Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(8): 536, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966133

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore if bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid (BCoV N) impacts IFN-ß production in the host cells and to reveal further molecular mechanism of BCoV pathogenesis. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 T cells were transiently transfected with pMyc-BCoV-N recombinant plasmids, then infected with the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Expression levels of beta interferon (IFN-ß) mRNA were detected using RT-qPCR. The results showed that BCoV N gene was 1347 bp that was consistent with the expected size. pMyc-BCoV-N recombinant protein was 1347 bp which was successfully transcribed and overexpressed in HEK 293 T cells. BCoV-N recombinant protein inhibited dose-dependently VSV-induced IFN-ß production (p < 0.01). MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3 could promote transcription levels of IFN-ß mRNA. But, BCoV-N protein demoted IFN-ß transcription levels induced by MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3. Furthermore, expression levels of MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3 mRNAs were reduced in RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway. In conclusion, BCoV-N reduced IFN-ß levels in RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway in HEK 293 T cells which were induced by MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3(5D). BCoV-N protein inhibited IFN-ß production and activation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signal pathway. Our findings demonstrated BCoV N protein is an IFN-ß antagonist through inhibition of MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3(5D) in RLRs pathway, also revealed a new mechanism of BCoV N protein to evade host innate immune response by inhibiting type I IFN production, which is beneficial to developing novel prevention strategy for BCoV disease in the animals and humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon-beta/genetics , Nucleocapsid , RNA, Messenger , Recombinant Proteins
2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964101

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of enteric and respiratory disease in cattle. BCoV has also been reported to cause a variety of animal diseases and is closely related to human coronaviruses, which has attracted extensive attention from both cattle farmers and researchers. However, there are few comprehensive epidemiological reviews, and key information regarding the effect of S-gene differences on tissue tendency and potential cross-species transmission remain unclear. In this review, we summarize BCoV epidemiology, including the transmission, infection-associated factors, co-infection, pathogenicity, genetic evolution, and potential cross-species transmission. Furthermore, the potential two-receptor binding motif system for BCoV entry and the association between BCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are also discussed in this review. Our aim is to provide valuable information for the prevention and treatment of BCoV infection throughout the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Virus Res ; 305: 198575, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433886

ABSTRACT

Saliva is an appropriate specimen for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnosis. The possibility of pooling samples of saliva, using non-invasive bibula strips for sampling, was explored employing Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) spiked saliva. In laboratory, up to 30 saliva-soaked strips were pooled in a single tube with 2 mL of medium. After quick adsorption with the medium and vortexing, the liquid was collected and tested with a quantitative molecular assay to quantify viral RNA genome copies. On testing of single and pooled strips, the difference between the median threshold cycles (Ct) value of test performed on the single positive saliva sample and the median Ct value obtained on the pool of 30 strips, was 3.21 cycles. Saliva pooling with bibula strips could allow monitoring of COVID-19 on a large scale, reducing costs for the health bodies in terms of medical material and skilled personnel. Finally, saliva sampling is noninvasive and less traumatic than nasopharyngeal swabs and can be self-collected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Genome, Viral , RNA, Viral/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Reagent Strips/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology
4.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2461-2468, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292555

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) can be spread by animal activity. Although cattle farming is widespread in Turkey, there are few studies of BCoV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation regarding BCoV in Turkey. This is the first study reporting the full-length nucleotide sequences of BCoV spike (S) genes in Turkey. Samples were collected from 119 cattle with clinical signs of respiratory (n = 78) or digestive tract (n = 41) infection on different farms located across widely separated provinces in Turkey. The samples were screened for BCoV using RT-nested PCR targeting the N gene, which identified BCoV in 35 samples (9 faeces and 26 nasal discharge). RT-PCR analysis of the S gene produced partial/full-length S gene sequences from 11 samples (8 faeces and 3 nasal discharge samples). A phylogenetic tree of the S gene sequences was made to analyze the genetic relationships among BCoVs from Turkey and other countries. The results showed that the local strains present in faeces and nasal discharge samples had many different amino acid changes. Some of these changes were shown in previous studies to be critical for tropism. This study provides new data on BCoV in Turkey that will be valuable in designing effective vaccine approaches and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Agriculture , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Humans , Mutation , Nasal Cavity/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184510

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are widely distributed pathogens of human and animals and can cause mild or severe respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Antigenic and genetic similarity of some CoVs within the Betacoronavirus genus is evident. Therefore, for the first time in Slovenia, we investigated the genetic diversity of partial 390-nucleotides of RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase gene (RdRp) for 66 human (HCoV) and 24 bovine CoV (BCoV) positive samples, collected between 2010 and 2016 from human patients and cattle with respiratory disease. The characterized CoV strains belong to four different clusters, in three separate human clusters HCoV-HKU1 (n = 34), HCoV-OC43 (n = 31) and HCoV 229E (n = 1) and bovine grouping only as BCoVs (n = 24). BCoVs from cattle and HCoV-OC43 were genetically the most closely related and share 96.4-97.1% nucleotide and 96.9-98.5% amino acid identity.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Slovenia
6.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962878

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are able to establish persistence. However, how coronaviruses react to persistence and whether the selected viruses have altered their characteristics remain unclear. In this study, we found that the persistent infection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which is in the same genus as SARS-COV-2, led to alterations of genome structure, attenuation of gene expression, and the synthesis of subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) with a previously unidentified pattern. Subsequent analyses revealed that the altered genome structures were associated with the attenuation of gene expression. In addition, the genome structure at the 5' terminus and the cellular environment during the persistence were responsible for the sgmRNA synthesis, solving the previously unanswered question regarding the selection of transcription regulatory sequence for synthesis of BCoV sgmRNA 12.7. Although the BCoV variants (BCoV-p95) selected under the persistence replicated efficiently in cells without persistent infection, its pathogenicity was still lower than that of wild-type (wt) BCoV. Furthermore, in comparison with wt BCoV, the variant BCoV-p95 was not able to efficiently adapt to the challenges of alternative environments, suggesting wt BCoV is genetically robust. We anticipate that the findings derived from this fundamental research can contribute to the disease control and treatments against coronavirus infection including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cattle , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription, Genetic/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918257

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BoCV) is an important pathogen of cattle, causing severe enteric disease and playing a role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Similar to other coronaviruses, a remarkable variability characterizes both its genome and biology. Despite their potential relevance, different aspects of the evolution of BoCV remain elusive. The present study reconstructs the history and evolution of BoCV using a phylodynamic approach based on complete genome and spike protein sequences. The results demonstrate high mutation and recombination rates affecting different parts of the viral genome. In the spike gene, this variability undergoes significant selective pressures-particularly episodic pressure-located mainly on the protein surface, suggesting an immune-induced selective pressure. The occurrence of compensatory mutations was also identified. On the contrary, no strong evidence in favor of host and/or tissue tropism affecting viral evolution has been proven. The well-known plasticity is thus ascribable to the innate broad viral tropism rather than mid- or long-term adaptation. The evaluation of the geographic spreading pattern clearly evidenced two clusters: a European cluster and an American-Asian cluster. While a relatively dense and quick migration network was identified in the former, the latter was dominated by the primary role of the United States (US) as a viral exportation source. Since the viral spreading pattern strongly mirrored the cattle trade, the need for more intense monitoring and preventive measures cannot be underestimated as well as the need to enforce the vaccination of young animals before international trade, to reduce not only the clinical impact but also the transferal and mixing of BoCV strains.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Livestock , Mutation , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Recombination, Genetic , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transportation , United States/epidemiology
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 450-455, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909188

