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Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 79, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526068


Data sources Medline via PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and Google Scholar were searched without language restriction until 28 May 2020.Study selection Publications on the topic of biosafety measures before, during and after dental practice from observational studies, systematic reviews and literature reviews were included, while letters to the editor, individual opinions and books were excluded.Data extraction and synthesis The authors used a narrative review to describe the findings and grouped them into two categories: those considerations before dental care and those during dental consultation.Results The review was based on 43 publications. Of those, 23 were recent reviews, guidelines, protocols and recommendations from national and international organisations; three were COVID-related original studies and the remainder were pre-COVID publications on handpieces, surface contamination, ventilation, aerosols and airborne spread, ultrasonics, hand washing and dental pain management.Conclusions Patients should conform to COVID-19 screening protocols in order to receive dental care and follow all the procedures in place to prevent transmission while in the dental office.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Dental Care , Infection Control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(5): 374-379, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511065


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of slit lamp shields has been recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology as an infection control measure during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, there is limited evidence regarding its efficacy to reduce viral transmission risks. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach to optimize the use of slit lamp shields during clinical examination. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing can travel up to 50 m/s and over a distance of 2 m, with a potential area of spread of 616 cm. Slit lamp shields confer added protection against large droplets but are limited against smaller particles. A larger shield curved toward the ophthalmologist and positioned closer to the patient increases protection against large droplets. A potential improvement to the design of such shields is the use of hydrophilic materials with antiviral properties which may help to minimize splashing of infectious droplets, reducing transmission risks. These include gold or silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide. SUMMARY: Slit lamp shields serve as a barrier for large droplets, but its protection against smaller droplets is undetermined. It should be large, positioned close to the patient, and used in tandem with routine basic disinfection practices.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Devices , Slit Lamp , COVID-19 , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457477


Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) is known to be an etiological agent, causing infections in laboratory rats. Until now, its role has only been considered in studies on respiratory and salivary gland infections. The scant literature data, consisting mainly of papers from the last century, do not sufficiently address the topic of SDAV infections. The ongoing pandemic has demonstrated, once again, the role of the Coronaviridae family as extremely dangerous etiological agents of human zoonoses. The ability of coronaviruses to cross the species barrier and change to hosts commonly found in close proximity to humans highlights the need to characterize SDAV infections. The main host of the infection is the rat, as mentioned above. Rats inhabit large urban agglomerations, carrying a vast epidemic threat. Of the 2277 existing rodent species, 217 are reservoirs for 66 zoonotic diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. This review provides insight into the current state of knowledge of SDAV characteristics and its likely zoonotic potential.

Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Rat/genetics , Coronavirus, Rat/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus, Rat/classification , Rats , Species Specificity , Virus Replication/physiology
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953


OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435948


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making, Organizational , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telecommunications/standards , Workplace/standards
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138872, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428409


On 10 April 2020, Iran reported 68,192 COVID-19 cumulative cases including 4232 death and 35,465 recovery cases. Numerous factors could influence the transmission rate and survival of coronavirus. On this basis and according to the latest epidemiological researches, both ambient temperature (AT) and population size (PS) can be considered as significant transmissibility factors for coronavirus. The analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) allows measuring the performance of a classification model using the confusion matrix. This study intends to investigate the sensitivity of AT and PS on the transmission rate of the novel coronavirus in different provinces of Iran. For this purpose, the information of each province of Iran including the annual average of AT and the number of healthy and diseased cases are categorized. Subsequently, the sensitivity and specificity analyses of both AT and PS factors are performed. The obtained results confirm that AT and PS have low sensibility and high sensitivity, respectively. Thus, there is no scientific reason to confirm that the number of COVID-19 cases in warmer climates is less than that of moderate or cold climates. Therefore, it is recommended that the cities/provinces with a population of over 1.7 million people have stricter inspections and more precise controls as their management policy.

Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Density , Temperature , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cities , Humans , Iran , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity