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1.
Virol J ; 19(1): 67, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and four seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1) still circulate worldwide. The early clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV infections are similar, so rapid and accurate identification of the subtypes of HCoVs is crucial for early diagnosis, early treatment, prevention and control of these infections. However, current multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques for HCoV subtypes including SARS-CoV-2 are limited. METHODS: We designed primers and probes specific for the S and N genes of SARS-CoV-2, the N gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the ORF1ab gene of four seasonal HCoVs, as well as the human B2M gene product. We developed and optimized a quadruple quantitative real-time PCR assay (qq-PCR) for simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and four seasonal HCoVs. This assay was further tested for specificity and sensitivity, and validated using 184 clinical samples. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the qq-PCR assay was in the range 2.5 × 101 to 6.5 × 101 copies/µL for each gene and no cross-reactivity with other common respiratory viruses was observed. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 0.5-2%. The qq-PCR assay had a 91.9% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity for SARS-CoV-2 and a 95.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity for seasonal HCoVs, using the approved commercial kits as the reference. Compared to the commercial kits, total detection consistency was 98.4% (181/184) for SARS-CoV-2 and 98.6% (142/144) for seasonal HCoVs. CONCLUSION: With the advantages of sensitivity, specificity, rapid detection, cost-effectiveness, and convenience, this qq-PCR assay has potential for clinical use for rapid discrimination between SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and seasonal HCoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 166, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533268

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more recently, the independent evolution of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has generated renewed interest in virus evolution and cross-species transmission. While all known human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are speculated to have originated in animals, very little is known about their evolutionary history and factors that enable some CoVs to co-exist with humans as low pathogenic and endemic infections (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1), while others, such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have evolved to cause severe disease. In this review, we highlight the origins of all known HCoVs and map positively selected for mutations within HCoV proteins to discuss the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, we discuss emerging mutations within SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOC), along with highlighting the demonstrated or speculated impact of these mutations on virus transmission, pathogenicity, and neutralization by natural or vaccine-mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Immunity , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Virology ; 564: 33-38, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447220

ABSTRACT

Endemic seasonal coronaviruses cause morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients, but no specific treatment is available. Molnupiravir is a promising pipeline antiviral drug for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially by targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This study aims to evaluate the potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections. Molecular docking revealed that the active form of molnupiravir, ß-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC), has similar binding affinity to RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. In cell culture models, treatment of molnupiravir effectively inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses of the three seasonal coronaviruses. A time-of-drug-addition experiment indicates the specificity of molnupiravir in inhibiting viral components. Furthermore, combining molnupiravir with the protease inhibitor GC376 resulted in enhanced antiviral activity. Our findings highlight that the great potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal coronavirus infected patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytidine/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Seasons , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26446, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279283

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Viruses are the most common pathogens that can cause infection-related non-recurrent death after transplantation, occurring mostly from the early stages of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to within 1 year after transplantation. Human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 is a coronavirus that could cause mortality among patients with underlying disease complications. Serological tests are of limited diagnostic value in immunocompromised hosts and cases of latent infection reactivation. In contrast, macro-genomic high-throughput (DNA and RNA) sequencing allows for rapid and accurate diagnosis of infecting pathogens for targeted treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we describe a patient who exhibited acute B-lymphocytic leukemia and developed complicated pulmonary HCoV-NL63 infection after a second allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT). Six months after the second allo-HSCT, he developed sudden-onset hyperthermia and cough with decreased oxygen saturation. Chest computed tomography (CT) suggested bilateral multiple rounded ground-glass opacities with the pulmonary lobules as units. DIAGNOSES: HCoV-NL63 was detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS), and HCoV-NL63 viral pneumonia was diagnosed. INTERVENTIONS: The treatment was mainly based on the use of antiviral therapy, hormone administration, and gamma-globulin. OUTCOMES: After the therapy, the body temperature returned to normal, the chest CT findings had improved on review, and the viral copy number eventually became negative. LESSONS: The latest NGS is an effective method for early infection diagnosis. The HCoV-NL63 virus can cause inflammatory factor storm and alter the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). This case suggests that the patient's NLR and cytokine levels could be monitored during the clinical treatment to assess the disease and its treatment outcome in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, B-Cell/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, B-Cell/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Metagenomics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Young Adult , gamma-Globulins/administration & dosage
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1126-1128, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230614

