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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742485

ABSTRACT

The B and T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system are important for the control of most viral infections, including COVID-19. Identification of epitopes recognized by these cells is fundamental for understanding how the immune system detects and removes pathogens, and for antiviral vaccine design. Intriguingly, several cross-reactive T lymphocyte epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 with other betacoronaviruses responsible for the common cold have been identified. In addition, antibodies that cross-recognize the spike protein, but not the nucleoprotein (N protein), from different betacoronavirus have also been reported. Using a consensus of eight bioinformatic methods for predicting B-cell epitopes and the collection of experimentally detected epitopes for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, we identified four surface-exposed, conserved, and hypothetical antigenic regions that are exclusive of the N protein. These regions were analyzed using ELISA assays with two cohorts: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and pre-COVID-19 samples. Here we describe four epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 N protein that are recognized by the humoral response from multiple individuals infected with COVID-19, and are conserved in other human coronaviruses. Three of these linear surface-exposed sequences and their peptide homologs in SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 were also recognized by antibodies from pre-COVID-19 serum samples, indicating cross-reactivity of antibodies against coronavirus N proteins. Different conserved human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cross-reactive B epitopes against SARS-CoV-2 N protein are detected in a significant fraction of individuals not exposed to this pandemic virus. These results have potential clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cross Reactions/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Cell Rep ; 37(13): 110169, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616407

ABSTRACT

The importance of pre-existing immune responses to seasonal endemic coronaviruses (HCoVs) for the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is the subject of an ongoing scientific debate. Recent studies postulate that immune responses to previous HCoV infections can either have a slightly protective or no effect on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and, consequently, be neglected for COVID-19 risk stratification. Challenging this notion, we provide evidence that pre-existing, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies against endemic α-coronaviruses and S2 domain-specific anti-spike antibodies against ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43 are elevated in patients with COVID-19 compared to pre-pandemic donors. This finding is particularly pronounced in males and in critically ill patients. Longitudinal evaluation reveals that antibody cross-reactivity or polyclonal stimulation by SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to be confounders. Thus, specific pre-existing immunity to seasonal coronaviruses may increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and predispose individuals to an adverse COVID-19 outcome, guiding risk management and supporting the development of universal coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576961

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the role of complement (C') in infections with highly prevalent circulating human coronaviruses such as OC43, a group of viruses of major public health concern. Treatment of OC43-infected human lung cells with human serum resulted in C3 deposition on their surfaces and generation of C5a, indicating robust C' activation. Real-time cell viability assays showed that in vitro C'-mediated lysis of OC43 infected cells requires C3, C5 and C6 but not C7, and was substantially delayed as compared to rapid C'-mediated killing of parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5)-infected cells. In cells co-infected with OC43 and PIV5, C'-mediated lysis was delayed, similar to OC43 infected cells alone, suggesting that OC43 infection induced dominant inhibitory signals. When OC43-infected cells were treated with human serum, their cell surfaces contained both Vitronectin (VN) and Clusterin (CLU), two host cell C' inhibitors that can alter membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and C'-mediated killing. VN and CLU were not bound to OC43-infected cells after treatment with antibody-depleted serum. Reconstitution experiments with purified IgG and VN showed that human antibodies are both necessary and sufficient for VN recruitment to OC43-infected lung cells-novel findings with implications for CoV pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/metabolism , Clusterin/metabolism , Complement Inactivator Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Lung/virology , Vitronectin/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Survival/immunology , Complement Activation , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Parainfluenza Virus 5/immunology
4.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 40-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585824

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is generally mild or asymptomatic in children but a biological basis for this outcome is unclear. Here we compare antibody and cellular immunity in children (aged 3-11 years) and adults. Antibody responses against spike protein were high in children and seroconversion boosted responses against seasonal Beta-coronaviruses through cross-recognition of the S2 domain. Neutralization of viral variants was comparable between children and adults. Spike-specific T cell responses were more than twice as high in children and were also detected in many seronegative children, indicating pre-existing cross-reactive responses to seasonal coronaviruses. Importantly, children retained antibody and cellular responses 6 months after infection, whereas relative waning occurred in adults. Spike-specific responses were also broadly stable beyond 12 months. Therefore, children generate robust, cross-reactive and sustained immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 with focused specificity for the spike protein. These findings provide insight into the relative clinical protection that occurs in most children and might help to guide the design of pediatric vaccination regimens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Protection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans
5.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103700, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibodies raised against human seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs), which are responsible for the common cold, are known to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. This prompts questions about their protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 severity. However, the relationship between sCoVs exposure and SARS-CoV-2 correlates of protection are not clearly identified. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization to SARS-CoV-2 antigens (S-RBD, S-trimer, N) using pre-pandemic sera from four different groups: pediatrics and adolescents, individuals 21 to 70 years of age, older than 70 years of age, and individuals living with HCV or HIV. Data was then further analysed using machine learning to identify predictive patterns of neutralization based on sCoVs serology. FINDINGS: Antibody cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 antigens varied between 1.6% and 15.3% depending on the cohort and the isotype-antigen pair analyzed. We also show a range of neutralizing activity (0-45%) with median inhibition ranging from 17.6 % to 23.3 % in serum that interferes with SARS-CoV-2 spike attachment to ACE2 independently of age group. While the abundance of sCoV antibodies did not directly correlate with neutralization, we show that neutralizing activity is rather dependent on relative ratios of IgGs in sera directed to all four sCoV spike proteins. More specifically, we identified antibodies to NL63 and OC43 as being the most important predictors of neutralization. INTERPRETATION: Our data support the concept that exposure to sCoVs triggers antibody responses that influence the efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 spike binding to ACE2, which may potentially impact COVID-19 disease severity through other latent variables. FUNDING: This study was supported by a grant by the CIHR (VR2 -172722) and by a grant supplement by the CITF, and by a NRC Collaborative R&D Initiative Grant (PR031-1).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Common Cold/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Young Adult
6.
Virol J ; 18(1): 166, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533268

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more recently, the independent evolution of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has generated renewed interest in virus evolution and cross-species transmission. While all known human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are speculated to have originated in animals, very little is known about their evolutionary history and factors that enable some CoVs to co-exist with humans as low pathogenic and endemic infections (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1), while others, such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have evolved to cause severe disease. In this review, we highlight the origins of all known HCoVs and map positively selected for mutations within HCoV proteins to discuss the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, we discuss emerging mutations within SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOC), along with highlighting the demonstrated or speculated impact of these mutations on virus transmission, pathogenicity, and neutralization by natural or vaccine-mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Immunity , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0141621, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495015

ABSTRACT

The rapid worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has accelerated research and development for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. A multi-coronavirus protein microarray was created containing full-length proteins, overlapping protein fragments of various lengths, and peptide libraries from SARS-CoV-2 and four other human coronaviruses. Sera from confirmed COVID-19 patients as well as unexposed individuals were applied to multicoronavirus arrays to identify specific antibody reactivity. High-level IgG, IgM, and IgA reactivity to structural proteins S, M, and N of SARS-CoV-2, as well as accessory proteins such as ORF3a and ORF7a, were observed that were specific to COVID-19 patients. Antibody reactivity against overlapping 100-, 50-, and 30-amino acid fragments of SARS-CoV-2 proteins was used to identify antigenic regions. Numerous proteins of SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 were also more reactive with IgG, IgM, and IgA in COVID-19 patient sera than in unexposed control sera, providing further evidence of immunologic cross-reactivity between these viruses. Whereas unexposed individuals had minimal reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 proteins that poorly correlated with reactivity against HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-OC43 S2 and N proteins, COVID-19 patient sera had higher correlation between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV responses, suggesting that de novo antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 cross-react with HCoV epitopes. Array responses were compared with validated spike protein-specific IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), showing agreement between orthologous methods. SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization titers were low in the COVID-19 patient sera but correlated with array responses against S and N proteins. The multi-coronavirus protein microarray is a useful tool for mapping antibody reactivity in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE With novel mutant SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern on the rise, knowledge of immune specificities against SARS-CoV-2 proteins is increasingly important for understanding the impact of structural changes in antibody-reactive protein epitopes on naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity, as well as broader topics of cross-reactivity and viral evolution. A multi-coronavirus protein microarray used to map the binding of COVID-19 patient antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins and protein fragments as well as to the proteins of four other coronaviruses that infect humans has shown specific regions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins that are highly reactive with patient antibodies and revealed cross-reactivity of these antibodies with other human coronaviruses. These data and the multi-coronavirus protein microarray tool will help guide further studies of the antibody response to COVID-19 and to vaccination against this worldwide pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1305-1315, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A notable feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is that children are less susceptible to severe disease. Children are known to experience more infections with endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) compared to adults. Little is known whether HCoV infections lead to cross-reactive anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. METHODS: We investigated the presence of cross-reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to spike 1 (S1), S1-receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD), and nucleocapsid protein (NP) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and neutralizing activity by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus neutralization assay, in prepandemic sera collected from children (n = 50) and adults (n = 45), and compared with serum samples from convalescent COVID-19 patients (n = 16). RESULTS: A significant proportion of children (up to 40%) had detectable cross-reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S1, S1-RBD, and NP antigens, and the anti-S1 and anti-S1-RBD antibody levels correlated with anti-HCoV-HKU1 and anti-HCoV-OC43 S1 antibody titers in prepandemic samples (P < .001). There were marked increases of anti-HCoV-HKU1 and - OC43 S1 (but not anti-NL63 and -229E S1-RBD) antibody titers in serum samples from convalescent COVID-19 patients (P < .001), indicating an activation of cross-reactive immunological memory to ß-coronavirus spike. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated cross-reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in prepandemic serum samples from children and young adults. Promoting this cross-reactive immunity and memory response derived from common HCoV may be an effective strategy against SARS-COV-2 and future novel coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Convalescence , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(64): eabj2901, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470496

