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JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20737, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690354


BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, social media platforms have become active sites for the dissemination of conspiracy theories that provide alternative explanations of the cause of the pandemic, such as secret plots by powerful and malicious groups. However, the association of individuals' beliefs in conspiracy theories about COVID-19 with mental health and well-being issues has not been investigated. This association creates an assessable channel to identify and provide assistance to people with mental health and well-being issues during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to provide the first evidence that belief in conspiracy theories regarding the COVID-19 pandemic is a predictor of the mental health and well-being of health care workers. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 252 health care workers in Ecuador from April 10 to May 2, 2020. We analyzed the data regarding distress and anxiety caseness with logistic regression and the data regarding life and job satisfaction with linear regression. RESULTS: Among the 252 sampled health care workers in Ecuador, 61 (24.2%) believed that the virus was developed intentionally in a lab; 82 (32.5%) experienced psychological distress, and 71 (28.2%) had anxiety disorder. Compared to health care workers who were not sure where the virus originated, those who believed the virus was developed intentionally in a lab were more likely to report psychological distress and anxiety disorder and to have lower levels of job satisfaction and life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: This paper identifies belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories as an important predictor of distress, anxiety, and job and life satisfaction among health care workers. This finding will enable mental health services to better target and provide help to mentally vulnerable health care workers during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
J Biol Chem ; 295(15): 4780-4781, 2020 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686585


The nucleotide analogue remdesivir is an investigational drug for the treatment of human coronavirus infection. Remdesivir is a phosphoramidate prodrug and is known to target viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. In this issue, Gordon et al. identify that remdesivir acts as a delayed RNA chain terminator for MERS-CoV polymerase complexes.

Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/enzymology , RNA Replicase/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exonucleases , Humans , Pandemics , Virus Replication/drug effects
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(6): 461-468, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686322


OBJECTIVES: Rapid and early severity-of-illness assessment appears to be important for critically ill patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the rapid scoring system on admission of these patients. METHODS: A total of 138 medical records of critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics on admission used for calculating Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) and Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) and outcomes (survival or death) were collected for each case and extracted for analysis. All patients were divided into two age subgroups (<65 years and ≥65 years). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed for overall patients and both subgroups. RESULTS: The median [25th quartile, 75th quartile] of MEWS of survivors versus nonsurvivors were 1 [1, 2] and 2 [1, 3] and those of REMS were 5 [2, 6] and 7 [6, 10], respectively. In overall analysis, the area under the ROC curve for the REMS in predicting mortality was 0.833 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.737 to 0.928), higher than that of MEWS (0.677, 95% CI = 0.541 to 0.813). An optimal cutoff of REMS (≥6) had a sensitivity of 89.5%, a specificity of 69.8%, a positive predictive value of 39.5%, and a negative predictive value of 96.8%. In the analysis of subgroup of patients aged <65 years, the area under the ROC curve for the REMS in predicting mortality was 0.863 (95% CI = 0.743 to 0.941), higher than that of MEWS (0.603, 95% CI = 0.462 to 0.732). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study was the first exploration on rapid scoring systems for critically ill patients with COVID-19. The REMS could provide emergency clinicians with an effective adjunct risk stratification tool for critically ill patients with COVID-19, especially for the patients aged <65 years. The effectiveness of REMS for screening these patients is attributed to its high negative predictive value.

Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Blood Pressure , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , China , Comorbidity , Coronavirus , Critical Illness , Early Warning Score , Emergency Medicine , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 23(2): 154-158, 2020 04 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685306
Eur J Immunol ; 50(5): 623, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685129
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 121(2): 155-158, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685117


Medical as well as non-medical practitioners specialized in oral health are at high risk of infection with the Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19) because of the proximity with potentially infected biological fluids. This risk is permanent, especially during examination, care and transfer of patients. Regarding the pandemic progression of Covid-19, efficient protocols of prevention are urgently needed. Based on our experience and on the recently reported guidelines from the French National Agency for Public Health (ARS, March 5, 2020), the French Society of Hospital Hygiene (SFHH, March 4, 2020) and the Department of Infectious Risk Prevention of the Hospitals of Paris-Public Assistance (APHP, March 6, 2020), we provide several recommendations for practitioners specialized in oral health, to protect themselves from nosocomial infections, especially Covid-19.

Coronavirus , Oral Medicine , Oral Surgical Procedures , Surgery, Oral , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Oral Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral
Cell ; 181(4): 865-876.e12, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684968


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has highlighted the need for antiviral approaches that can target emerging viruses with no effective vaccines or pharmaceuticals. Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells. We designed and screened CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) targeting conserved viral regions and identified functional crRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2. This approach effectively reduced H1N1 IAV load in respiratory epithelial cells. Our bioinformatic analysis showed that a group of only six crRNAs can target more than 90% of all coronaviruses. With the development of a safe and effective system for respiratory tract delivery, PAC-MAN has the potential to become an important pan-coronavirus inhibition strategy.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , A549 Cells , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA Replicase/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2,supl): 1-7, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-677625


We are going through a health crisis, a pandemic caused by the new corona virus (SarsCOV2), which causes the disease COVID 19. This pandemic has also had a negative impact on the world economy, with dental offices being directly affected. Given this, the objective of this article is to bring important points in the strategy of management of dental clinics and how to be prepared to face the moment of crisis and also for the resumption. We believe that actions should be guided on three fronts: survival, sustainability and new future. The scenario is new, but with the right actions, the prospects for recovery are good. The important thing is to stay focused on what we have control, to do our best for the financial health of the business, however, remember that human health comes first, that any financial recovery will only be positive when people's lives and health are being preserved. (AU)

Estamos passando por uma crise de saúde, uma pandemia causada pelo novo corona vírus (SarsCOV2), causador da doença COVID 19. Esta pandemia, trouxe um impacto negativo também na economia mundial, sendo os consultórios odontológicos diretamente atingidos. Diante disso, o objetivo deste artigo é trazer pontos importantes na estratégia de gestão de clínicas odontológicas e como estar preparado para enfrentar o momento de crise e também para a retomada. Acreditamos que as ações devam ser pautadas em três frentes: sobrevivência, sustentabilidade e novo futuro. O cenário é incerto, porém com ações acertadas as perspectivas de retomada são boas. O importante é mantermos o foco naquilo que temos controle, fazer nosso melhor para a saúde financeira dos negócios, porém, lembrar que a saúde humana esta em primeiro lugar, que qualquer retomada financeira só será positiva quando as vidas e a saúde das pessoas estiverem sendo preservadas. (AU)

Coronavirus , Dental Clinics
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2,supl): 1-7, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-677623


A new coronavirus disease has affected the whole world, starting from Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. The disease, caused by the pathogen of SARS-CoV-2, commonly called COVID-19, has soon passed into the history of epidemics as the most effective pandemic recently. Dentistry has also been significantly affected by the pandemic process, which had a restrictive effect on almost all aspects of social life. Dental treatments are healthcare services that have been applied very carefully in terms of the risk control of cross-infection prior to this pandemic where disinfection and sterilization rules continue to be controlled at the highest level. However, hand instruments used in most dental treatments and generating aerosol has raised concerns, particularly in diseases such as COVID-19, which increase the risk of droplet contamination. This working order is an important risk factor not only for healthcare professionals but also for the contamination of patients and the environment. In addition, the continuing pandemic process and the dynamics of the process require revision of the protocols. For this reason, each country has prepared protocols in order to maintain the dental treatments in the pandemic process in accordance with their own health care conditions and policies. This process caused the dental professionals to reconsider their routine working practices and prospectively, new protocols are recommended for dental applications. This article aims to provide a perspective evaluating the current situation and discuss additional measures to be considered during the pandemic and thereafter.(AU)

Uma nova doença por coronavírus afetou o mundo inteiro, a partir de Wuhan, China, no final de 2019. A doença, causada pelo patógeno da SARS-CoV-2, comumente chamada COVID-19, logo passou para a história das epidemias como a pandemia mais eficaz. A odontologia também foi significativamente afetada pelo processo de pandemia, que teve um efeito restritivo em quase todos os aspectos da vida social. Os tratamentos dentários são serviços de saúde que foram sempre aplicados com muito cuidado em termos de controle de risco de infecção cruzada mesmo antes desta pandemia, onde as regras de desinfecção e esterilização continuam a ser controladas ao mais alto nível. No entanto, as turbinas usadas na maioria dos tratamentos odontológicos que geram aerossóis têm suscitado preocupações, principalmente em doenças como a COVID-19, pelo aumento do risco de contaminação por gotículas. Essa mecânica de trabalho é um importante fator de risco não apenas para os profissionais de saúde, mas também para a contaminação dos pacientes e do ambiente. Além disso, o processo continuado da pandemia e sua dinâmica exigem revisão dos protocolos. Por esse motivo, cada país elaborou protocolos para manter os tratamentos dentários no processo de pandemia, de acordo com suas próprias condições e políticas de saúde. Esse processo levou os profissionais de odontologia a reconsiderar suas práticas de trabalho de rotina e, prospectivamente, novos protocolos são recomendados para aplicações odontológicas. Este artigo tem como objetivo fornecer uma perspectiva para avaliar a situação atual e discutir medidas adicionais a serem consideradas durante e após a pandemia.(AU)

Infection Control , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Betacoronavirus
Brasília; IPEA; 20200400. 23 p. (Nota Técnica / IPEA. Disoc, 69).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-677401


Este texto evidencia a discussão em torno do segmento socioprodutivo da agricultura familiar (AF) na atual conjuntura, uma vez que é responsável por parte significativa da oferta interna de alimentos. No curto prazo, os efeitos econômicos sobre a agricultura familiar dizem respeito, principalmente, à manutenção da atividade produtiva e às dificuldades de escoamento da produção. Isso se dá em virtude da supressão parcial da demanda ­ por exemplo, o cancelamento das feiras públicas, o fechamento de restaurantes e a perspectiva de redução das compras para a merenda escolar, devido à paralisação das aulas ­ e da queda de rendimentos provenientes da comercialização. No médio prazo, a retração da atividade pode comprometer decisões de plantio, elevando o risco de desabastecimento alimentar após a crise.

Public Policy , Family , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Agriculture , Pandemics , Food Supply