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1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649980

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread around the world and caused serious public health and social problems. Although several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, new effective antiviral drugs are still needed. Some repurposed drugs including Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir were immediately used to treat COVID-19 after the pandemic. However, the therapeutic effects of these drugs have not been fully demonstrated in clinical studies. In this paper, we found an antimalarial drug, Naphthoquine, showed good broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus activity. Naphthoquineinhibited HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, with IC50 = 2.05 ± 1.44 µM, 5.83 ± 0.74 µM, and 2.01 ± 0.38 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition assay was also performed to explore at which stage Naphthoquine functions during SARS-CoV-2 replication. The results suggested that Naphthoquine may influence virus entry and post-entry replication. Considering the safety of Naphthoquine was even better than that of Chloroquine, we think Naphthoquine has the potential to be used as a broad-spectrum drug for coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
1-Naphthylamine/analogs & derivatives , Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 1-Naphthylamine/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512513

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 outbreak has highlighted the need for the development of new vaccines and drugs to combat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recently, various drugs have been proposed as potentially effective against COVID-19, such as remdesivir, infliximab and imatinib. Natural plants have been used as an alternative source of drugs for thousands of years, and some of them are effective for the treatment of various viral diseases. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione) is a biologically active anthraquinone with antiviral activity that is found in various plants. We studied the selectivity of electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions on an emodin core (halogenation, nitration and sulfonation), which resulted in a library of emodin derivatives. The main aim of this work was to carry out an initial evaluation of the potential to improve the activity of emodin against human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) and also to generate a set of initial SAR guidelines. We have prepared emodin derivatives which displayed significant anti-HCoV-NL63 activity. We observed that halogenation of emodin can improve its antiviral activity. The most active compound in this study was the iodinated emodin analogue E_3I, whose anti-HCoV-NL63 activity was comparable to that of remdesivir. Evaluation of the emodin analogues also revealed some unwanted toxicity to Vero cells. Since new synthetic routes are now available that allow modification of the emodin structure, it is reasonable to expect that analogues with significantly improved anti-HCoV-NL63 activity and lowered toxicity may thus be generated.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Emodin/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Emodin/chemical synthesis , Halogenation , Humans , Vero Cells
3.
Virology ; 564: 33-38, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447220

ABSTRACT

Endemic seasonal coronaviruses cause morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients, but no specific treatment is available. Molnupiravir is a promising pipeline antiviral drug for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially by targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This study aims to evaluate the potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections. Molecular docking revealed that the active form of molnupiravir, ß-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC), has similar binding affinity to RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. In cell culture models, treatment of molnupiravir effectively inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses of the three seasonal coronaviruses. A time-of-drug-addition experiment indicates the specificity of molnupiravir in inhibiting viral components. Furthermore, combining molnupiravir with the protease inhibitor GC376 resulted in enhanced antiviral activity. Our findings highlight that the great potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal coronavirus infected patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytidine/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Seasons , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
4.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(3): 586-597, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108883

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to unfold, the morbidity and mortality are increasing daily. Effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. We recently discovered four SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors including boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII, and GC-376 with potent antiviral activity against infectious SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of action of these four compounds using the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay. It was found that GC-376 and calpain inhibitors II and XII have a dual mechanism of action by inhibiting both viral Mpro and host cathepsin L in Vero cells. To rule out the cell-type dependent effect, the antiviral activity of these four compounds against SARS-CoV-2 was also confirmed in type 2 transmembrane serine protease-expressing Caco-2 cells using the viral yield reduction assay. In addition, we found that these four compounds have broad-spectrum antiviral activity in inhibiting not only SARS-CoV-2 but also SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, as well as human coronaviruses (CoVs) 229E, OC43, and NL63. The mechanism of action is through targeting the viral Mpro, which was supported by the thermal shift-binding assay and enzymatic fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. We further showed that these four compounds have additive antiviral effect when combined with remdesivir. Altogether, these results suggest that boceprevir, calpain inhibitors II and XII, and GC-376 might be promising starting points for further development against existing human coronaviruses as well as future emerging CoVs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbonates/pharmacology , Glycoproteins/pharmacology , Leucine/pharmacology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caco-2 Cells , Cathepsin L/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Drug Combinations , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Proline/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells
5.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066823

ABSTRACT

By late 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), had caused tens of millions of infections and over 1 million deaths worldwide. A protective vaccine and more effective therapeutics are urgently needed. We evaluated a new poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, stenoparib, that recently advanced to phase II clinical trials for treatment of ovarian cancer, for activity against human respiratory coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in vitro Stenoparib exhibits dose-dependent suppression of SARS-CoV-2 multiplication and spread in Vero E6 monkey kidney and Calu-3 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Stenoparib was also strongly inhibitory to the human seasonal respiratory coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Compared to remdesivir, which inhibits viral replication downstream of cell entry, stenoparib impedes entry and postentry processes, as determined by time-of-addition (TOA) experiments. Moreover, a 10 µM dosage of stenoparib-below the approximated 25.5 µM half-maximally effective concentration (EC50)-combined with 0.5 µM remdesivir suppressed coronavirus growth by more than 90%, indicating a potentially synergistic effect for this drug combination. Stenoparib as a stand-alone or as part of combinatorial therapy with remdesivir should be a valuable addition to the arsenal against COVID-19.IMPORTANCE New therapeutics are urgently needed in the fight against COVID-19. Repurposing drugs that are either already approved for human use or are in advanced stages of the approval process can facilitate more rapid advances toward this goal. The PARP inhibitor stenoparib may be such a drug, as it is currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of ovarian cancer and its safety and dosage in humans have already been established. Our results indicate that stenoparib possesses strong antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in vitro. This activity appears to be based on multiple modes of action, where both pre-entry and postentry viral replication processes are impeded. This may provide a therapeutic advantage over many current options that have a narrower target range. Moreover, our results suggest that stenoparib and remdesivir in combination may be especially potent against coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Quinazolinones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antimetabolites/pharmacology , Azo Compounds , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus NL63, Human/enzymology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells
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