ABSTRACT

BRD is associated with infectious agents, but management and transport-stress are trigger factors. Metaphylactic administration of antimicrobial reduces colonization of respiratory tract by pathogens, but the development of antibiotic-resistance raises public health concerns leading to propose new control strategies. The study analyzed nasopharyngeal swabs of 231 imported cattle, 10% of 49 trucks, transported from France to southern Italy and, through Real-time PCR identified the prevalence of the involved pathogens speculating on strategies to reduce the impact of BRD. The samples were tested by Real-time PCR, for the detection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus (BPiV), bovine adenovirus (BAdV), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Yates-corrected chi squared, or Fisher's exact test were used to compare both animal-health status and positivity/negativity to pathogens, and the relationship between presence/absence of clinical signs and Real-time PCR-positivity. H. somni and BCoV were the most frequently identified pathogens. In BRD-diagnosed cattle, BAdV was detected in 13.8% (19/138), BRSV in 14.5% (20/138) and BPiV in 4.3% (6/138). Healthy cattle were mostly positive for H. somni (89.2%, 83/93). A statistically significant association was observed between clinical signs and positivity to M. haemolytica (p value = 0.016). Although mass-medication and vaccination are used for BRD control, it still remains a primary health problem. Our results highlight that the nasopharyngeal microbiota could be affected by transport and that strategies to enhance calf immunity for reducing BRD-risk development would be more effective if applied at farm of origin prior to loading.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Microbiota , Pasteurellaceae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , France/epidemiology , Immunity , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pasteurellaceae/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , Transportation
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Goat Diseases/virology , Sheep Diseases/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Phylogeny , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 321-332, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825203

ABSTRACT

Advances in viral detection in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) have resulted from advances in viral sequencing of respiratory tract samples. New viruses detected include influenza D virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine rhinitis A, bovine rhinitis B virus, and others. Serosurveys demonstrate widespread presence of some of these viruses in North American cattle. These viruses sometimes cause disease after animal challenge, and some have been found in BRD cases more frequently than in healthy cattle. Continued work is needed to develop reagents for identification of new viruses, to confirm their pathogenicity, and to determine whether vaccines have a place in their control.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/genetics , Genetic Testing/veterinary , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/genetics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/isolation & purification , Genomics/methods , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3011-3015, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833995

ABSTRACT

The hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of betacoronavirus lineage A is a secondary receptor in the infection process and is involved in the emergence of new betacoronavirus genotypes with altered host specificity and tissue tropism. We previously reported a novel recombinant bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strain that was circulating in dairy cattle in China, but this virus was not successfully isolated, and the genetic characteristics of BCoV are still largely unknown. In this study, 20 diarrheic faecal samples were collected from a farm in Liaoning province that had an outbreak of calf diarrhea (≤ 3 months of age) in November 2018, and all of the samples tested positive for BCoV by RT-PCR. In addition, a BCoV strain with a recombinant HE (designated as SWUN/A1/2018) and another BCoV strain with a recombinant HE containing an insertion (designated as SWUN/A10/2018) were successfully isolated in cell culture (TCID50: 104.25/mL and 104.73/mL, respectively). Unexpectedly, we identified the emergence of a novel BCoV variant characterized by a 12-nt bovine gene insertion in the receptor-binding domain in a natural recombinant HE gene, suggesting a novel evolutionary pattern in BCoV.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/virology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Gene Expression , Genotype , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Phylogeny , Protein Structure, Secondary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25759-25770, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807358

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 are respiratory pathogens of zoonotic origin that have gained worldwide distribution. OC43 apparently emerged from a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) spillover. All three viruses attach to 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans via spike protein S with hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) acting as a receptor-destroying enzyme. In BCoV, an HE lectin domain promotes esterase activity toward clustered substrates. OC43 and HKU1, however, lost HE lectin function as an adaptation to humans. Replaying OC43 evolution, we knocked out BCoV HE lectin function and performed forced evolution-population dynamics analysis. Loss of HE receptor binding selected for second-site mutations in S, decreasing S binding affinity by orders of magnitude. Irreversible HE mutations led to cooperativity in virus swarms with low-affinity S minority variants sustaining propagation of high-affinity majority phenotypes. Salvageable HE mutations induced successive second-site substitutions in both S and HE. Apparently, S and HE are functionally interdependent and coevolve to optimize the balance between attachment and release. This mechanism of glycan-based receptor usage, entailing a concerted, fine-tuned activity of two envelope protein species, is unique among CoVs, but reminiscent of that of influenza A viruses. Apparently, general principles fundamental to virion-sialoglycan interactions prompted convergent evolution of two important groups of human and animal pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/physiology , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Animals , Biological Evolution , Cell Line , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/metabolism , Coronavirus, Bovine/physiology , Hemagglutinins, Viral/chemistry , Hemagglutinins, Viral/metabolism , Humans , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mice , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virus Attachment , Virus Release
13.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789512

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is zoonotically transmissible among species, since BCoV-like viruses have been detected in wild ruminants and humans. BCoV causing enteric and respiratory disease is widespread in cattle farms worldwide; however, limited information is available regarding the molecular characterization of BCoV because of its large genome size, despite its significant economic impact. This study aimed to better understand the genomic characterization and evolutionary dynamics of BCoV via comparative sequence and phylogenetic analyses through whole genome sequence analysis using 67 BCoV isolates collected throughout Japan from 2006 to 2017. On comparing the genomic sequences of the 67 BCoVs, genetic variations were detected in 5 of 10 open reading frames (ORFs) in the BCoV genome. Phylogenetic analysis using whole genomes from the 67 Japanese BCoV isolates in addition to those from 16 reference BCoV strains, revealed the existence of two major genotypes (classical and US wild ruminant genotypes). All Japanese BCoV isolates originated from the US wild ruminant genotype, and they tended to form the same clusters based on the year and farm of collection, not the disease type. Phylogenetic trees on hemagglutinin-esterase protein (HE), spike glycoprotein (S), nucleocapsid protein (N) genes and ORF1 revealed clusters similar to that on whole genome, suggesting that the evolution of BCoVs may be closely associated with variations in these genes. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of BCoV S genes including those of European and Asian BCoVs and human enteric coronavirus along with the Japanese BCoVs revealed that BCoVs differentiated into two major types (European and American types). Moreover, the European and American types were divided into eleven and three genotypes, respectively. Our analysis also demonstrated that BCoVs with different genotypes periodically emerged and predominantly circulated within the country. These findings provide useful information to elucidate the detailed molecular characterization of BCoVs, which have spread worldwide. Further genomic analyses of BCoV are essential to deepen the understanding of the evolution of this virus.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245401

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle and wild ruminant populations throughout the world. The virus causes neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, as well as upper and lower respiratory tract infection in young cattle. We isolated and deep sequenced whole genomes of BCoV from calves with respiratory distress in the south-west of France and conducted a comparative genome analysis using globally collected BCoV sequences to provide insights into the genomic characteristics, evolutionary origins, and global diversity of BCoV. Molecular clock analyses allowed us to estimate that the BCoV ancestor emerged in the 1940s, and that two geographically distinct lineages diverged from the 1960s-1970s. A recombination event in the spike gene (breakpoint at nt 1100) may be at the origin of the genetic divergence sixty years ago. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. However, we found variation in evolution rates between the European and non-European lineages indicating differences in virus ecology.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Evolution, Molecular , France/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Geography , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics
15.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103814, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124709

ABSTRACT

Bovine rotavirus (BRoV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are major enteric viral pathogens responsible for calve diarrhoea. They are widespread both in dairy and beef cattle throughout the world and causing huge economic losses. The diagnosis of these agents is very difficult due to non-specific nature of lesions and the involvement of some intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. We performed postmortem of 45 calves, which was below three months of age. Out of 45 necropscid calves, three (6.66%) cases were positive for BRoV and four (8.88%) cases were found positive for BCoV, screened by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded intestinal tissue sections. Three cases of enteritis caused by BRoV showed the hallmark lesions of the shortening and fusion of villi, denudation and infiltration of mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. The BRoV antigen distribution was prominent within the lining epithelium of the villi, peyer's patches in the ileum and strong immunoreactions in the lymphocytes and some macrophages of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Four cases in which BCoV was detected, grossly lesions characterized by colonic mucosa covered with thick, fibrinous and diphtheritic membrane. Histopathologically, jejunum showed skipping lesion of micro-abscesses in crypts. The BCoV antigen distribution was prominent within the necrotic crypts in the jejunum and cryptic micro-abscesses in the colon and ileum. It is the first report of BRoV and BCoV antigen demonstration in the jejunum, colon, ileum, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of naturally infected calves from India by using IHC.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/physiology , Enteritis/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/physiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Enteritis/pathology , Enteritis/virology , Feces/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus Infections/pathology , Rotavirus Infections/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL