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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 107, 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 presents challenges to the emergency care system that could lead to emergency department (ED) crowding. The Huddinge site at the Karolinska university hospital (KH) responded through a rapid transformation of inpatient care capacity together with changing working methods in the ED. The aim is to describe the KH response to the COVID-19 crisis, and how ED crowding, and important input, throughput and output factors for ED crowding developed at KH during a 30-day baseline period followed by the first 60 days of the COVID-19 outbreak in Stockholm Region. METHODS: Different phases in the development of the crisis were described and identified retrospectively based on major events that changed the conditions for the ED. Results were presented for each phase separately. The outcome ED length of stay (ED LOS) was calculated with mean and 95% confidence intervals. Input, throughput, output and demographic factors were described using distributions, proportions and means. Pearson correlation between ED LOS and emergency ward occupancy by phase was estimated with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: As new working methods were introduced between phase 2 and 3, ED LOS declined from mean (95% CI) 386 (373-399) minutes to 307 (297-317). Imaging proportion was reduced from 29 to 18% and admission rate increased from 34 to 43%. Correlation (95% CI) between emergency ward occupancy and ED LOS by phase was 0.94 (0.55-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to avoid ED crowding, even during extreme and quickly changing conditions by leveraging previously known input, throughput and output factors. One key factor was the change in working methods in the ED with higher competence, less diagnostics and increased focus on rapid clinical admission decisions. Another important factor was the reduction in bed occupancy in emergency wards that enabled a timely admission to inpatient care. A key limitation was the retrospective study design.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Crowding , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bed Occupancy , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden
2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 106, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency. Here, we developed and validated a practical model based on the data from a multi-center cohort in China for early identification and prediction of which patients will be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Data of 1087 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected from 49 sites between January 2 and February 28, 2020, in Sichuan and Wuhan. Patients were randomly categorized into the training and validation cohorts (7:3). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and logistic regression analyzes were used to develop the nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated for the C-index, calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. Further, the nomogram was externally validated in a different cohort. RESULTS: The individualized prediction nomogram included 6 predictors: age, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, fever, and chronic kidney disease. The model demonstrated a high discriminative ability in the training cohort (C-index = 0.829), which was confirmed in the external validation cohort (C-index = 0.776). In addition, the calibration plots confirmed good concordance for predicting the risk of ICU admission. Decision curve analysis revealed that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: We established an early prediction model incorporating clinical characteristics that could be quickly obtained on hospital admission, even in community health centers. This model can be conveniently used to predict the individual risk for ICU admission of patients with COVID-19 and optimize the use of limited resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nomograms , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 94, 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is challenging healthcare systems worldwide. Little is known about problems faced by emergency medical services-particularly helicopter services-caring for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. We aimed to describe the issues faced by air ambulance services in Europe as they transport potential COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Nine different HEMS providers in seven different countries across Europe were invited to share their experiences and to report their data regarding the care, transport, and safety measures in suspected or confirmed COVID-19 missions. Six air ambulance providers in six countries agreed and reported their data regarding development of special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for the COVID-19 pandemic. Four providers agreed to provide mission related data. Three hundred eighty-five COVID-19-related missions were analysed, including 119 primary transport missions and 266 interfacility transport missions. RESULTS: All providers had developed special procedures and safety instructions in preparation for COVID-19. Ground transport was the preferred mode of transport in primary missions, whereas air transport was preferred for interfacility transport. In some countries the transport of COVID-19 patients by regular air ambulance services was avoided. Patients in interfacility transport missions had a significantly higher median (range) NACA Score 4 (2-5) compared with 3 (1-7), needed significantly more medical interventions, were significantly younger (59.6 ± 16 vs 65 ± 21 years), and were significantly more often male (73% vs 60.5%). CONCLUSIONS: All participating air ambulance providers were prepared for COVID-19. Safe care and transport of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients is achievable. Most patients on primary missions were transported by ground. These patients were less sick than interfacility transport patients, for whom air transport was the preferred method.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Transportation of Patients/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e30998, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there has been little agreement on what drug is the "best" drug for treating severe COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe COVID-19. METHODS: We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 28, 2022, with no language restrictions, of medications recommended for patients (aged 16 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS: We identified 4021 abstracts and of these included 48 RCTs comprising 9147 participants through database searches and other sources. For decrease in ACM, we found that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG (i.e., a hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 intravenous immunoglobulin), methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/standard-of-care (SOC), interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, high dosage sarilumab (HS), auxora, and imatinib were effective when compared with placebo or SOC group. We found that colchicine and interferon-beta/SOC were only associated with the TEAEs of severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG, methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/SOC, interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma (CP), remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, HS, auxora, and imatinib were efficacious for treating severe COVID-19 patients. We found that most medications were safe in treating severe COVID-19. More large-scale RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1076, 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals of all ages and with all degrees of severity of the coronavirus disease (COVID) can suffer from persisting or reappearing symptoms called long COVID. Long COVID involves various symptoms, such as shortness of breath, fatigue, or organ damage. The growing number of long COVID cases places a burden on the patients and the broader economy and, hence, has gained more weight in political decisions. This scoping review aimed to give an overview of recommendations about possible long COVID healthcare pathways and requirements regarding decision-making and communication for healthcare professionals. METHODS: A systematic search in four databases and biweekly update-hand searches were conducted. In addition to guidelines and reviews, expert opinions in consensus statements or clinical perspectives were also considered. Data were systematically extracted and subsequently narratively and graphically summarised. RESULTS: Fourteen references, five guidelines, four reviews, one consensus paper, and four clinical perspectives were included. The evidence recommended that most long COVID-related healthcare should be in primary care. Patients with complex symptoms should be referred to specialized long COVID outpatient assessment clinics. In contrast, patients with one dominant symptom should be directed to the respective specialist for a second assessment. Depending on the patients' needs, further referral options include, e.g. rehabilitation or non-medical health services. Self-management and good communication between healthcare professionals and patients are crucial aspects of the long COVID management recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of the included guidelines and reviews is limited in the methods applied due to the novelty of this topic and the associated urgency for research. Hence, an update review with more rigorous data is recommended. Furthermore, the systematic collection of real-world data on long COVID surveillance needs to be set up soon to gather further information on the duration and severity of long COVID and thereby facilitate long COVID care planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Humans
12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 410, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993380

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed huge burdens to the whole world, seriously affecting global economic growth, and threatening people's lives and health. At present, some therapeutic regimens are available for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia, including antiviral therapy, immunity therapy, anticoagulant therapy, and others. Among them, injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is currently a promising therapy. The preclinical studies and clinical trials using MSCs and small extracellular vesicles derived from MSCs (MSC-sEVs) in treating COVID-19 were summarized. Then, the molecular mechanism, feasibility, and safety of treating COVID-19 with MSCs and MSC-sEVs were also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Extracellular Vesicles , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans
13.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105244, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenovirus type B7 (HAdV-B7) has been reported to cause pneumonia. However, there are limited data about the epidemiological and clinical features of HAdV-B7 pneumonia in young adults. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 52 patients diagnosed of human adenovirus B7 pneumonia in Nanjing, China from February 7, 2016, to February 20, 2016. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features, treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age of the 52 patients was 19.5 years (IQR 18.0-21.0). The most common symptoms were fever (50, 96.2%), cough (49, 94.2%), and expectoration (48, 92.3%). Most of the routine hematology and blood chemistry parameters were within the normal range. The predominant abnormal patterns seen on chest CT were unilateral (33, 66%), multifocal (36, 72%), and ground-glass opacity (27, 54%), mainly involving the left lower lobes (41 [36.0%] of 114 affected segments). As the disease progressed in the second week after symptom onset, consolidation and mixed patterns became more common, while the ground glass opacity pattern decreased. The single-agent ribavirin therapy group had a significantly shorter duration of nonrespiratory symptoms, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the single-agent methylprednisolone group and the nonglucocorticoid group. CONCLUSIONS: The main symptoms in immunocompetent patients with adenovirus type 7 are fever, cough and sputum, with no significant abnormalities in laboratory tests. Chest CT scan mostly shows a ground-glass opacity at the beginning of the disease, which subsequently changes to a mixed pattern. Ribavirin and glucocorticoids did not shorten the course of disease.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cough , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(3): 500-509, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause a comprehensive clinic ranging from asymptomatic course to pneumonia. We aimed to describe the HCoV infections in children to determine the clinical status and coinfection effects in a five-year retrospective surveillance study. The primary outcome was admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and the secondary outcome was the need of high oxygen support. METHODS: Between September 2015 and November 2020, all patients whose reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests were positive were determined and patients with HCoVs were included in the study. Demographical characteristics, underlying chronic diseases, clinical diagnosis, laboratory data, subtypes of HCoVs, radiological findings, treatments, hospitalization, and ICU admission were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 2606 children, the overall respiratory tract virus detection rate was 82.4%. Among these, 98 cases were HCoVs positive and of these 80 (81.6%) were under five years of age and most of the patients were admitted to the hospital in spring and 70% were a mixed infection with other respiratory viruses. Since lower respiratory tract infections are more common in HCoV coinfections, a significant difference was found in clinical diagnosis (p < 0.001). The presence of hypoxia (p=0.003) and underlying disease (p=0.004) were found to be significantly more common in patients admitted to the ICU. The presence of hypoxia, infiltration on chest X-ray, and elevated C-reactive protein levels were more frequently determined in patients who received high oxygen support (p=0.001, p=0.036, p=0.004, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical findings may be more severe if HCoVs, which generally cause mild respiratory disease, are coinfected with another viral agent.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Infant , Oxygen , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
17.
Blood ; 140(3): 196-207, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951013

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic led to a global health crisis, there were limited treatment options and no prophylactic therapies for those exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma is quick to implement, potentially provides benefits, and has a good safety profile. The therapeutic potential of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is likely mediated by antibodies through direct viral neutralization and Fc-dependent functions such as a phagocytosis, complement activation, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In the United States, CCP became one of the most common treatments with more than a half million units transfused despite limited efficacy data. More than a dozen randomized trials now demonstrate that CCP does not provide benefit for those hospitalized with moderate to severe disease. However, similar to other passive antibody therapies, CCP is beneficial for early disease when provided to elderly outpatients within 72 hours after symptom onset. Only high-titer CCP should be transfused. CCP should also be considered for immunosuppressed patients with COVID-19. CCP collected in proximity, by time and location, to the patient may be more beneficial because of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Additional randomized trial data are still accruing and should be incorporated with other trial data to optimize CCP indications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 481-484, 2022 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative efficacy and application value of convalescent plasma (CP) in severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Delta variant. METHODS: The treatment process and results of CP therapy for a patient with critical COVID-19 caused by Delta variant were reported. The clinical application value of CP for COVID-19 caused by Delta variant was analyzed along with the literature review. RESULTS: Our case was a 50-year-old male, who was imported from abroad and had not been vaccinated against COVID-19. The novel coronavirus nucleic acid test was negative before entry. On the second day after entry, fever occurred, novel coronavirus nucleic acid test was positive. Chest CT images showed bilateral multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity with symptoms of nausea, headache, loss of appetite, diarrhea, but no running nose, nasal obstruction, dyspnea, abnormal smell and taste. The infection rapidly developed from medium to critical. On the basis of standard treatment, Delta variant CP was intravenous dripped on the 10th day of hospital admission (the 6th day after becoming severe). The patient's condition improved rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: The curative efficacy evaluation of this patient proved that CP therapy is of great value in the treatment of severe and critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1725-1729, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876240

ABSTRACT

New York City (NYC) was an epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the United States during spring 2020 (1). During March-May 2020, approximately 203,000 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH). To obtain more complete data, DOHMH used supplementary information sources and relied on direct data importation and matching of patient identifiers for data on hospitalization status, the occurrence of death, race/ethnicity, and presence of underlying medical conditions. The highest rates of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths were concentrated in communities of color, high-poverty areas, and among persons aged ≥75 years or with underlying conditions. The crude fatality rate was 9.2% overall and 32.1% among hospitalized patients. Using these data to prevent additional infections among NYC residents during subsequent waves of the pandemic, particularly among those at highest risk for hospitalization and death, is critical. Mitigating COVID-19 transmission among vulnerable groups at high risk for hospitalization and death is an urgent priority. Similar to NYC, other jurisdictions might find the use of supplementary information sources valuable in their efforts to prevent COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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