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2­specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across ß-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2­specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common ß-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , Young Adult
10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469383

ABSTRACT

The human Betacoronavirus OC43 is a common cause of respiratory viral infections in adults and children. Lung infections with OC43 are associated with mortality, especially in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in protection against many respiratory viral infections, but to date a live viral neutralization assay for OC43 has not been described. We isolated a human monoclonal antibody (OC2) that binds to the spike protein of OC43 and neutralizes the live virus derived from the original isolate of OC43. We used this monoclonal antibody to develop and test the performance of two readily accessible in vitro assays for measuring antibody neutralization, one utilizing cytopathic effect and another utilizing an ELISA of infected cells. We used both methods to measure the neutralizing activity of the OC2 monoclonal antibody and of human plasma. These assays could prove useful for studying humoral responses to OC43 and cross-neutralization with other medically important betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Cell Line , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans
11.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108426, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385285
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 186-196, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370367

ABSTRACT

In classical viral infections, the avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is low during acute infection and high a few months later. As recently reported, SARS-CoV-2 infections are not following this scheme, but they are rather characterized by incomplete avidity maturation. This study was performed to clarify whether infection with seasonal coronaviruses also leads to incomplete avidity maturation. The avidity of IgG toward the nucleoprotein (NP) of the seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1 and of SARS-CoV-2 was determined in the sera from 88 healthy, SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects and in the sera from 70 COVID-19 outpatients, using the recomLine SARS-CoV-2 assay with recombinant antigens. In the sera from SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, incomplete avidity maturation (persistent low and intermediate avidity indices) was the lowest for infections with the alpha-coronaviruses 229E (33.3%) and NL63 (61.3%), and the highest for the beta-coronaviruses OC43 (77.5%) and HKU1 (71.4%). In the sera from COVID-19 patients, the degree of incomplete avidity maturation of IgG toward NP of 223E, OC43, and HKU1 was not significantly different from that found in SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, but a significant increase in avidity was observed for IgG toward NP of NL63. Though there was no cross-reaction between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses, higher concentrations of IgG directed toward seasonal coronaviruses seemed to indirectly increase avidity maturation of IgG directed toward SARS-CoV-2. Our data show that incomplete IgG avidity maturation represents a characteristic consequence of coronavirus infections. This raises problems for the serological differentiation between acute and past infections and may be important for the biology of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Seasons , Young Adult
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 696370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357528

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel zoonotic coronavirus. Emerging evidence indicates that preexisting humoral immunity against other seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) plays a critical role in the specific antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. However, current work to assess the effects of preexisting and cross-reactive anti-HCoVs antibodies has been limited. To address this issue, we have adapted our previously reported multiplex assay to simultaneously and quantitatively measure anti-HCoV antibodies. The full mPlex-CoV panel covers the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of three highly pathogenic HCoVs (SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, MERS) and four human seasonal strains (OC43, HKU1, NL63, 229E). Combining this assay with volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS), we measured the anti-HCoV IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies in fingerstick blood samples. The results demonstrate that the mPlex-CoV assay has high specificity and sensitivity. It can detect strain-specific anti-HCoV antibodies down to 0.1 ng/ml with 4 log assay range and with low intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (%CV). We also estimate multiple strain HCoVs IgG, IgA and IgM concentration in VAMS samples in three categories of subjects: pre-COVID-19 (n=21), post-COVID-19 convalescents (n=19), and COVID-19 vaccine recipients (n=14). Using metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, HCoVs IgG concentrations in fingerstick blood samples were well separated between the pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 convalescents, and COVID-19 vaccine recipients. In addition, we demonstrate how multi-dimensional scaling analysis can be used to visualize IgG mediated antibody immunity against multiple human coronaviruses. We conclude that the combination of VAMS and the mPlex-Cov assay is well suited to performing remote study sample collection under pandemic conditions to monitor HCoVs antibody responses in population studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348697

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh identified human coronavirus. Understanding the extent of pre-existing immunity induced by seropositivity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the impact of cross-reactivity on COVID-19 disease progression remains a key research question in immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and the immunopathology of COVID-2019 disease. This paper describes a panel of lentiviral pseudotypes bearing the spike (S) proteins for each of the seven human coronaviruses (HCoVs), generated under similar conditions optimized for high titre production allowing a high-throughput investigation of antibody neutralization breadth. Optimal production conditions and most readily available permissive target cell lines were determined for spike-mediated entry by each HCoV pseudotype: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 best transduced HEK293T/17 cells transfected with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, HCoV-229E and MERS-CoV preferentially entered HUH7 cells, and CHO cells were most permissive for the seasonal betacoronavirus HCoV-HKU1. Entry of ACE2 using pseudotypes was enhanced by ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in target cells, whilst TMPRSS2 transfection rendered HEK293T/17 cells permissive for HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43 entry. Additionally, pseudotype viruses were produced bearing additional coronavirus surface proteins, including the SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (E) and Membrane (M) proteins and HCoV-OC43/HCoV-HKU1 Haemagglutinin-Esterase (HE) proteins. This panel of lentiviral pseudotypes provides a safe, rapidly quantifiable and high-throughput tool for serological comparison of pan-coronavirus neutralizing responses; this can be used to elucidate antibody dynamics against individual coronaviruses and the effects of antibody cross-reactivity on clinical outcome following natural infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Cell Line , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Neutralization Tests , Plasmids , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transfection , Virus Internalization
15.
mBio ; 12(3): e0122921, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286719

ABSTRACT

We sought to discover links between antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and patient clinical variables, cytokine profiles, and antibodies to endemic coronaviruses. Serum samples from 30 patients of younger (26 to 39 years) and older (69 to 83 years) age groups and with varying clinical severities ranging from outpatient to mechanically ventilated were collected and used to probe a novel multi-coronavirus protein microarray. This microarray contained variable-length overlapping fragments of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N), and open reading frame (ORF) proteins created through in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT). The array also contained SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), and HCoV-NL63 proteins. IgG antibody responses to specific epitopes within the S1 protein region spanning amino acids (aa) 500 to 650 and within the N protein region spanning aa 201 to 300 were found to be significantly higher in older patients and further significantly elevated in those older patients who were ventilated. Additionally, there was a noticeable overlap between antigenic regions and known mutation locations in selected emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of current clinical consequence (B.1.1.7, B1.351, P.1, CAL20.C, and B.1.526). Moreover, the older age group displayed more consistent correlations of antibody reactivity with systemic cytokine and chemokine responses than the younger adult group. A subset of patients, however, had little or no response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens and disproportionately severe clinical outcomes. Further characterization of these slow-low-responding individuals with cytokine analysis revealed significantly higher interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-15, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) levels and lower epidermal growth factor (EGF) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels than those of seroreactive patients in the cohort. IMPORTANCE As numerous viral variants continue to emerge in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, determining antibody reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes becomes essential in discerning changes in the immune response to infection over time. This study enabled us to identify specific areas of antigenicity within the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, allowing us to detect correlations of epitopes with clinical metadata and immunological signals to gain holistic insight into SARS-CoV-2 infection. This work also emphasized the risk of mutation accumulation in viral variants and the potential for evasion of the adaptive immune responses in the event of reinfection. We additionally highlighted the correlation of antigenicity between structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoVs, raising the possibility of cross-protection between homologous lineages. Finally, we identified a subset of patients with minimal antibody reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 infection, prompting discussion of the potential consequences of this alternative immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
Clin Immunol ; 229: 108782, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265656

ABSTRACT

Endemic human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are common causative agents of respiratory tract infections, affecting especially children. However, in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, children are the least affected age-group. The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of endemic hCoVs antibodies in Finnish children and adults, and pre-pandemic antibody cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2. Antibody levels against endemic hCoVs start to rise at a very early age, reaching to overall 100% seroprevalence. No difference in the antibody levels was detected for OC43 but the magnitude of 229E-specific antibodies was significantly higher in the sera of children. OC43 and 229E hCoV antibody levels of children correlated significantly with each other and with the level of cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, whereas these correlations completely lacked in adults. Although none of the sera showed SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, the higher overall hCoV cross-reactivity observed in children might, at least partially, contribute in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection in this population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675679, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231340

