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1.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686903

ABSTRACT

Two rare 2-phenoxychromone derivatives, 6-demethoxy-4`-O-capillarsine (1) and tenuflorin C (2), were isolated from the areal parts of Artemisia commutata and A. glauca, respectively, for the first time. Being rare in nature, the inhibition potentialities of 1 and 2 against SARS-CoV-2 was investigated using multistage in silico techniques. At first, molecular similarity and fingerprint studies were conducted for 1 and 2 against co-crystallized ligands of eight different COVID-19 enzymes. The carried-out studies indicated the similarity of 1 and 2 with TTT, the co-crystallized ligand of COVID-19 Papain-Like Protease (PLP), (PDB ID: 3E9S). Therefore, molecular docking studies of 1 and 2 against the PLP were carried out and revealed correct binding inside the active site exhibiting binding energies of -18.86 and -18.37 Kcal/mol, respectively. Further, in silico ADMET in addition to toxicity evaluation of 1 and 2 against seven models indicated the general safety and the likeness of 1 and 2 to be drugs. Lastly, to authenticate the binding and to investigate the thermodynamic characters, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were conducted on 1 and PLP.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/chemistry , COVID-19/enzymology , Chromones/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Humans
2.
ChemistryOpen ; 11(2): e202100248, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661624

ABSTRACT

In the current pandemic, finding an effective drug to prevent or treat the infection is the highest priority. A rapid and safe approach to counteract COVID-19 is in silico drug repurposing. The SARS-CoV-2 PLpro promotes viral replication and modulates the host immune system, resulting in inhibition of the host antiviral innate immune response, and therefore is an attractive drug target. In this study, we used a combined in silico virtual screening for candidates for SARS-CoV-2 PLpro protease inhibitors. We used the Informational spectrum method applied for Small Molecules for searching the Drugbank database followed by molecular docking. After in silico screening of drug space, we identified 44 drugs as potential SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitors that we propose for further experimental testing.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation
3.
J Med Chem ; 65(1): 876-884, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606194

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a global health threat, was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro) was recognized as a promising drug target because of multiple functions in virus maturation and antiviral immune responses. Inhibitor GRL0617 occupied the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) C-terminus-binding pocket and showed an effective antiviral inhibition. Here, we described a novel peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), in which GRL0617 was linked to a sulfonium-tethered peptide derived from PLpro-specific substrate LRGG. The EM-C and EC-M PDCs showed a promising in vitro IC50 of 7.40 ± 0.37 and 8.63 ± 0.55 µM, respectively. EC-M could covalently label PLpro active site C111 and display anti-ISGylation activities in cellular assays. The results represent the first attempt to design PDCs composed of stabilized peptide inhibitors and GRL0617 to inhibit PLpro. These novel PDCs provide promising opportunities for antiviral drug design.


Subject(s)
Aniline Compounds/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzamides/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Naphthalenes/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/metabolism , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Cytokines/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Naphthalenes/metabolism , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ubiquitins/chemistry
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(48): 20095-20108, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531986

ABSTRACT

Chemical modifications of native proteins can affect their stability, activity, interactions, localization, and more. However, there are few nongenetic methods for the installation of chemical modifications at a specific protein site in cells. Here we report a covalent ligand directed release (CoLDR) site-specific labeling strategy, which enables the installation of a variety of functional tags on a target protein while releasing the directing ligand. Using this approach, we were able to label various proteins such as BTK, K-RasG12C, and SARS-CoV-2 PLpro with different tags. For BTK we have shown selective labeling in cells of both alkyne and fluorophores tags. Protein labeling by traditional affinity methods often inhibits protein activity since the directing ligand permanently occupies the target binding pocket. We have shown that using CoLDR chemistry, modification of BTK by these probes in cells preserves its activity. We demonstrated several applications for this approach including determining the half-life of BTK in its native environment with minimal perturbation, as well as quantification of BTK degradation by a noncovalent proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) by in-gel fluorescence. Using an environment-sensitive "turn-on" fluorescent probe, we were able to monitor ligand binding to the active site of BTK. Finally, we have demonstrated efficient CoLDR-based BTK PROTACs (DC50 < 100 nM), which installed a CRBN binder onto BTK. This approach joins very few available labeling strategies that maintain the target protein activity and thus makes an important addition to the toolbox of chemical biology.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Ligands , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/chemistry , Adenine/metabolism , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Half-Life , Humans , Piperidines/chemistry , Piperidines/metabolism , Proteolysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/metabolism , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Pyrimidines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105155, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525880

