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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0053721, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476396

ABSTRACT

UV light, more specifically UV-C light at a wavelength of 254 nm, is often used to disinfect surfaces, air, and liquids. In early 2020, at the cusp of the COVID-19 pandemic, UV light was identified as an efficient means of eliminating coronaviruses; however, the variability in published sensitivity data is evidence of the need for experimental rigor to accurately quantify the effectiveness of this technique. In the current study, reliable and reproducible UV techniques have been adopted, including accurate measurement of light intensity, consideration of fluid UV absorbance, and confirmation of uniform dose delivery, including dose verification using an established biological target (T1UV bacteriophage) and a resistant recombinant virus (baculovirus). The experimental results establish the UV sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and highlight the potential for surrogate viruses for disinfection studies. All four coronaviruses were found to be easily inactivated by 254 nm irradiation, with UV sensitivities of 1.7, 1.8, 1.7, and 1.2 mJ/cm2/log10 reduction for SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and MHV, respectively. Similar UV sensitivities for these species demonstrate the capacity for HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and MHV to be considered surrogates for SARS-CoV-2 in UV-inactivation studies, greatly reducing hazards and simplifying procedures for future experimental studies. IMPORTANCE Disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 is of particular importance due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. UV-C irradiation is a compelling disinfection technique because it can be applied to surfaces, air, and water and is commonly used in drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities. UV inactivation depends on the dose received by an organism, regardless of the intensity of the light source or the optical properties of the medium in which it is suspended. The 254 nm irradiation sensitivity was accurately determined using benchmark methodology and a collimated beam apparatus for four coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and MHV), a surrogate indicator organism (T1UV), and a resistant recombinant virus (baculovirus vector). Considering the light distribution across the sample surface, the attenuation of light intensity with fluid depth, the optical absorbance of the fluid, and the sample uniformity due to mixing enable accurate measurement of the fundamental inactivation kinetics and UV sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Murine hepatitis virus/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , Baculoviridae/radiation effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Vero Cells
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19930, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462026

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by aerosols has played a significant role in the rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe. Indoor environments with inadequate ventilation pose a serious infection risk. Whilst vaccines suppress transmission, they are not 100% effective and the risk from variants and new viruses always remains. Consequently, many efforts have focused on ways to disinfect air. One such method involves use of minimally hazardous 222 nm far-UVC light. Whilst a small number of controlled experimental studies have been conducted, determining the efficacy of this approach is difficult because chamber or room geometry, and the air flow within them, influences both far-UVC illumination and aerosol dwell times. Fortunately, computational multiphysics modelling allows the inadequacy of dose-averaged assessment of viral inactivation to be overcome in these complex situations. This article presents the first validation of the WYVERN radiation-CFD code for far-UVC air-disinfection against survival fraction measurements, and the first measurement-informed modelling approach to estimating far-UVC susceptibility of viruses in air. As well as demonstrating the reliability of the code, at circa 70% higher, our findings indicate that aerosolized human coronaviruses are significantly more susceptible to far-UVC than previously thought.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disinfection/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Humans , Models, Biological
3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112282, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347724

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that blue light has the potential to inactivate viruses. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 405 nm, 410 nm, 425 nm and 450 nm pulsed blue light (PBL) on human alpha coronavirus HCoV-229 E and human beta coronavirus HCoV-OC43, using Qubit fluorometry and RT-LAMP to quantitate the amount of nucleic acid in irradiated and control samples. Like SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 are single stranded RNA viruses transmitted by air and direct contact; they have similar genomic sizes as SARS-CoV-2, and are used as surrogates for SARS-CoV-2. Irradiation was carried out either at 32.4 J cm-2 using 3 mW cm-2 irradiance or at 130 J cm-2 using 12 mW cm-2 irradiance. Results: (1) At each wavelength tested, PBL was antiviral against both coronaviruses. (2) 405 nm light gave the best result, yielding 52.3% (2.37 log10) inactivation against HCoV-OC43 (p < .0001), and a significant 1.46 log 10 (44%) inactivation of HCoV-229E (p < .01). HCoV-OC43, which like SARS-CoV-2 is a beta coronavirus, was more susceptible to PBL irradiation than alpha coronavirus HCoV-229E. The latter finding suggests that PBL is potentially antiviral against multiple coronavirus strains, and that, while its potency may vary from one virus to another, it seems more antiviral against beta coronaviruses, such as HCoV-OC43. (3) Further, the antiviral effect of PBL was better at a higher irradiance than a lower irradiance, and this indicates that with further refinement, a protocol capable of yielding 100% inactivation of viruses is attainable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10285, 2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617064

ABSTRACT

A direct approach to limit airborne viral transmissions is to inactivate them within a short time of their production. Germicidal ultraviolet light, typically at 254 nm, is effective in this context but, used directly, can be a health hazard to skin and eyes. By contrast, far-UVC light (207-222 nm) efficiently kills pathogens potentially without harm to exposed human tissues. We previously demonstrated that 222-nm far-UVC light efficiently kills airborne influenza virus and we extend those studies to explore far-UVC efficacy against airborne human coronaviruses alpha HCoV-229E and beta HCoV-OC43. Low doses of 1.7 and 1.2 mJ/cm2 inactivated 99.9% of aerosolized coronavirus 229E and OC43, respectively. As all human coronaviruses have similar genomic sizes, far-UVC light would be expected to show similar inactivation efficiency against other human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Based on the beta-HCoV-OC43 results, continuous far-UVC exposure in occupied public locations at the current regulatory exposure limit (~3 mJ/cm2/hour) would result in ~90% viral inactivation in ~8 minutes, 95% in ~11 minutes, 99% in ~16 minutes and 99.9% inactivation in ~25 minutes. Thus while staying within current regulatory dose limits, low-dose-rate far-UVC exposure can potentially safely provide a major reduction in the ambient level of airborne coronaviruses in occupied public locations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus Infections/radiotherapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/radiation effects , Pneumonia, Viral/radiotherapy , SARS Virus/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2
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