ABSTRACT

The gold standard for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a nucleic acid detection test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may occasionally reveal false-positive or false-negative results. Herein, we describe a case of a patient infected with human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) who was falsely diagnosed with COVID-19 using the Ampdirect™ 2019-nCoV detection kit (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan) and SARS-CoV-2 Detection Kit (TOYOBO co., ltd.), and was admitted to a COVID-19 hospital ward. We suspected a cross-reaction between HCoV-NL63 and SARS-CoV-2; however, the reported genome sequences of HCoV-NL63 and N1/N2 primers for SARS-CoV-2 do not correspond. Thus, the PCR result was supposed to be a false positive possibly due to contamination or human error. Although the issue of a false-negative result has been the focus of much attention to prevent the spread of the disease, a false positive is fraught with problems as well. Physicians should recognize that unnecessary isolation violates human rights and a careful diagnosis is indispensable when the results of laboratory testing for COVID-19 are unclear. Generally, in cases such as a duplicate PCR test was partially positive, either N1 or N2 alone was positive, PCR testing for two or more target regions resulted in a positive only for single region, a high cycle threshold >35 was obtained, a false positive should be suspected. Especially, when these conditions coincide, we should recognize the high likelihood of a false positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Humans , Japan , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Virol J ; 18(1): 89, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relation to infections with other respiratory viruses. METHODS: From February 2017 to December 2019, 3660 respiratory samples submitted to Zhejiang Children Hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were tested for four human coronaviruses RNA by a novel two-tube multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Samples were also screened for the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Coronavirus RNAs were detected in 144 (3.93%) specimens: HCoV-HKU1 in 38 specimens, HCoV-NL63 in 62 specimens, HCoV-OC43 in 38 specimens and HCoV-229E in 8 specimens. Genomes for SARS-CoV-2 were absent in all specimens by RT-PCR analysis during the study period. The majority of HCoV infections occurred during fall months. No significant differences in gender, sample type, year were seen across species. 37.5 to 52.6% of coronaviruses detected were in specimens testing positive for other respiratory viruses. Phylogenic analysis identified that Zhejiang coronaviruses belong to multiple lineages of the coronaviruses circulating in other countries and areas. CONCLUSION: Common HCoVs may have annual peaks of circulation in fall months in the Zhejiang province, China. Genetic relatedness to the coronaviruses in other regions suggests further surveillance on human coronaviruses in clinical samples are clearly needed to understand their patterns of activity and role in the emergence of novel coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171752

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown T cell cross-recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronavirus spike proteins. However, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed CD4+ T cell responses to spike peptides from SARS-CoV-2 and 3 CCCs (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) before and after study participants received Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine recipients showed broad T cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and we identified 23 distinct targeted peptides in 9 participants, including 1 peptide that was targeted in 6 individuals. Only 4 of these 23 targeted peptides would potentially be affected by mutations in the UK (B.1.1.7) and South African (B.1.351) variants, and CD4+ T cells from vaccine recipients recognized the 2 variant spike proteins as effectively as they recognized the spike protein from the ancestral virus. Interestingly, we observed a 3-fold increase in the CD4+ T cell responses to HCoV-NL63 spike peptides after vaccination. Our results suggest that T cell responses elicited or enhanced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines may be able to control SARS-CoV-2 variants and lead to cross-protection against some endemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4438-4445, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986280

ABSTRACT

The hologic panther fusion (PF) platform provides fully automated CE marked diagnostics for respiratory viruses, including the recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by a transcription mediated amplification (TMA) assay, but not for the endemic human coronaviruses (hCoV). Therefore, a laboratory developed test (LDT) comprising a multiplexed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol that detects and differentiates the four hCoV NL63, 229E, HKU1, and OC43 was adapted on the PF. The novel CE marked Aptima SARS-CoV-2 TMA and the LDT for hCoV were validated with 321 diagnostic specimens from the upper and lower respiratory tract in comparison to two SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCRs (PF E-gene RT-PCR and genesig RT-PCR, 157 specimens) or the R-GENE hCoV/hParaFlu RT-PCR (164 specimens), respectively. For the endemic hCoV, results were 96.3% concordant with two specimens discordantly positive in the PF and four specimens discordantly positive in the R-GENE assay. All discordantly positive samples had Ct values between 33 and 39. The PF hCoV LDT identified 23 hCoV positive specimens as NL63, 15 as 229E, 15 as HKU1, and 25 as OC43. The Aptima SARS-CoV-2 TMA gave 99.4% concordant results compared to the consensus results with a single specimen discordantly positive. Moreover, 36 samples from proficiency testing panels were detected and typed correctly by both novel methods. In conclusion, the SARS-CoV-2 TMA and the LDT for hCoV enhanced the diagnostic spectrum of the PF for all coronaviruses circulating globally for a multitude of diagnostic materials from the upper and lower respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Respiratory System/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 267-280.e5, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978239