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to predict the binding potential of carbon nanotube and nano fullerene towards multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2. Based on the virulent functions, the spike glycoprotein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, main protease, papain-like protease, and RNA binding domain of the nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were prioritized as the molecular targets and their three-dimensional (3D) structures were retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. The 3D structures of carbon nanotubes and nano-fullerene were computationally modeled, and the binding potential of these nanoparticles to the selected molecular targets was predicted by molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic features of the lead molecules were computationally predicted. The current study suggested that carbon fullerene and nanotube demonstrated significant binding towards the prioritized multi-targets of SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, carbon nanotube showed better interaction with these targets when compared to carbon fullerene. MD simulation studies clearly showed that the interaction of nanoparticles and selected targets possessed stability and conformational changes. This study revealed that carbon nanotubes and fullerene are probably used as effectual binders to multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2, and the study offers insights into the experimental validation and highlights the relevance of utilizing carbon nanomaterials as a therapeutic remedy against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Fullerenes/metabolism , Nanotubes, Carbon , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Fullerenes/chemistry , Fullerenes/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(40): 22957-22971, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462045

ABSTRACT

The identification of chemical compounds able to bind specific sites of the human/viral proteins involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection cycle is a prerequisite to design effective antiviral drugs. Here we conduct a molecular dynamics study with the aim to assess the interactions of ivermectin, an antiparasitic drug with broad-spectrum antiviral activity, with the human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the viral 3CLpro and PLpro proteases, and the viral SARS Unique Domain (SUD). The drug/target interactions have been characterized in silico by describing the nature of the non-covalent interactions found and by measuring the extent of their time duration along the MD simulation. Results reveal that the ACE2 protein and the ACE2/RBD aggregates form the most persistent interactions with ivermectin, while the binding with the remaining viral proteins is more limited and unspecific.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Ivermectin/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , G-Quadruplexes , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ivermectin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18851, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434149

ABSTRACT

In this pandemic SARS-CoV-2 crisis, any attempt to contain and eliminate the virus will also stop its spread and consequently decrease the risk of severe illness and death. While ozone treatment has been suggested as an effective disinfection process, no precise mechanism of action has been previously reported. This study aimed to further investigate the effect of ozone treatment on SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, virus collected from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab and sputum samples from symptomatic patients was exposed to ozone for different exposure times. The virus morphology and structure were monitored and analyzed through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), and ATR-FTIR. The obtained results showed that ozone treatment not only unsettles the virus morphology but also alters the virus proteins' structure and conformation through amino acid disturbance and Zn ion release from the virus non-structural proteins. These results could provide a clearer pathway for virus elimination and therapeutics preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects , Protein Structure, Tertiary/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Time Factors , Viral Envelope/chemistry , Viral Envelope/drug effects , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Zinc/chemistry , Zinc/metabolism
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3201, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387343

ABSTRACT

Fragment-based drug design has introduced a bottom-up process for drug development, with improved sampling of chemical space and increased effectiveness in early drug discovery. Here, we combine the use of pharmacophores, the most general concept of representing drug-target interactions with the theory of protein hotspots, to develop a design protocol for fragment libraries. The SpotXplorer approach compiles small fragment libraries that maximize the coverage of experimentally confirmed binding pharmacophores at the most preferred hotspots. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated with a pilot library of 96 fragment-sized compounds (SpotXplorer0) that is validated on popular target classes and emerging drug targets. Biochemical screening against a set of GPCRs and proteases retrieves compounds containing an average of 70% of known pharmacophores for these targets. More importantly, SpotXplorer0 screening identifies confirmed hits against recently established challenging targets such as the histone methyltransferase SETD2, the main protease (3CLPro) and the NSP3 macrodomain of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Drug Development/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/chemistry , Animals , Cell Survival , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computational Chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Databases, Protein , Drug Design , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ligands , Protein Binding , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries , Vero Cells
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389394

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 currently lacks effective first-line drug treatment. We present promising data from in silico docking studies of new Methisazone compounds (modified with calcium, Ca; iron, Fe; magnesium, Mg; manganese, Mn; or zinc, Zn) designed to bind more strongly to key proteins involved in replication of SARS-CoV-2. In this in silico molecular docking study, we investigated the inhibiting role of Methisazone and the modified drugs against SARS-CoV-2 proteins: ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike protein, papain-like protease (PlPr), and main protease (MPro). We found that the highest binding interactions were found with the spike protein (6VYB), with the highest overall binding being observed with Mn-bound Methisazone at -8.3 kcal/mol, followed by Zn and Ca at -8.0 kcal/mol, and Fe and Mg at -7.9 kcal/mol. We also found that the metal-modified Methisazone had higher affinity for PlPr and MPro. In addition, we identified multiple binding pockets that could be singly or multiply occupied on all proteins tested. The best binding energy was with Mn-Methisazone versus spike protein, and the largest cumulative increases in binding energies were found with PlPr. We suggest that further studies are warranted to identify whether these compounds may be effective for treatment and/or prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Metals/chemistry , Methisazone/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium/chemistry , Calcium/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Drug Design , Humans , Iron/chemistry , Iron/metabolism , Magnesium/chemistry , Magnesium/metabolism , Manganese/chemistry , Manganese/metabolism , Metals/metabolism , Methisazone/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zinc/chemistry , Zinc/metabolism
10.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 165-171, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384622

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3c (non-structural Protein3c) spans the sequence of the so-called SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), first observed in SARS-CoV. Although the function of this viral protein is not fully elucidated, it is believed that it is crucial for the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell; thus, it is essential for the entire viral life cycle. The first two SUDs, the so-called SUD-N (the N-terminal domain) and SUD-M (domain following SUD-N) domains, exhibit topological and conformational features that resemble the nsP3b macro (or "X") domain. Indeed, they are all folded in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich structure, as revealed through crystallographic structural investigation of SARS-CoV SUDs, and they have been attributed to different substrate selectivity as they selectively bind to oligonucleotides. On the other hand, the C-terminal SUD (SUD-C) exhibit much lower sequence similarities compared to the SUD-N & SUD-M, as reported in previous crystallographic and NMR studies of SARS-CoV. In the absence of the 3D structures of SARS-CoV-2, we report herein the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-M and SUD-C proteins, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of their secondary structure elements. These NMR data will set the base for further understanding at the atomic-level conformational dynamics of these proteins and will allow the effective screening of a large number of small molecules as binders with potential biological impact on their function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary
11.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 85-89, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384621

ABSTRACT

Among the proteins encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3 (non-structural Protein3) is the largest multi-domain protein. Its role is multifaceted and important for the viral life cycle. Nonetheless, regarding the specific role of each domain there are many aspects of their function that have to be investigated. SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), constitute the nsP3c region of the nsP3, and were observed for the first time in SARS-CoV. Two of them, namely SUD-N (the first SUD) and the SUD-M (sequential to SUD-N), exhibit structural homology with nsP3b ("X" or macro domain); indeed all of them are folded in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich. On the contrary, they do not exhibit functional similarities, like ADP-ribose binding properties and ADP-ribose hydrolase activity. There are reports that suggest that these two SUDs may exhibit a binding selectivity towards G-oligonucleotides, a feature which may contribute to the characterization of their role in the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell. While the structures of these domains of SARS-CoV-2 have not been determined yet, SUDs interaction with oligonucleotides and/or RNA molecules may provide a platform for drug discovery. Here, we report the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-N protein, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of the secondary structure elements. These data may be exploited for its 3D structure determination and the screening of chemical compounds libraries, which may alter SUD-N function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Drug Design , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary , Virus Replication
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5350-5357, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384240

ABSTRACT

PARP14 and PARP9 play a key role in macrophage immune regulation. SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging viral disease that triggers hyper-inflammation known as a cytokine storm. In this study, using in silico tools, we hypothesize about the immunological phenomena of molecular mimicry between SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 and the human PARP14 and PARP9. The results showed an epitope of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 protein that contains consensus sequences for both human PARP14 and PARP9 that are antigens for MHC Classes 1 and 2, which can potentially induce an immune response against human PARP14 and PARP9; while its depletion causes a hyper-inflammatory state in SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Consensus Sequence , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Mimicry , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/immunology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/immunology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Thermodynamics
13.
Chempluschem ; 86(7): 972-981, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384145

ABSTRACT

We report the synthesis and characterization of a fullerene-steroid hybrid that contains H2 @C60 and a dehydroepiandrosterone moiety synthesized by a cyclopropanation reaction with 76 % yield. Theoretical calculations at the DFT-D3(BJ)/PBE 6-311G(d,p) level predict the most stable conformation and that the saturation of a double bond is the main factor causing the upfield shielding of the signal appearing at -3.13 ppm, which corresponds to the H2 located inside the fullerene cage. Relevant stereoelectronic parameters were also investigated and reinforce the idea that electronic interactions must be considered to develop studies on chemical-biological interactions. A molecular docking simulation predicted that the binding energy values for the protease-hybrid complexes were -9.9 kcal/mol and -13.5 kcal/mol for PLpro and 3CLpro respectively, indicating the potential use of the synthesized steroid-H2 @C60 as anti-SARS-Cov-2 agent.


Subject(s)
Androsterone/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Fullerenes/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Density Functional Theory , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Static Electricity , Thermodynamics
14.
Mol Biotechnol ; 64(1): 1-8, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366408

ABSTRACT

Because of the essential roles of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) in the viral polyprotein processing and suppression of host immune responses, it is a crucial target for drug discovery against COVID-19. To develop robust biochemical methodologies for inhibitor screening against PLpro, extensive characterization of recombinant protein is important. Here we report cloning, expression, and purification of the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, and explore various parameters affecting its stability and the catalytic activity. We also report the optimum conditions which should be used for high-throughput inhibitor screening using a fluorogenic tetrapeptide substrate.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/isolation & purification , Coumarins/chemistry , Coumarins/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/chemistry , Dynamic Light Scattering , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Enzyme Stability , Fluorometry/methods , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Osmolar Concentration , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Temperature
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360797

ABSTRACT

Hesperidin (HD) is a common flavanone glycoside isolated from citrus fruits and possesses great potential for cardiovascular protection. Hesperetin (HT) is an aglycone metabolite of HD with high bioavailability. Through the docking simulation, HD and HT have shown their potential to bind to two cellular proteins: transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which are required for the cellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our results further found that HT and HD suppressed the infection of VeroE6 cells using lentiviral-based pseudo-particles with wild types and variants of SARS-CoV-2 with spike (S) proteins, by blocking the interaction between the S protein and cellular receptor ACE2 and reducing ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression. In summary, hesperidin is a potential TMPRSS2 inhibitor for the reduction of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hesperidin/chemistry , Hesperidin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
16.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 32(9): 699-718, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358390

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 PLpro was investigated as a therapeutic target for potent antiviral drugs due to its essential role in not only viral replication but also in regulating the inborn immune response. Several computational approaches, including homology modelling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) studies, were employed to search for promising drugs in treating SARS-CoV-2. Eighty-one compounds, sub-structurally similar to the antiviral drug, were used as potential inhibitors of PLpro. From our results, three complexes containing the ligands with Pubchem IDs: 153012995, 12149203, and 123608715 showed lower binding energies than the control (Ritonavir), indicating that they may become promising inhibitors for PLpro. MD was performed in a water solvent to validate the stability of the three complexes. All complexes achieved stable structure during the simulation as no significant fluctuations were observed in the validation parameters. Moreover, the binding energy for each complex was estimated using the MM-GBSA method. Complex 1 was the most stable structure based on the lowest binding energy score and its structure remained in a similar cavity with the docket snapshot. Based on our studies, three ligands were assumed to be potential inhibitors. The ligand of complex 1 may become the most promising antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2 targeting PLpro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans
17.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 18(4): 1262-1270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349900

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 encodes the Mac1 domain within the large nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3), which has an ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity conserved in other coronaviruses. The enzymatic activity of Mac1 makes it an essential virulence factor for the pathogenicity of coronavirus (CoV). They have a regulatory role in counteracting host-mediated antiviral ADP-ribosylation, which is unique part of host response towards viral infections. Mac1 shows highly conserved residues in the binding pocket for the mono and poly ADP-ribose. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 Mac1 enzyme is considered as an ideal drug target and inhibitors developed against them can possess a broad antiviral activity against CoV. ADP-ribose-1 phosphate bound closed form of Mac1 domain is considered for screening with large database of ZINC. XP docking and QPLD provides strong potential lead compounds, that perfectly fits inside the binding pocket. Quantum mechanical studies expose that, substrate and leads have similar electron donor ability in the head regions, that allocates tight binding inside the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics study confirms the substrate and new lead molecules presence of electron donor and acceptor makes the interactions tight inside the binding pocket. Overall binding phenomenon shows both substrate and lead molecules are well-adopt to bind with similar binding mode inside the closed form of Mac1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Domains , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , User-Computer Interface
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7695-7712, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298980

ABSTRACT

The multidomain non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3) is the largest protein encoded by coronavirus (CoV) genomes and several regions of this protein are essential for viral replication. Of note, SARS-CoV Nsp3 contains a SARS-Unique Domain (SUD), which can bind Guanine-rich non-canonical nucleic acid structures called G-quadruplexes (G4) and is essential for SARS-CoV replication. We show herein that the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 protein also contains a SUD domain that interacts with G4s. Indeed, interactions between SUD proteins and both DNA and RNA G4s were evidenced by G4 pull-down, Surface Plasmon Resonance and Homogenous Time Resolved Fluorescence. These interactions can be disrupted by mutations that prevent oligonucleotides from folding into G4 structures and, interestingly, by molecules known as specific ligands of these G4s. Structural models for these interactions are proposed and reveal significant differences with the crystallographic and modeled 3D structures of the SARS-CoV SUD-NM/G4 interaction. Altogether, our results pave the way for further studies on the role of SUD/G4 interactions during SARS-CoV-2 replication and the use of inhibitors of these interactions as potential antiviral compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , G-Quadruplexes , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acid Sequence , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spectrum Analysis , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(29)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294550

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to be a serious global public health threat. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is a virus protease encoded by SARS-CoV-2, which is essential for virus replication. We have previously reported a series of small-molecule 3CLpro inhibitors effective for inhibiting replication of human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture and in animal models. Here we generated a series of deuterated variants of a 3CLpro inhibitor, GC376, and evaluated the antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2. The deuterated GC376 displayed potent inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 in the enzyme- and the cell-based assays. The K18-hACE2 mice develop mild to lethal infection commensurate with SARS-CoV-2 challenge doses and were proposed as a model for efficacy testing of antiviral agents. We treated lethally infected mice with a deuterated derivative of GC376. Treatment of K18-hACE2 mice at 24 h postinfection with a derivative (compound 2) resulted in increased survival of mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. Lung virus titers were decreased, and histopathological changes were ameliorated in compound 2-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. Structural investigation using high-resolution crystallography illuminated binding interactions of 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV with deuterated variants of GC376. Taken together, deuterated GC376 variants have excellent potential as antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Deuterium , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Conformation , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonic Acids , Transgenes
20.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288960

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lacks treatments; for this reason, the search for potential compounds against therapeutic targets is still necessary. Bioinformatics tools have allowed the rapid in silico screening of possible new metabolite candidates from natural resources or repurposing known ones. Thus, in this work, we aimed to select phytochemical candidates from Peruvian plants with antiviral potential against three therapeutical targets of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: We applied in silico technics, such as virtual screening, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and MM/GBSA estimation. (3) Results: Rutin, a compound present in Peruvian native plants, showed affinity against three targets of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated the high stability of receptor-ligand systems during the time of the simulation. Our results showed that the Mpro-Rutin system exhibited higher binding free energy than PLpro-Rutin and N-Rutin systems through MM/GBSA analysis. (4) Conclusions: Our study provides insight on natural metabolites from Peruvian plants with therapeutical potential. We found Rutin as a potential candidate with multiple pharmacological properties against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants/chemistry , Plants/metabolism , Asteraceae/chemistry , Asteraceae/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Databases, Factual , Humans , Lepidium/chemistry , Lepidium/metabolism , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peru , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Rutin/chemistry , Rutin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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