisms by which PDCoV regulates the function and differentiation of goblet cells and disrupts the intestinal mucosal barrier remain to be determined. Here, we report that in newborn piglets, PDCoV infection disrupts the intestinal barrier: specifically, there is intestinal villus atrophy, crypt depth increases, and tight junctions are disrupted. There is also a significant reduction in the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC-2. In vitro, using intestinal monolayer organoids, we found that PDCoV infection activates the Notch signaling pathway, resulting in upregulated expression of HES-1 and downregulated expression of ATOH-1 and thereby inhibiting the differentiation of intestinal stem cells into goblet cells. Our study shows that PDCoV infection activates the Notch signaling pathway to inhibit the differentiation of goblet cells and their mucus secretion, resulting in disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier. IMPORTANCE The intestinal mucosal barrier, mainly secreted by the intestinal goblet cells, is a crucial first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms. PDCoV regulates the function and differentiation of goblet cells, thereby disrupting the mucosal barrier; however, the mechanism by which PDCoV disrupts the barrier is not known. Here, we report that in vivo, PDCoV infection decreases villus length, increases crypt depth, and disrupts tight junctions. Moreover, PDCoV activates the Notch signaling pathway, inhibiting goblet cell differentiation and mucus secretion in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our results provide a novel insight into the mechanism underlying intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction caused by coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Goblet Cells , Receptors, Notch , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Goblet Cells/cytology , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Swine Diseases/virology , Stem Cells/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Receptors, Notch/metabolism
4.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 38, 2020 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270138

ABSTRACT

The world is currently dominated by the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Besides the obvious concerns about limitation of virus spread and providing the best possible care to infected patients, a concomitant concern has now arisen in view of a putative link between the use of certain drugs, such as Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) inhibitors and ibuprofen, and an increased risk for COVID-19 infection. We here discuss this concern in relation to headache treatment and conclude that, based on current evidence, there is no reason to abandon treatment of headache patients with RAS inhibitors or ibuprofen.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Headache/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Up-Regulation/drug effects
6.
Virol J ; 20(1): 51, 2023 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by neuroinflammation and demyelination orchestrated by activated neuroglial cells, CNS infiltrating leukocytes, and their reciprocal interactions through inflammatory signals. An inflammatory stimulus triggers inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), a pro-inflammatory marker of microglia/macrophages (MG/Mφ) to catalyze sustained nitric oxide production. NOS2 during neuroinflammation, has been associated with MS disease pathology; however, studies dissecting its role in demyelination are limited. We studied the role of NOS2 in a recombinant ß-coronavirus-MHV-RSA59 induced neuroinflammation, an experimental animal model mimicking the pathological hallmarks of MS: neuroinflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the role of NOS2 in murine-ß-coronavirus-MHV-RSA59 demyelination. METHODS: Brain and spinal cords from mock and RSA59 infected 4-5-week-old MHV-free C57BL/6 mice (WT) and NOS2-/- mice were harvested at different disease phases post infection (p.i.) (day 5/6-acute, day 9/10-acute-adaptive and day 30-chronic phase) and compared for pathological outcomes. RESULTS: NOS2 was upregulated at the acute phase of RSA59-induced disease in WT mice and its deficiency resulted in severe disease and reduced survival at the acute-adaptive transition phase. Low survival in NOS2-/- mice was attributed to (i) high neuroinflammation resulting from increased accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils and (ii) Iba1 + phagocytic MG/Mφ mediated-early demyelination as observed at this phase. The phagocytic phenotype of CNS MG/Mφ was confirmed by significantly higher mRNA transcripts of phagocyte markers-CD206, TREM2, and Arg1 and double immunolabelling of Iba1 with MBP and PLP. Further, NOS2 deficiency led to exacerbated demyelination at the chronic phase as well. CONCLUSION: Taken together the results imply that the immune system failed to control the disease progression in the absence of NOS2. Thus, our observations highlight a protective role of NOS2 in murine-ß-coronavirus induced demyelination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Demyelinating Diseases , Murine hepatitis virus , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Animals , Mice , Demyelinating Diseases/pathology , Demyelinating Diseases/virology , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic , Coronavirus Infections/pathology
7.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 153(6): 725-733, 2020 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the methods and findings of two complete autopsies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive individuals who died in Oklahoma (United States) in March 2020. METHODS: Complete postmortem examinations were performed according to standard procedures in a negative-pressure autopsy suite/isolation room using personal protective equipment, including N95 masks, eye protection, and gowns. The diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing on postmortem swabs. RESULTS: A 77-year-old obese man with a history of hypertension, splenectomy, and 6 days of fever and chills died while being transported for medical care. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on postmortem nasopharyngeal and lung parenchymal swabs. Autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar damage and chronic inflammation and edema in the bronchial mucosa. A 42-year-old obese man with a history of myotonic dystrophy developed abdominal pain followed by fever, shortness of breath, and cough. Postmortem nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2; lung parenchymal swabs were negative. Autopsy showed acute bronchopneumonia with evidence of aspiration. Neither autopsy revealed viral inclusions, mucus plugging in airways, eosinophils, or myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 testing can be performed at autopsy. Autopsy findings such as diffuse alveolar damage and airway inflammation reflect true virus-related pathology; other findings represent superimposed or unrelated processes.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Autopsy/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Myotonic Dystrophy/complications , Obesity/complications , Oklahoma , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Virology ; 579: 1-8, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237231

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the highly pathogenic porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain in 2010, the prevention of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in pig farms remains problematic. To find the reasons behind the high mortality in young piglets, the relative mRNA expression of inflammation-related factors in infected pigs of different ages as well as uninfected pigs were detected by RT-qPCR. The results showed that the mRNA expression of these factors including IL-6 and TNF-α was more increased in infected younger piglets than infected older pigs. To clarify the relationship between these inflammation related factors, the pairwise linear correlation between the relative expression of these factors were analyzed and showed as network mapping with different correlation coefficients. A strong positive correlation was observed between the expression of various factors in 1-week-old piglets. Combined with the difference in mortality of PEDV infection in pigs of different ages, we hypothesized that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could inhibit PEDV infection in newborn piglets, and an in vivo experiment was carried out. The results of survival rate and wet/dry ratio showed that LAB alleviated PEDV indued mortality and diarrhea. The detection of viral copies and tissue section staining showed less observed viruses in LAB treated pig. RT-qPCR results of gene expression in intestines showed that LAB modulated the gene expression of various host barrier genes, indicating that LAB is potential to inhibit PEDV infection by regulating the host intestinal barrier. However, to use LAB as therapy, how to improve the efficiency on inhibiting PEDV infection needs further studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lactobacillales , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Lactobacillales/genetics , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/pathology , RNA, Messenger , Inflammation , Administration, Oral , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/pathology
9.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193484

ABSTRACT

The contamination of patients' surroundings by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains understudied. We sampled the surroundings and the air of six negative-pressure non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) rooms in a designated isolation ward in Chengdu, China, that were occupied by 13 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who had returned from overseas travel, including 2 asymptomatic patients. A total of 44 of 112 (39.3%) surface samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 as detected by real-time PCR, suggesting extensive contamination, although all of the air samples were negative. In particular, in a single room occupied by an asymptomatic patient, four sites were SARS-CoV-2 positive, highlighting that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients do contaminate their surroundings and impose risks for others with close contact. Placement of COVID-19 patients in rooms with negative pressure may bring a false feeling of safety, and the importance of rigorous environment cleaning should be emphasized.IMPORTANCE Although it has been well recognized that the virus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, can be acquired by exposure to fomites, surprisingly, the contamination of patients' surroundings by SARS-CoV-2 is largely unknown, as there have been few studies. We performed an environmental sampling study for 13 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and found extensive contamination of patients' surroundings. In particular, we found that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients contaminated their surroundings and therefore imposed risks for other people. Environment cleaning should be emphasized in negative-pressure rooms. The findings may be useful to guide infection control practice to protect health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 37(3): 435-436, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097853

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be associated with a papulovesicular skin eruption predominantly involving the trunk. We hereby present a case of COVID-19-associated varicella-like exanthem in an 8-year-old girl with mild systemic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Virology ; 575: 1-9, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984217

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection of cells differentially regulates the expression of host genes and their related pathways. In this study, we present the transcriptomic profile of cells infected with gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). In IBV-infected human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (H1299 cells), a total of 1162 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 984 upregulated and 178 downregulated genes, was identified. These DEGs were mainly enriched in MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways, and 5 out of the 10 top upregulated genes in all transcripts were immediate-early response genes (IEGs). In addition, the induction of 11 transcripts was validated in IBV-infected H1299 and Vero cells by RT-qPCR. The accuracy, reliability and genericity of the transcriptomic data were demonstrated by functional characterization of these IEGs in cells infected with different coronaviruses in our previous publications. This study provides a reliable transcriptomic profile of host genes and pathways regulated by coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Animals , Chickens/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome , Vero Cells
14.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911617

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae that causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in neonatal suckling piglets. Currently, there is no effective medication against this pathogen. Cepharanthine (CEP), tetrandrine (TET), and fangchinoline (FAN) are natural bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiviral properties. Here, we first found that CEP, TET, and FAN had anti-PEDV activity with IC50 values of 2.53, 3.50, and 6.69 µM, respectively. The compounds could block all the processes of viral cycles, but early application of the compounds before or during virus infection was advantageous over application at a late stage of virus replication. FAN performed inhibitory function more efficiently through interfering with the virus entry and attachment processes or through attenuating the virus directly. CEP had a more notable effect on virus entry. With the highest SI index of 11.8 among the three compounds, CEP was chosen to carry out animal experiments. CEP in a safe dosage of 11.1 mg/kg of body weight could reduce viral load and pathological change of piglet intestinal tracts caused by PEDV field strain challenge, indicating that CEP efficiently inhibited PEDV infection in vivo. All of these results demonstrated that the compounds of bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids could inhibit PEDV proliferation efficiently and had the potential of being developed for PED prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Benzylisoquinolines , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(6): e1010667, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910704

