Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.554
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 40: [3], 01/01/2019.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1106950

ABSTRACT

The use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as off-label treatments for covid-19 disease is a resort for critical care patients under enteral nutrition (EN). However, the use of solid pharmaceutical forms of these drugs through feeding tubes can pose a challenge to the health care team. Therefore, we performed a review of literature regarding administration of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine through feeding tubes. For this end, a search was performed on PubMed and Lilacs database using key-words and free terms referring to drug administration via feeding tubes, and, specifically chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Also, a search on Micromedex® database and on the Handbook of Drug Administration via Enteral Feeding Tubes were performed. A total of 1.784 articles were retrieved. However, 4 articles fitted in the inclusion criteria. Two articles exploring the administration of chloroquine via feeding tubes on children with malaria found no difference on clinical results or tolerability when comparing it with oral or intramuscular administration. Other article showed full dispersion of hydroxychloroquine on water after crushing with mortar and pestle. A review found no information regarding the administration of hydroxychloroquine via postpyloric feeding tubes. No information was found on Micromedex® or the consulted Handbook; however, they pointed out the interaction between chloroquine and multivalent ions if coadministered.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Enteral Nutrition/instrumentation , Coronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/therapy
2.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 40: [3], 01/01/2019.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1106949

ABSTRACT

The use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as off-label treatments for covid-19 disease is a resort for critical care patients under enteral nutrition (EN). However, the use of solid pharmaceutical forms of these drugs through feeding tubes can pose a challenge to the health care team. Therefore, we performed a review of literature regarding administration of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine through feeding tubes. For this end, a search was performed on PubMed and Lilacs database using key-words and free terms referring to drug administration via feeding tubes, and, specifically chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Also, a search on Micromedex® database and on the Handbook of Drug Administration via Enteral Feeding Tubes were performed. A total of 1.784 articles were retrieved. However, 4 articles fitted in the inclusion criteria. Two articles exploring the administration of chloroquine via feeding tubes on children with malaria found no difference on clinical results or tolerability when comparing it with oral or intramuscular administration. Other article showed full dispersion of hydroxychloroquine on water after crushing with mortar and pestle. A review found no information regarding the administration of hydroxychloroquine via postpyloric feeding tubes. No information was found on Micromedex® or the consulted Handbook; however, they pointed out the interaction between chloroquine and multivalent ions if coadministered.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Enteral Nutrition/instrumentation , Coronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/therapy
3.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(2)2021 02 02.
Article in English, No | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106168
4.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e200174, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1105898

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT It has been documented that the older adults of the population are at the greatest risk of mortality due to the coronavirus disease; consequently, they could be the population most affected by the measures of social isolation and reduction of virus contagion implemented worldwide. Social isolation can expose older adults to an increased nutritional risk due to factors such as socioeconomic insecurity, which could affect food acquisition and the need for support in daily tasks and meals. The institutionalized older adults often depend on food donations, which may have reduced due the economic crisis caused by the pandemic, and the aging process itself causes changes in nutritional necessitie and eating habits. In the coronavirus pandemic, nutritionists and dietitians can offer remote nutritional follow-up. Moreover, the government actions, such as the implementation of educational and social service programs, should be applied to support healthy aging and minimize exposure to nutritional risks and coronavirus disease.


RESUMO Tem sido documentado que os idosos são a população de maior risco para mortalidade por COVID-19. Consequentemente, pode ser a mais afetada pelas medidas de isolamento social e de redução de contágio pelo vírus implementadas em todo o mundo. O isolamento social pode expor os idosos ao risco nutricional aumentado devido a alguns fatores, como: a insegurança socioeconômica, a qual pode afetar a aquisição de alimentos; a necessidade de apoio nas tarefas e nas refeições diárias; a possível redução de doações de alimentos para idosos institucionalizados, em virtude da crise econômica ocasionada pela pandemia; e o próprio processo do envelhecimento, que causa alterações das necessidades nutricionais e do hábito de se alimentar. Contudo, no contexto da pandemia do novo coronavírus, nutricionistas podem oferecer acompanhamento nutricional remoto. Além disso, ações governamentais, como a implementação de programas educacionais e de serviço social, devem ser aplicadas para o envelhecimento saudável e para a minimização da exposição ao risco nutricional e à COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Nutritional Requirements
5.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 18(70): 68-74, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089443

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease similar form of pneumonia/ SARS-CoV-2- impacting deadly globally. The main objective of this article is to analyze the studies and gather of the current information aimed at COVID-19 and analyze the situation of Nepal. We summarized the published articles from the web pages, Journals, Google search engine. It is declared as a public health emergency. However, why COVID-19 does not register in developing counties (Nepal) rather than China, Europe and North America it is unknown. Nepal has lower experiences of the COVID-19 where only 49 death cases registered and total cases 19,237 cases throughout the country (till 08/1/2020). Nepalese health services need to maintain up than today and follow lockdown, isolation, social distance and an advance screening test kit around the country.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Public Health , Quarantine
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(12 cz 2): 2752-2757, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to stimulate discussions about the necessity to improve the legal regulations that guarantee a proper public health policy, as well as to determine the balance between the level of restrictions that may be imposed by State in order to protect both, the public interest of health and the economic development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: National legislation of Ukraine, United Kingdom and France on public health and health policy, case law of these countries, including high court decisions were used for dialectical, comparative, synthetic and systemic analyses. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: As the legality of government officials' actions principle is a fundamental constitutional principle in most European countries, states must establish such legal provisions to avoid short-term and long-term conflicts when the rights of individuals and legal entities are being restricted. At the legislative level, it is necessary to adopt transparent rules to attract private funding to the health sector. Development of the e-health and telemedicine systems could be boosted through the use of public-private partnership tools.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Europe , France , Humans , Ukraine , United Kingdom
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 780, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087442

ABSTRACT

Novel pathogenic coronaviruses - such as SARS-CoV and probably SARS-CoV-2 - arise by homologous recombination between co-infecting viruses in a single cell. Identifying possible sources of novel coronaviruses therefore requires identifying hosts of multiple coronaviruses; however, most coronavirus-host interactions remain unknown. Here, by deploying a meta-ensemble of similarity learners from three complementary perspectives (viral, mammalian and network), we predict which mammals are hosts of multiple coronaviruses. We predict that there are 11.5-fold more coronavirus-host associations, over 30-fold more potential SARS-CoV-2 recombination hosts, and over 40-fold more host species with four or more different subgenera of coronaviruses than have been observed to date at >0.5 mean probability cut-off (2.4-, 4.25- and 9-fold, respectively, at >0.9821). Our results demonstrate the large underappreciation of the potential scale of novel coronavirus generation in wild and domesticated animals. We identify high-risk species for coronavirus surveillance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Mammals/virology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Models, Biological , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
9.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079698

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a persistent threat to global public health. Although primarily a respiratory illness, extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and neurological diseases. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of the endothelium during COVID-19 may exacerbate these deleterious events by inciting inflammatory and microvascular thrombotic processes. Although controversial, there is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may infect endothelial cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cellular receptor using the viral Spike protein. In this review, we explore current insights into the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection, endothelial dysfunction due to ACE2 downregulation, and deleterious pulmonary and extra-pulmonary immunothrombotic complications in severe COVID-19. We also discuss preclinical and clinical development of therapeutic agents targeting SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication in primary human lung and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Accordingly, in striving to understand the parameters that lead to severe disease in COVID-19 patients, it is important to consider how direct infection of endothelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to this process.


Subject(s)
/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , /immunology , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelium/immunology , Endothelium/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Thrombosis , Virus Replication
10.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 88(1): e1-e8, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077469

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory illnesses, and there are considerable morbidity and hospitalisation amongst immune-compromised individuals of all age groups. The emergence of a highly pathogenic human coronavirus in China in 2019 has confirmed the long-held opinion that these viruses are important emerging and re-emerging pathogens. In this review article, we trace the discovery and emergence of coronaviruses (CoVs) over time since they were first reported. The review article will enrich our understanding on the host range, diversity and evolution, transmission of human CoVs and the threat posed by these viruses circulating in animal populations but overtime have spilled over to humans because of the increased proximity between humans and animals.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Host Specificity , Humans
13.
Nature ; 590(7844): 7, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075161
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 610131, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069722

ABSTRACT

We present a brief history of the immune response and show that Metchnikoff's theory of inflammation and phagocytotic defense was largely ignored in the 20th century. For decades, the immune response was believed to be triggered centrally, until Lafferty and Cunningham proposed the initiating signal came from the tissues. This shift opened the way for Janeway's pattern recognition receptor theory, and Matzinger's danger model. All models failed to appreciate that without inflammation, there can be no immune response. The situation changed in the 1990s when cytokine biology was rapidly advancing, and the immune system's role expanded from host defense, to the maintenance of host health. An inflammatory environment, produced by immune cells themselves, was now recognized as mandatory for their attack, removal and repair functions after an infection or injury. We explore the cellular programs of the immune response, and the role played by cytokines and other mediators to tailor the right response, at the right time. Normally, the immune response is robust, self-limiting and restorative. However, when the antigen load or trauma exceeds the body's internal tolerances, as witnessed in some COVID-19 patients, excessive inflammation can lead to increased sympathetic outflows, cardiac dysfunction, coagulopathy, endothelial and metabolic dysfunction, multiple organ failure and death. Currently, there are few drug therapies to reduce excessive inflammation and immune dysfunction. We have been developing an intravenous (IV) fluid therapy comprising adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ (ALM) that confers a survival advantage by preventing excessive inflammation initiated by sepsis, endotoxemia and sterile trauma. The multi-pronged protection appears to be unique and may provide a tool to examine the intersection points in the immune response to infection or injury, and possible ways to prevent secondary tissue damage, such as that reported in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Drug Development , Humans , Immunity , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 307-316, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Knowledge of Coronavirus 19 (COVID19) pathogenetic mechanisms is necessary to provide new treatment strategies. This study aims to assess how oncological disease impacts on the clinical course of COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1st March to 30th April 2020, 96 COVID-19 patients were classified according to clinical outcome as severe (n=67) and moderate (n=29). Demographic data, medical history, admission lymphocytes, procalcitonin (PCT), c-reactive-protein (CRP), D-dimer, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were collected. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between hypertension (p=0.007) and three or more comorbidities with severe outcomes (p=0.034). No statistical differences were found between the severe and moderate groups with regards to the rate of patients with past oncological history. However, no patient allocated in the moderate group had received oncological treatment within 12 months. Higher values of CRP, IL-6, D-Dimer and lower values of lymphocytes were reported in the severe group (p=0.0007, p=0.00386, p=0.041, and p=0.007, respectively). Using binary logistic regression, higher values of CRP (OR=8.861; p=0.012) and PCT were associated with a higher risk of severe outcome (OR=21.075; p=0.008). Within the oncological population, D-Dimer and IL-6 did not confirm their prognostic significance as in the general population (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Specific prognostic factors for oncological patients should be designed for COVID-19 clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocytes , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis
16.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(12): 109-117, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068085

ABSTRACT

Acute cerebrovascular accidents (ACVIs) associated with COVID-19 coronavirus infection are one of the most talked about problems in the medical community. To date, the true incidence of stroke in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. So far, the published literature has been limited to case reports, case series, and observational cohort studies. The article analyzes possible risk factors, especially the age of patients, pathogenetic and clinical correlations of ACVA and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). A clinical case of an 82-year-old patient with ischemic stroke and COVID-19 infection is described.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Stroke , Aged, 80 and over , Humans
17.
Cell ; 184(1): 106-119.e14, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064913

ABSTRACT

The Coronaviridae are a family of viruses that cause disease in humans ranging from mild respiratory infection to potentially lethal acute respiratory distress syndrome. Finding host factors common to multiple coronaviruses could facilitate the development of therapies to combat current and future coronavirus pandemics. Here, we conducted genome-wide CRISPR screens in cells infected by SARS-CoV-2 as well as two seasonally circulating common cold coronaviruses, OC43 and 229E. This approach correctly identified the distinct viral entry factors ACE2 (for SARS-CoV-2), aminopeptidase N (for 229E), and glycosaminoglycans (for OC43). Additionally, we identified phosphatidylinositol phosphate biosynthesis and cholesterol homeostasis as critical host pathways supporting infection by all three coronaviruses. By contrast, the lysosomal protein TMEM106B appeared unique to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol kinases and cholesterol homeostasis reduced replication of all three coronaviruses. These findings offer important insights for the understanding of the coronavirus life cycle and the development of host-directed therapies.


Subject(s)
/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus/physiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Host-Pathogen Interactions , /physiology , A549 Cells , Animals , Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cholesterol/biosynthesis , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Common Cold/genetics , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Phosphatidylinositols/biosynthesis , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication
18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(1): 100291, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064762
19.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(4): 323-335, 2020 12 31.
Article in Polish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064254

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are the causative agents of mild to severe respiratory and intestinal infections in humans. They are the largest RNA viruses, which genomes and encoded RNAs are known to fold into the highly-order structures that play essential roles in the viral replication and infectivity cycle. The recent outbreaks of new pathogenic coronaviruses steered researchers' attention into the possibility of targeting their RNAs directly with novel RNA-specific drugs and therapeutic strategies. In this manuscript, we highlight the recent biochemical and biophysical methodological advancements that yielded more in-depth insight into the structural and functional composition of coronaviruses cis-acting RNA motifs. We discuss the complexity of these RNA regulatory elements, their intermolecular interactions, post-transcriptional regulation, and their potential as druggable targets. We also indicate the location and function of unstructured and highly-conserved regions in coronaviruses RNA genomes representing viable aims for antisense oligonucleotide or CRISPR-based antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus/genetics , Humans , Nucleotide Motifs , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL