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1.
J Chem Inf Model ; 62(11): 2857-2868, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864720

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been responsible for three major outbreaks since the beginning of the 21st century, and the emergence of the recent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in considerable efforts to design new therapies against coronaviruses. Thus, it is crucial to understand the structural features of their major proteins related to the virus-host interaction. Several studies have shown that from the seven known CoV human pathogens, three of them use the human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE-2) to mediate their host's cell entry: SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63. Therefore, we employed quantum biochemistry techniques within the density function theory (DFT) framework and the molecular fragmentation with conjugate caps (MFCC) approach to analyze the interactions between the hACE-2 and the spike protein-RBD of the three CoVs in order to map the hot-spot residues that form the recognition surface for these complexes and define the similarities and differences in the interaction scenario. The total interaction energy evaluated showed a good agreement with the experimental binding affinity order: SARS-2 > SARS > NL63. A detailed investigation revealed the energetically most relevant regions of hACE-2 and the spike protein for each complex, as well as the key residue-residue interactions. Our results provide valuable information to deeply understand the structural behavior and binding site characteristics that could help to develop antiviral therapeutics that inhibit protein-protein interactions between CoVs S protein and hACE-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105343, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850637

ABSTRACT

Besides pandemic SARS-CoV-2, also endemic seasonal human common cold coronaviruses (hCoVs) have a significant impact on human health and economy. Studies on hCoVs and the identification of antivirals are therefore crucial to improve human well-being. However, hCoVs have long been neglected and the methodology to study virus infection, replication and inhibition warrants being updated. We here evaluated the established plaque-based assays to determine viral titers and cell-to-cell spread and developed protocols for the immunodetection of the viral nucleocapsid protein by flow cytometry and in-cell ELISA to study infection rates at early time points. The developed protocols allow detection of hCoV-229E infection after 2, and hCoV-NL63 and -OC43 infection after 3 days at a single cell level or in a 96 well microtiter format, in large sample numbers without being laborious or expensive. Both assays can be applied to assess the susceptibility of cells to hCoV infection and replication, and to determine the efficacy of antiviral compounds as well as neutralizing antibodies in a sensitive and quantitative manner. Application revealed that clinically applied SARS-CoV-2 targeting monoclonal antibodies are inactive against hCoVs, but that the viral polymerase targeting antivirals remdesivir and molnupiravir are broadly active also against all three hCoVs. Further, the in-cell ELISA provided evidence that nirmatrelvir, previously shown to broadly inhibit coronavirus proteases, also prevents replication of authentic hCoVs. Importantly, the protocols described here can be easily adapted to other coronavirus strains and species as well as viruses of other families within a short time. This will facilitate future research on known and emerging (corona)viruses, support the identification of antivirals and increase the preparedness for future virus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Common Cold/diagnosis , Common Cold/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
3.
Virol J ; 19(1): 67, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and four seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1) still circulate worldwide. The early clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV infections are similar, so rapid and accurate identification of the subtypes of HCoVs is crucial for early diagnosis, early treatment, prevention and control of these infections. However, current multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques for HCoV subtypes including SARS-CoV-2 are limited. METHODS: We designed primers and probes specific for the S and N genes of SARS-CoV-2, the N gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the ORF1ab gene of four seasonal HCoVs, as well as the human B2M gene product. We developed and optimized a quadruple quantitative real-time PCR assay (qq-PCR) for simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and four seasonal HCoVs. This assay was further tested for specificity and sensitivity, and validated using 184 clinical samples. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the qq-PCR assay was in the range 2.5 × 101 to 6.5 × 101 copies/µL for each gene and no cross-reactivity with other common respiratory viruses was observed. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 0.5-2%. The qq-PCR assay had a 91.9% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity for SARS-CoV-2 and a 95.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity for seasonal HCoVs, using the approved commercial kits as the reference. Compared to the commercial kits, total detection consistency was 98.4% (181/184) for SARS-CoV-2 and 98.6% (142/144) for seasonal HCoVs. CONCLUSION: With the advantages of sensitivity, specificity, rapid detection, cost-effectiveness, and convenience, this qq-PCR assay has potential for clinical use for rapid discrimination between SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and seasonal HCoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726022

ABSTRACT

There is currently debate about human coronavirus (HCoV) seasonality and pathogenicity, as epidemiological data are scarce. Here, we provide epidemiological and clinical features of HCoV patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) examined in primary care general practice. We also describe HCoV seasonality over six influenza surveillance seasons (week 40 to 15 of each season) from the period 2014/2015 to 2019/2020 in Corsica (France). A sample of patients of all ages presenting for consultation for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ARI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles Network during this period. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of 21 respiratory pathogens by real-time RT-PCR. Among the 1389 ILI/ARI patients, 105 were positive for at least one HCoV (7.5%). On an annual basis, HCoVs circulated from week 48 (November) to weeks 14-15 (May) and peaked in week 6 (February). Overall, among the HCoV-positive patients detected in this study, HCoV-OC43 was the most commonly detected virus, followed by HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. The HCoV detection rates varied significantly with age (p = 0.00005), with the age group 0-14 years accounting for 28.6% (n = 30) of HCoV-positive patients. Fever and malaise were less frequent in HCoV patients than in influenza patients, while sore throat, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis were more associated with HCoV positivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HCoV subtypes appear in ARI/ILI patients seen in general practice, with characteristic outbreak patterns primarily in winter. This study also identified symptoms associated with HCoVs in patients with ARI/ILI. Further studies with representative samples should be conducted to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and clinical features of HCoVs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Primary Health Care , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
5.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
6.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(12): e666-e675, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the most consequential unknowns of the devastating COVID-19 pandemic are the durability of immunity and time to likely reinfection. There are limited direct data on SARS-CoV-2 long-term immune responses and reinfection. The aim of this study is to use data on the durability of immunity among evolutionarily close coronavirus relatives of SARS-CoV-2 to estimate times to reinfection by a comparative evolutionary analysis of related viruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63. METHODS: We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the S, M, and ORF1b genes to reconstruct a maximum-likelihood molecular phylogeny of human-infecting coronaviruses. This phylogeny enabled comparative analyses of peak-normalised nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and whole-virus lysate IgG antibody optical density levels, in conjunction with reinfection data on endemic human-infecting coronaviruses. We performed ancestral and descendent states analyses to estimate the expected declines in antibody levels over time, the probabilities of reinfection based on antibody level, and the anticipated times to reinfection after recovery under conditions of endemic transmission for SARS-CoV-2, as well as the other human-infecting coronaviruses. FINDINGS: We obtained antibody optical density data for six human-infecting coronaviruses, extending from 128 days to 28 years after infection between 1984 and 2020. These data provided a means to estimate profiles of the typical antibody decline and probabilities of reinfection over time under endemic conditions. Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 under endemic conditions would likely occur between 3 months and 5·1 years after peak antibody response, with a median of 16 months. This protection is less than half the duration revealed for the endemic coronaviruses circulating among humans (5-95% quantiles 15 months to 10 years for HCoV-OC43, 31 months to 12 years for HCoV-NL63, and 16 months to 12 years for HCoV-229E). For SARS-CoV, the 5-95% quantiles were 4 months to 6 years, whereas the 95% quantiles for MERS-CoV were inconsistent by dataset. INTERPRETATION: The timeframe for reinfection is fundamental to numerous aspects of public health decision making. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, reinfection is likely to become increasingly common. Maintaining public health measures that curb transmission-including among individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2-coupled with persistent efforts to accelerate vaccination worldwide is critical to the prevention of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: US National Science Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649980

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread around the world and caused serious public health and social problems. Although several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, new effective antiviral drugs are still needed. Some repurposed drugs including Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir were immediately used to treat COVID-19 after the pandemic. However, the therapeutic effects of these drugs have not been fully demonstrated in clinical studies. In this paper, we found an antimalarial drug, Naphthoquine, showed good broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus activity. Naphthoquineinhibited HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, with IC50 = 2.05 ± 1.44 µM, 5.83 ± 0.74 µM, and 2.01 ± 0.38 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition assay was also performed to explore at which stage Naphthoquine functions during SARS-CoV-2 replication. The results suggested that Naphthoquine may influence virus entry and post-entry replication. Considering the safety of Naphthoquine was even better than that of Chloroquine, we think Naphthoquine has the potential to be used as a broad-spectrum drug for coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
1-Naphthylamine/analogs & derivatives , Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 1-Naphthylamine/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23465, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556248

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) mainly affects young children and immunocompromised patients, causing morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients. Since no specific treatment is available, this study aims to explore the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents including favipiravir and remdesivir for treating HCoV-NL63 infection. We first successfully modelled the 3D structure of HCoV-NL63 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) based on the experimentally solved SARS-CoV-2 RdRp structure. Molecular docking indicated that favipiravir has similar binding affinities to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 RdRp with LibDock scores of 75 and 74, respectively. The LibDock scores of remdesivir to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 were 135 and 151, suggesting that remdesivir may have a higher affinity to HCoV-NL63 compared to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. In cell culture models infected with HCoV-NL63, both favipiravir and remdesivir significantly inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses. Overall, remdesivir compared to favipiravir is more potent in inhibiting HCoV-NL63 in cell culture. Importantly, there is no evidence of resistance development upon long-term exposure to remdesivir. Furthermore, combining favipiravir or remdesivir with the clinically used antiviral cytokine interferon-alpha resulted in synergistic effects. These findings provided a proof-of-concept that anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, in particular remdesivir, have the potential to be repurposed for treating HCoV-NL63 infection.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus NL63, Human/enzymology , Pyrazines/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Haplorhini , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103700, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibodies raised against human seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs), which are responsible for the common cold, are known to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. This prompts questions about their protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 severity. However, the relationship between sCoVs exposure and SARS-CoV-2 correlates of protection are not clearly identified. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization to SARS-CoV-2 antigens (S-RBD, S-trimer, N) using pre-pandemic sera from four different groups: pediatrics and adolescents, individuals 21 to 70 years of age, older than 70 years of age, and individuals living with HCV or HIV. Data was then further analysed using machine learning to identify predictive patterns of neutralization based on sCoVs serology. FINDINGS: Antibody cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 antigens varied between 1.6% and 15.3% depending on the cohort and the isotype-antigen pair analyzed. We also show a range of neutralizing activity (0-45%) with median inhibition ranging from 17.6 % to 23.3 % in serum that interferes with SARS-CoV-2 spike attachment to ACE2 independently of age group. While the abundance of sCoV antibodies did not directly correlate with neutralization, we show that neutralizing activity is rather dependent on relative ratios of IgGs in sera directed to all four sCoV spike proteins. More specifically, we identified antibodies to NL63 and OC43 as being the most important predictors of neutralization. INTERPRETATION: Our data support the concept that exposure to sCoVs triggers antibody responses that influence the efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 spike binding to ACE2, which may potentially impact COVID-19 disease severity through other latent variables. FUNDING: This study was supported by a grant by the CIHR (VR2 -172722) and by a grant supplement by the CITF, and by a NRC Collaborative R&D Initiative Grant (PR031-1).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Common Cold/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Young Adult
10.
Virol J ; 18(1): 166, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533268

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more recently, the independent evolution of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has generated renewed interest in virus evolution and cross-species transmission. While all known human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are speculated to have originated in animals, very little is known about their evolutionary history and factors that enable some CoVs to co-exist with humans as low pathogenic and endemic infections (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1), while others, such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have evolved to cause severe disease. In this review, we highlight the origins of all known HCoVs and map positively selected for mutations within HCoV proteins to discuss the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, we discuss emerging mutations within SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOC), along with highlighting the demonstrated or speculated impact of these mutations on virus transmission, pathogenicity, and neutralization by natural or vaccine-mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Immunity , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512513

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 outbreak has highlighted the need for the development of new vaccines and drugs to combat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recently, various drugs have been proposed as potentially effective against COVID-19, such as remdesivir, infliximab and imatinib. Natural plants have been used as an alternative source of drugs for thousands of years, and some of them are effective for the treatment of various viral diseases. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione) is a biologically active anthraquinone with antiviral activity that is found in various plants. We studied the selectivity of electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions on an emodin core (halogenation, nitration and sulfonation), which resulted in a library of emodin derivatives. The main aim of this work was to carry out an initial evaluation of the potential to improve the activity of emodin against human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) and also to generate a set of initial SAR guidelines. We have prepared emodin derivatives which displayed significant anti-HCoV-NL63 activity. We observed that halogenation of emodin can improve its antiviral activity. The most active compound in this study was the iodinated emodin analogue E_3I, whose anti-HCoV-NL63 activity was comparable to that of remdesivir. Evaluation of the emodin analogues also revealed some unwanted toxicity to Vero cells. Since new synthetic routes are now available that allow modification of the emodin structure, it is reasonable to expect that analogues with significantly improved anti-HCoV-NL63 activity and lowered toxicity may thus be generated.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Emodin/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Emodin/chemical synthesis , Halogenation , Humans , Vero Cells
13.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(11): 871-875, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506105

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are RNA viruses. We should be alerted from the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, the discovery of the human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) in 2004 and the pneumonia outbreak caused by the novel coronavirus in 2019 (2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can adhere to mucous membranes of the eye, nose, mouth, respiratory tract and digestive tract through various media, which leads to inflammatory reaction, pulmonary fibrosis, kidney failure and death in severe cases. As an exposed organ, the eye can also be infected. With the progress of molecular technology and the in-depth research of coronaviruses, there have been seven known coronaviruses that can infect humans, among which HCoV-NL63, SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV can cause eye diseases. This article summarizes and analyzes the latest research results at home and abroad concerning the structural characteristics, transmission routes, ocular pathogenic characteristics and treatment of HCoV-NL63, SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV, in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 871-875).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Eye Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0141621, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495015

ABSTRACT

The rapid worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has accelerated research and development for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. A multi-coronavirus protein microarray was created containing full-length proteins, overlapping protein fragments of various lengths, and peptide libraries from SARS-CoV-2 and four other human coronaviruses. Sera from confirmed COVID-19 patients as well as unexposed individuals were applied to multicoronavirus arrays to identify specific antibody reactivity. High-level IgG, IgM, and IgA reactivity to structural proteins S, M, and N of SARS-CoV-2, as well as accessory proteins such as ORF3a and ORF7a, were observed that were specific to COVID-19 patients. Antibody reactivity against overlapping 100-, 50-, and 30-amino acid fragments of SARS-CoV-2 proteins was used to identify antigenic regions. Numerous proteins of SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 were also more reactive with IgG, IgM, and IgA in COVID-19 patient sera than in unexposed control sera, providing further evidence of immunologic cross-reactivity between these viruses. Whereas unexposed individuals had minimal reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 proteins that poorly correlated with reactivity against HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 S2 and N proteins, COVID-19 patient sera had higher correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV responses, suggesting that de novo antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 cross-react with HCoV epitopes. Array responses were compared with validated spike protein-specific IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), showing agreement between orthologous methods. SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization titers were low in the COVID-19 patient sera but correlated with array responses against S and N proteins. The multi-coronavirus protein microarray is a useful tool for mapping antibody reactivity in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE With novel mutant SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern on the rise, knowledge of immune specificities against SARS-CoV-2 proteins is increasingly important for understanding the impact of structural changes in antibody-reactive protein epitopes on naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity, as well as broader topics of cross-reactivity and viral evolution. A multi-coronavirus protein microarray used to map the binding of COVID-19 patient antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins and protein fragments as well as to the proteins of four other coronaviruses that infect humans has shown specific regions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins that are highly reactive with patient antibodies and revealed cross-reactivity of these antibodies with other human coronaviruses. These data and the multi-coronavirus protein microarray tool will help guide further studies of the antibody response to COVID-19 and to vaccination against this worldwide pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20143, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462040