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurotropic coronavirus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus. Similar to pathogenic coronaviruses to which humans are susceptible, such as SARS-CoV-2, PHEV is transmitted primarily through respiratory droplets and close contact, entering the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral nerves at the site of initial infection. However, the neuroinvasion route of PHEV are poorly understood. Here, we found that BALB/c mice are susceptible to intranasal PHEV infection and showed distinct neurological manifestations. The behavioral study and histopathological examination revealed that PHEV attacks neurons in the CNS and causes significant smell and taste dysfunction in mice. By tracking neuroinvasion, we identified that PHEV invades the CNS via the olfactory nerve and trigeminal nerve located in the nasal cavity, and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) were susceptible to viral infection. Immunofluorescence staining and ultrastructural observations revealed that viral materials traveling along axons, suggesting axonal transport may engage in rapid viral transmission in the CNS. Moreover, viral replication in the olfactory system and CNS is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, tissue disorganization and dysfunction. Overall, we proposed that PHEV may serve as a potential prototype for elucidating the pathogenesis of coronavirus-associated neurological complications and olfactory and taste disorders.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Olfaction Disorders , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Humans , Mice , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Swine
16.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900503

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Avian Pathol ; 51(4): 339-348, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830476

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). As well as the typical clinical respiratory signs, such as dyspnoea and tracheal rales, QX genotype strains can also cause damage to the urinary system and reproductive system. Our previous studies found that chickens infected with QX-type IBV also displayed damage to the bursa of Fabricius. To investigate the effects of different genotypes of IBV on the bursa of Fabricius, we challenged one-week-old SPF chickens with Mass, QX and TW genotype IBV strains and compared the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathological damage, viral loads, and expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, IFN-α,ß, γ and TNF-α). The results showed that all three strains caused tissue damage, while significant temporal variations in the viral loads of the different infected groups were detected. IBV infection seriously interfered with the natural immune response mediated by inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-ß, IL-6 and IFN-γ) in chickens. Our results suggested that IBV has potential immunological implications for chickens that may lead to poor production efficiency. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSAvian coronavirus IBV is an important pathogen of chickens.IBV has potential immunological implications in chickens.The bursal viral load of different IBV strains varies significantly.


Subject(s)
Bursa of Fabricius , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Bursa of Fabricius/pathology , Bursa of Fabricius/virology , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-6 , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/virology
18.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(7): 442-447, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830064

ABSTRACT

A male bias in mortality has emerged in the COVID-19 pandemic, which is consistent with the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Biological sex differences may manifest themselves in susceptibility to infection, early pathogenesis, innate viral control, adaptive immune responses or the balance of inflammation and tissue repair in the resolution of infection. We discuss available sex-disaggregated epidemiological data from the COVID-19 pandemic, introduce sex-differential features of immunity and highlight potential sex differences underlying COVID-19 severity. We propose that sex differences in immunopathogenesis will inform mechanisms of COVID-19, identify points for therapeutic intervention and improve vaccine design and increase vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Sociological Factors
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 845368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793038

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are the etiologic agents of several diseases. Coronaviruses of critical medical importance are characterized by highly inflammatory pathophysiology, involving severe pulmonary impairment and infection of multiple cell types within the body. Here, we discuss the interplay between coronaviruses and autophagy regarding virus life cycle, cell resistance, and inflammation, highlighting distinct mechanisms by which autophagy restrains inflammatory responses, especially those involved in coronavirus pathogenesis. We also address different autophagy modulators available and the rationale for drug repurposing as an attractive adjunctive therapy. We focused on pharmaceuticals being tested in clinical trials with distinct mechanisms but with autophagy as a common target. These autophagy modulators act in cell resistance to virus infection and immunomodulation, providing a double-strike to prevent or treat severe disease development and death from coronaviruses diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Autophagy/physiology , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Viral Load , Virus Replication/physiology
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 267: 109391, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778497

ABSTRACT

Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 14 (PTPN14) is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family which is a potential tumor suppressor. PTPs modulate the cellular level of tyrosine phosphorylation under normal and pathological conditions. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is one of the most important pathogens in the swine industry. Our previous membrane proteomics results showed that PTPN14 was markedly upregulated in PEDV-infected Vero cells. However, its biological roles in PEDV infection have not yet been investigated. In this study, we reported PTPN14 functions as a novel regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation during PEDV infection. Firstly, PTPN14 was markedly upregulated in PEDV-infected Vero cells with the decrease of STAT3 phosphorylation. Knockdown of PTPN14 or phosphatase inhibitor treatment promoted PEDV proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of STAT3 in Vero cells. On the contrary, overexpression of PTPN14 inhibits viral infection in Vero cells. Moreover, dephosphorylation of STAT3 by PTPN14 might occur in the cytoplasm but not in nucleus. Collectively, our results indicate that PTPN14 plays a negative role in regulating STAT3 activation in PEDV infected Vero cells and demonstrate another layer of regulation in PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Tyrosine/metabolism , Vero Cells
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