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 Convalescent plasma (CCP) is safe and effective, particularly if given at an early stage of the disease. Our study aimed to identify an association between survival and specific antibodies found in CCP. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age who were hospitalized with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection and received CCP at the MD Anderson Cancer Center between 4/30/2020 and 8/20/2020 were included in the study. We quantified the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as antibodies against antigens of other coronavirus strains, in the CCP units and compared antibody levels with patient outcomes. For each antibody, a Bayesian exponential survival time regression model including prognostic variables was fit, and the posterior probability of a beneficial effect (PBE) of higher antibody level on survival time was computed. Results: CCP was administered to 44 cancer patients. The median age was 60 years (range 37-84) and 19 (43%) were female. Twelve patients (27%) died of COVID-19-related complications. Higher levels of two non-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, anti-HCoV-OC43 spike IgG and anti-HCoV-HKU1 spike IgG, had PBE = 1.00, and 4 SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies had PBEs between 0.90 and 0.95. Other factors associated with better survival were shorter time to CCP administration, younger age, and female sex. Conclusions: Common cold coronavirus spike IgG antibodies anti-HCoV-OC43 and anti-HCoV-HKU1 may target a common domain for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. They provide a promising therapeutic target for monoclonal antibody production.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Common Cold/immunology , Convalescence , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged
18.
J Clin Invest ; 131(10)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171752

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown T cell cross-recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and common cold coronavirus spike proteins. However, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed CD4+ T cell responses to spike peptides from SARS-CoV-2 and 3 CCCs (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) before and after study participants received Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine recipients showed broad T cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and we identified 23 distinct targeted peptides in 9 participants, including 1 peptide that was targeted in 6 individuals. Only 4 of these 23 targeted peptides would potentially be affected by mutations in the UK (B.1.1.7) and South African (B.1.351) variants, and CD4+ T cells from vaccine recipients recognized the 2 variant spike proteins as effectively as they recognized the spike protein from the ancestral virus. Interestingly, we observed a 3-fold increase in the CD4+ T cell responses to HCoV-NL63 spike peptides after vaccination. Our results suggest that T cell responses elicited or enhanced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines may be able to control SARS-CoV-2 variants and lead to cross-protection against some endemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(7): 1839-1849, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151897

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity to the Severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (CoV)-2 is not fully understood yet but is a crucial factor of immune protection. The possibility of antibody cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses (HCoVs) would have important implications for immune protection but also for the development of specific diagnostic ELISA tests. Using peptide microarrays, n = 24 patient samples and n = 12 control samples were screened for antibodies against the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome as well as the Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N), VME1 (V), R1ab, and Protein 3a (AP3A) of the HCoV strains SARS, MERS, OC43, and 229E. While widespread cross-reactivity was revealed across several immunodominant regions of S and N, IgG binding to several SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides provided statistically significant discrimination between COVID-19 patients and controls. Selected target peptides may serve as capture antigens for future, highly COVID-19-specific diagnostic antibody tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Protein Array Analysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 664-676, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139855

ABSTRACT

Seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63, and -HKU1 widely spread in global human populations. However, the relevance of humoral response against seasonal HCoVs to COVID-19 pathogenesis is elusive. In this study, we profiled the temporal changes of IgG antibody against spike proteins (S-IgG) of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs in 838 plasma samples collected from 344 COVID-19 patients. We tested the antigenic cross-reactivities of S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs and evaluated the correlations between the levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG and the disease severity in COVID-19 patients. We found that SARS-CoV-2 S-IgG titres mounted until days 22-28, whereas HCoV-OC43 antibody titres increased until days 15-21 and then plateaued until day 46. However, IgG titres against HCoV-NL63, -229E, and -HKU1 showed no significant increase. A two-way cross-reactivity was identified between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were not detectable in healthy controls who were positive for HCoV-OC43 S-IgG. HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than those in mild patients at days 1-21 post symptom onset (PSO). Higher levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG were also observed in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. At days 1-10 PSO, HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres correlated to disease severity in the age group over 60. Our data indicate that there is a correlation between cross-reactive antibody against HCoV-OC43 spike protein and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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