ABSTRACT

Rapid, high-throughput diagnostic tests are essential to decelerate the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While RT-PCR tests performed in centralized laboratories remain the gold standard, rapid point-of-care antigen tests might provide faster results. However, they are associated with markedly reduced sensitivity. Bedside breath gas analysis of volatile organic compounds detected by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) may enable a quick and sensitive point-of-care testing alternative. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated whether gas analysis by IMS can discriminate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from other respiratory viruses in an experimental set-up. Repeated gas analyses of air samples collected from the headspace of virus-infected in vitro cultures were performed for 5 days. A three-step decision tree using the intensities of four spectrometry peaks correlating to unidentified volatile organic compounds allowed the correct classification of SARS-CoV-2, human coronavirus-NL63, and influenza A virus H1N1 without misassignment when the calculation was performed with data 3 days post infection. The forward selection assignment model allowed the identification of SARS-CoV-2 with high sensitivity and specificity, with only one of 231 measurements (0.43%) being misclassified. Thus, volatile organic compound analysis by IMS allows highly accurate differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 from other respiratory viruses in an experimental set-up, supporting further research and evaluation in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Diagnosis, Differential , High-Throughput Screening Assays/instrumentation , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Ion Mobility Spectrometry , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
16.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 77(Pt 10): 348-355, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450488

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus, mainly infects children and the immunocompromized and is responsible for a series of clinical manifestations, including cough, fever, rhinorrhoea, bronchiolitis and croup. HCoV-NL63, which was first isolated from a seven-month-old child in 2004, has led to infections worldwide and accounts for 10% of all respiratory illnesses caused by etiological agents. However, effective antivirals against HCoV-NL63 infection are currently unavailable. The HCoV-NL63 main protease (Mpro), also called 3C-like protease (3CLpro), plays a vital role in mediating viral replication and transcription by catalyzing the cleavage of replicase polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab) into functional subunits. Moreover, Mpro is highly conserved among all coronaviruses, thus making it a prominent drug target for antiviral therapy. Here, four crystal structures of HCoV-NL63 Mpro in the apo form at different pH values are reported at resolutions of up to 1.78 Å. Comparison with Mpro from other human betacoronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV reveals common and distinct structural features in different genera and extends knowledge of the diversity, function and evolution of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus NL63, Human/chemistry , Crystallization/methods , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Protein Conformation
17.
Virology ; 564: 33-38, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447220

ABSTRACT

Endemic seasonal coronaviruses cause morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients, but no specific treatment is available. Molnupiravir is a promising pipeline antiviral drug for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially by targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This study aims to evaluate the potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections. Molecular docking revealed that the active form of molnupiravir, ß-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC), has similar binding affinity to RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. In cell culture models, treatment of molnupiravir effectively inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses of the three seasonal coronaviruses. A time-of-drug-addition experiment indicates the specificity of molnupiravir in inhibiting viral components. Furthermore, combining molnupiravir with the protease inhibitor GC376 resulted in enhanced antiviral activity. Our findings highlight that the great potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal coronavirus infected patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytidine/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Seasons , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
18.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(12): e666-e675, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the most consequential unknowns of the devastating COVID-19 pandemic are the durability of immunity and time to likely reinfection. There are limited direct data on SARS-CoV-2 long-term immune responses and reinfection. The aim of this study is to use data on the durability of immunity among evolutionarily close coronavirus relatives of SARS-CoV-2 to estimate times to reinfection by a comparative evolutionary analysis of related viruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63. METHODS: We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the S, M, and ORF1b genes to reconstruct a maximum-likelihood molecular phylogeny of human-infecting coronaviruses. This phylogeny enabled comparative analyses of peak-normalised nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and whole-virus lysate IgG antibody optical density levels, in conjunction with reinfection data on endemic human-infecting coronaviruses. We performed ancestral and descendent states analyses to estimate the expected declines in antibody levels over time, the probabilities of reinfection based on antibody level, and the anticipated times to reinfection after recovery under conditions of endemic transmission for SARS-CoV-2, as well as the other human-infecting coronaviruses. FINDINGS: We obtained antibody optical density data for six human-infecting coronaviruses, extending from 128 days to 28 years after infection between 1984 and 2020. These data provided a means to estimate profiles of the typical antibody decline and probabilities of reinfection over time under endemic conditions. Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 under endemic conditions would likely occur between 3 months and 5·1 years after peak antibody response, with a median of 16 months. This protection is less than half the duration revealed for the endemic coronaviruses circulating among humans (5-95% quantiles 15 months to 10 years for HCoV-OC43, 31 months to 12 years for HCoV-NL63, and 16 months to 12 years for HCoV-229E). For SARS-CoV, the 5-95% quantiles were 4 months to 6 years, whereas the 95% quantiles for MERS-CoV were inconsistent by dataset. INTERPRETATION: The timeframe for reinfection is fundamental to numerous aspects of public health decision making. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, reinfection is likely to become increasingly common. Maintaining public health measures that curb transmission-including among individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2-coupled with persistent efforts to accelerate vaccination worldwide is critical to the prevention of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: US National Science Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 224: 112319, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433572

ABSTRACT

The germicidal properties of short wavelength ultraviolet C (UVC) light are well established and used to inactivate many viruses and other microbes. However, much less is known about germicidal effects of terrestrial solar UV light, confined exclusively to wavelengths in the UVA and UVB regions. Here, we have explored the sensitivity of the human coronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and SARS-CoV-2 to solar-simulated full spectrum ultraviolet light (sUV) delivered at environmentally relevant doses. First, HCoV-NL63 coronavirus inactivation by sUV-exposure was confirmed employing (i) viral plaque assays, (ii) RT-qPCR detection of viral genome replication, and (iii) infection-induced stress response gene expression array analysis. Next, a detailed dose-response relationship of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus inactivation by sUV was elucidated, suggesting a half maximal suppression of viral infectivity at low sUV doses. Likewise, extended sUV exposure of SARS-CoV-2 blocked cellular infection as revealed by plaque assay and stress response gene expression array analysis. Moreover, comparative (HCoV-NL63 versus SARS-CoV-2) single gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR confirmed that sUV exposure blocks coronavirus-induced redox, inflammatory, and proteotoxic stress responses. Based on our findings, we estimate that solar ground level full spectrum UV light impairs coronavirus infectivity at environmentally relevant doses. Given the urgency and global scale of the unfolding SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, these prototype data suggest feasibility of solar UV-induced viral inactivation, an observation deserving further molecular exploration in more relevant exposure models.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus NL63, Human/radiation effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sunlight , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Genome, Viral/radiation effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome/radiation effects , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Virus Replication/radiation effects
20.
J Clin Virol ; 136: 104754, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The four seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1 are frequent causes of respiratory infections and show annual and seasonal variation. Increased understanding about these patterns could be informative about the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Results from PCR diagnostics for the seasonal coronaviruses, and other respiratory viruses, were obtained for 55,190 clinical samples analyzed at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, between 14 September 2009 and 2 April 2020. RESULTS: Seasonal coronaviruses were detected in 2130 samples (3.9 %) and constituted 8.1 % of all virus detections. OC43 was most commonly detected (28.4 % of detections), followed by NL63 (24.0 %), HKU1 (17.6 %), and 229E (15.3 %). The overall fraction of positive samples was similar between seasons, but at species level there were distinct biennial alternating peak seasons for the Alphacoronaviruses, 229E and NL63, and the Betacoronaviruses, OC43 and HKU1, respectively. The Betacoronaviruses peaked earlier in the winter season (Dec-Jan) than the Alphacoronaviruses (Feb-Mar). Coronaviruses were detected across all ages, but diagnostics were more frequently requested for paediatric patients than adults and the elderly. OC43 and 229E incidence was relatively constant across age strata, while that of NL63 and HKU1 decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Both the Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses showed alternating biennial winter incidence peaks, which suggests some type of immune mediated interaction. Symptomatic reinfections in adults and the elderly appear relatively common. Both findings may be of relevance for the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Sweden
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