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4.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(6): 452-455, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312310

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe complications have been reported to occur in 33% of patients with COVID-19 and include acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute renal failure, acute respiratory injury, septic shock, and severe pneumonia. Currently, there is no specific treatment or approved vaccine against COVID-19 and many clinical trials are currently investigating potential medications to treat COVID-19. The immunosuppressed status of some cancer patients (whether caused by the disease itself or the treatment) increases their risk of infection compared with the general population. This short review aims to focus on the impact of COVID-19 on a cancer patient and discuss management options and recommendation in addition to highlighting the currently available clinical guidelines and resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Health Personnel/standards , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20246, 2020 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285064

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in COVID-19 is a common feature in fatal cases and has been considered as a failure of the immune system to control the virus. Here we report the case of COVID-19 affecting an immunocompromised women and her presumably immunocompetent spouse. A married couple (age 60 years) was simultaneously admitted to the emergency department on 10 March 2020 because of dyspnoea and fever, consistent with COVID-19. The wife (patient 1) was partially immunocompromised as a consequence of a recently started chemotherapy with fulvestrant and abemaciclid for recurring breast cancer, her husband (patient 2) had been healthy except for a history of controlled arterial hypertension. Both patients were treated with darunavir/cobicistat and hydroxychloroquine. The clinical course of the immunocompromised partner was benign, without need of intensive care. She was able to leave the hospital on day 6 after admission. In contrast, her husband needed intensive care and his recovery was slow, although eventually successful too. These findings suggest that the course of COVID-19 is not necessarily ominous in the presence of a compromised immune response and tend to reinforce the emerging therapeutic concepts of a controlled mitigation of the immune cascade following SARS CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Care , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouses , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287228

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and severe atrophic enteritis caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that infects pigs and makes huge economic losses to the global swine industry. Previously, researchers have believed that porcine aminopeptidase-N (pAPN) was the primary receptor for PEDV, but it has been found that PEDV can infect pAPN knockout pigs. Currently, the functional receptor for PEDV remains unspecified. In the present study, we performed virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), found that ATP1A1 was the highest scoring protein in the mass spectrometry results, and confirmed that the CT structural domain of ATP1A1 interacts with PEDV S1. First, we investigated the effect of ATP1A1 on PEDV replication. Inhibition of hosts ATP1A1 protein expression using small interfering RNA (siRNAs) significantly reduced the cells susceptibility to PEDV. The ATP1A1-specific inhibitors Ouabain (a cardiac steroid) and PST2238 (a digitalis toxin derivative), which specifically bind ATP1A1, could block the ATP1A1 protein internalization and degradation, and consequently reduce the infection rate of host cells by PEDV significantly. Additionally, as expected, overexpression of ATP1A1 notably enhanced PEDV infection. Next, we observed that PEDV infection of target cells resulted in upregulation of ATP1A1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we found that the host protein ATP1A1 was involved in PEDV attachment and co-localized with PEDV S1 protein in the early stage of infection. In addition, pretreatment of IPEC-J2 and Vero-E6 cells with ATP1A1 mAb significantly reduced PEDV attachment. Our observations provided a perspective on identifying key factors in PEDV infection, and may provide valuable targets for PEDV infection, PEDV functional receptor, related pathogenesis, and the development of new antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Swine Diseases , Animals , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Small Interfering , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism
12.
Cell ; 186(4): 850-863.e16, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239711

ABSTRACT

It is unknown whether pangolins, the most trafficked mammals, play a role in the zoonotic transmission of bat coronaviruses. We report the circulation of a novel MERS-like coronavirus in Malayan pangolins, named Manis javanica HKU4-related coronavirus (MjHKU4r-CoV). Among 86 animals, four tested positive by pan-CoV PCR, and seven tested seropositive (11 and 12.8%). Four nearly identical (99.9%) genome sequences were obtained, and one virus was isolated (MjHKU4r-CoV-1). This virus utilizes human dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (hDPP4) as a receptor and host proteases for cell infection, which is enhanced by a furin cleavage site that is absent in all known bat HKU4r-CoVs. The MjHKU4r-CoV-1 spike shows higher binding affinity for hDPP4, and MjHKU4r-CoV-1 has a wider host range than bat HKU4-CoV. MjHKU4r-CoV-1 is infectious and pathogenic in human airways and intestinal organs and in hDPP4-transgenic mice. Our study highlights the importance of pangolins as reservoir hosts of coronaviruses poised for human disease emergence.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Pangolins , Animals , Humans , Mice , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Coronavirus/physiology
13.
J Virol ; 97(3): e0166422, 2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238656

ABSTRACT

Seasonal coronaviruses have been circulating widely in the human population for many years. With increasing age, humans are more likely to have been exposed to these viruses and to have developed immunity against them. It has been hypothesized that this immunity to seasonal coronaviruses may provide partial protection against infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it has also been shown that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination induces a back-boosting effects against the spike proteins of seasonal betacoronaviruses. In this study, we tested if immunity to the seasonal coronavirus spikes from OC43, HKU1, 229E, or NL63 would confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in a mouse model, and whether pre-existing immunity against these spikes would weaken the protection afforded by mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. We found that mice vaccinated with the seasonal coronavirus spike proteins had no increased protection compared to the negative controls. While a negligible back-boosting effect against betacoronavirus spike proteins was observed after SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was no negative original antigenic sin-like effect on the immune response and protection induced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in animals with pre-existing immunity to seasonal coronavirus spike proteins. IMPORTANCE The impact that immunity against seasonal coronaviruses has on both susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as on COVID-19 vaccination is unclear. This study provides insights into both questions in a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Humans , Mice , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seasons , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Protection/immunology
17.
J Virol ; 97(2): e0175122, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237611

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus of the Coronaviridae family and can cause fatal watery diarrhea in piglets, causing significant economic losses. Heterogeneous nuclear protein U (HNRNPU) is a novel RNA sensor involved in sensing viral RNA in the nucleus and mediating antiviral immunity. However, it remains elusive whether and how cytoplasmic PEDV can be sensed by the RNA sensor HNRNPU. In this study we determined that HNRNPU was the binding partner of Nsp13 by immunoprecipitation-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IP/LC-MS/MS) analysis. The interaction between Nsp13 and HNRNPU was demonstrated by using coimmunoprecipitation and confocal immunofluorescence. Next, we identified that HNRNPU expression is significantly increased during PEDV infection, whereas the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) could negatively regulate HNRNPU expression. HNRNPU was retained in the cytoplasm by interaction with PEDV Nsp13. We found that HNRNPU overexpression effectively facilitated PEDV replication, while knockdown of HNRNPU impaired viral replication, suggesting a promoting function of HNRNPU to PEDV infection. Additionally, HNRNPU was found to promote PEDV replication by affecting TRAF3 degradation at the transcriptional level to inhibit PEDV-induced beta interferon (IFN-ß) production. Mechanistically, HNRNPU downregulates TRAF3 mRNA levels via the METTL3-METTL14/YTHDF2 axis and regulates immune responses through YTHDF2-dependent mRNA decay. Together, our findings reveal that HNRNPU serves as a negative regulator of innate immunity by degrading TRAF3 mRNA in a YTHDF2-dependent manner and consequently facilitating PEDV propagation. Our findings provide new insights into the immune escape of PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV, a highly infectious enteric coronavirus, has spread rapidly worldwide and caused severe economic losses. During virus infection, the host regulates innate immunity to inhibit virus infection. However, PEDV has evolved a variety of different strategies to suppress host IFN-mediated antiviral responses. Here, we identified that HNRNPU interacted with viral protein Nsp13. HNRNPU protein expression was upregulated, and the transcription factor HNF1A could negatively regulate HNRNPU expression during PEDV infection. HNRNPU also downregulated TRAF3 mRNA through the METTL3-METTL14/YTHDF2 axis to inhibit the production of IFN-ß and downstream antiviral genes in PEDV-infected cells, thereby promoting viral replication. Our findings reveal a new mechanism with which PEDV suppresses the host antiviral response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nuclear Proteins , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2310, 2023 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235297

ABSTRACT

Four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-OC43, are closely related to SARS-CoV-2. These coronaviruses are known to infect humans living in temperate areas, including children under 5 years old; however, the seroprevalence of four HCoVs among children in tropical areas, including the Philippines, remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of antibodies against four HCoVs and to determine the reactivity and neutralization of these antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among children in the Philippines. A total of 315 serum samples collected from 2015 to 2018, before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, in Biliran island, Philippines, were tested for the presence of antibodies against four HCoVs and SARS-CoV-2 using recombinant spike ectodomain proteins by IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactivity to and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 were also investigated. The seroprevalence of the four HCoVs was 63.8% for HCoV-229E, 71.4% for HCoV-NL63, 76.5% for HCoV-HKU1, and 83.5% for HCoV-OC43 by ELISA. Age group analysis indicated that seropositivity to all HCoVs reached 80% by 2-3 years of age. While 69/315 (21.9%) of the samples showed reactive to SARS-CoV-2, almost no neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 was detected using neutralization assay. Reactivity of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein obtained by ELISA may not correlate with neutralization capability.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Philippines/epidemiology , Recombinant Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology
19.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Glucosides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Forsythia/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Life Sci ; 255: 117831, 2020 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267781

ABSTRACT

A new SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus has caused a pandemic known as COVID-19. Among coronaviruses, the main protease (Mpro) is an essential drug target which, along with papain-like proteases catalyzes the processing of polyproteins translated from viral RNA and recognizes specific cleavage sites. There are no human proteases with similar cleavage specificity and therefore, inhibitors are highly likely to be nontoxic. Therefore, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme with small molecules can block viral replication. The present study is aimed at the identification of promising lead molecules for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme through virtual screening of antiviral compounds from plants. The binding affinity of selected small drug-like molecules to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro were studied using molecular docking. Bonducellpin D was identified as the best lead molecule which shows higher binding affinity (-9.28 kcal/mol) as compared to the control (-8.24 kcal/mol). The molecular binding was stabilized through four hydrogen bonds with Glu166 and Thr190 as well as hydrophobic interactions via eight residues. The SARS-CoV-2 Mpro shows identities of 96.08% and 50.65% to that of SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro respectively at the sequence level. At the structural level, the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and SARS-CoV Mpro was found to be 0.517 Å and 0.817 Å between SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro. Bonducellpin D exhibited broad-spectrum inhibition potential against SARS-CoV Mpro and MERS-CoV Mpro and therefore is a promising drug candidate, which needs further validations through in vitro and in vivo studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
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