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has devastated the global economy and claimed more than 1.7 million lives, presenting an urgent global health crisis. To identify host factors required for infection by SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses, we designed a focused high-coverage CRISPR-Cas9 library targeting 332 members of a recently published SARS-CoV-2 protein interactome. We leveraged the compact nature of this library to systematically screen SARS-CoV-2 at two physiologically relevant temperatures along with three related coronaviruses (human coronavirus 229E [HCoV-229E], HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43), allowing us to probe this interactome at a much higher resolution than genome-scale studies. This approach yielded several insights, including potential virus-specific differences in Rab GTPase requirements and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis, as well as identification of multiple pan-coronavirus factors involved in cholesterol homeostasis. This coronavirus essentiality catalog could inform ongoing drug development efforts aimed at intercepting and treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and help prepare for future coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Genes, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 246-255, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774889

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is primarily associated with common cold in children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Outbreaks caused by HCoV-NL63 are rare. Here we report a cluster of HCoV-NL63 cases with severe lower respiratory tract infection that arose in Guangzhou, China, in 2018. Twenty-three hospitalized children were confirmed to be HCoV-NL63 positive, and most of whom were hospitalized with severe pneumonia or acute bronchitis. Whole genomes of HCoV-NL63 were obtained using next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic and single amino acid polymorphism analyses showed that this outbreak was associated with two subgenotypes (C3 and B) of HCoV-NL63. Half of patients were identified to be related to a new subgenotype C3. One unique amino acid mutation at I507 L in spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) was detected, which segregated this subgenotype C3 from other known subgenotypes. Pseudotyped virus bearing the I507 L mutation in RBD showed enhanced entry into host cells as compared to the prototype virus. This study proved that HCoV-NL63 was undergoing continuous mutation and has the potential to cause severe lower respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Child, Preschool , China , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Phylogeny
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104440, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621792

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus strain responsible for COVID-19, has emerged in Wuhan City, China, and continuing its global pandemic nature. The availability of the complete gene sequences of the virus helps to know about the origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. In the present study, we performed bioinformatic analysis of the available gene sequence data of SARS-CoV-2 for the understanding of evolution and molecular characteristics and immunogenic resemblance of the circulating viruses. Phylogenetic analysis was performed for four types of representative viral proteins (spike, membrane, envelope and nucleoprotein) of SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV, HKU4, HKU5 and BufCoV-HKU26. The findings demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 exhibited convergent evolutionary relation with previously reported SARS-CoV. It was also depicted that SARS-CoV-2 proteins were highly similar and identical to SARS-CoV proteins, though proteins from other coronaviruses showed a lower level of resemblance. The cross-checked conservancy analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antigenic epitopes showed significant conservancy with antigenic epitopes derived from SARS-CoV. Descriptive epidemiological analysis on several epidemiological indices was performed on available epidemiological outbreak information from several open databases on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Satellite-derived imaging data have been employed to understand the role of temperature in the environmental persistence of the virus. Findings of the descriptive analysis were used to describe the global impact of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, and the risk of an epidemic in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/classification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/classification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/classification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Nucleoproteins/chemistry , Nucleoproteins/genetics , Nucleoproteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
12.
J Infect Dis ; 222(1): 17-25, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599715

ABSTRACT

Public health preparedness for coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging in the absence of setting-specific epidemiological data. Here we describe the epidemiology of seasonal CoVs (sCoVs) and other cocirculating viruses in the West of Scotland, United Kingdom. We analyzed routine diagnostic data for >70 000 episodes of respiratory illness tested molecularly for multiple respiratory viruses between 2005 and 2017. Statistical associations with patient age and sex differed between CoV-229E, CoV-OC43, and CoV-NL63. Furthermore, the timing and magnitude of sCoV outbreaks did not occur concurrently, and coinfections were not reported. With respect to other cocirculating respiratory viruses, we found evidence of positive, rather than negative, interactions with sCoVs. These findings highlight the importance of considering cocirculating viruses in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19. Further work is needed to establish the occurrence/degree of cross-protective immunity conferred across sCoVs and with COVID-19, as well as the role of viral coinfection in COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Seasons , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Young Adult
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