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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 450-455, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909188

ABSTRACT

BRD is associated with infectious agents, but management and transport-stress are trigger factors. Metaphylactic administration of antimicrobial reduces colonization of respiratory tract by pathogens, but the development of antibiotic-resistance raises public health concerns leading to propose new control strategies. The study analyzed nasopharyngeal swabs of 231 imported cattle, 10% of 49 trucks, transported from France to southern Italy and, through Real-time PCR identified the prevalence of the involved pathogens speculating on strategies to reduce the impact of BRD. The samples were tested by Real-time PCR, for the detection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus (BPiV), bovine adenovirus (BAdV), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. Yates-corrected chi squared, or Fisher's exact test were used to compare both animal-health status and positivity/negativity to pathogens, and the relationship between presence/absence of clinical signs and Real-time PCR-positivity. H. somni and BCoV were the most frequently identified pathogens. In BRD-diagnosed cattle, BAdV was detected in 13.8% (19/138), BRSV in 14.5% (20/138) and BPiV in 4.3% (6/138). Healthy cattle were mostly positive for H. somni (89.2%, 83/93). A statistically significant association was observed between clinical signs and positivity to M. haemolytica (p value = 0.016). Although mass-medication and vaccination are used for BRD control, it still remains a primary health problem. Our results highlight that the nasopharyngeal microbiota could be affected by transport and that strategies to enhance calf immunity for reducing BRD-risk development would be more effective if applied at farm of origin prior to loading.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Microbiota , Pasteurellaceae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , France/epidemiology , Immunity , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pasteurellaceae/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , Transportation
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Goat Diseases/virology , Sheep Diseases/virology , Animals , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Ghana/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Phylogeny , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
3.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 321-332, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825203

ABSTRACT

Advances in viral detection in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) have resulted from advances in viral sequencing of respiratory tract samples. New viruses detected include influenza D virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine rhinitis A, bovine rhinitis B virus, and others. Serosurveys demonstrate widespread presence of some of these viruses in North American cattle. These viruses sometimes cause disease after animal challenge, and some have been found in BRD cases more frequently than in healthy cattle. Continued work is needed to develop reagents for identification of new viruses, to confirm their pathogenicity, and to determine whether vaccines have a place in their control.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/genetics , Genetic Testing/veterinary , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/genetics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/isolation & purification , Genomics/methods , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology
4.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3011-3015, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833995

ABSTRACT

The hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of betacoronavirus lineage A is a secondary receptor in the infection process and is involved in the emergence of new betacoronavirus genotypes with altered host specificity and tissue tropism. We previously reported a novel recombinant bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strain that was circulating in dairy cattle in China, but this virus was not successfully isolated, and the genetic characteristics of BCoV are still largely unknown. In this study, 20 diarrheic faecal samples were collected from a farm in Liaoning province that had an outbreak of calf diarrhea (≤ 3 months of age) in November 2018, and all of the samples tested positive for BCoV by RT-PCR. In addition, a BCoV strain with a recombinant HE (designated as SWUN/A1/2018) and another BCoV strain with a recombinant HE containing an insertion (designated as SWUN/A10/2018) were successfully isolated in cell culture (TCID50: 104.25/mL and 104.73/mL, respectively). Unexpectedly, we identified the emergence of a novel BCoV variant characterized by a 12-nt bovine gene insertion in the receptor-binding domain in a natural recombinant HE gene, suggesting a novel evolutionary pattern in BCoV.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary , Hemagglutinins, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/virology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Feces/virology , Gene Expression , Genotype , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Phylogeny , Protein Structure, Secondary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2556-2566, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829668

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infections (bovine respiratory disease) are a major concern in calf rearing. The objective of this study was to identify pathogen-specific risk factors associated with epidemic respiratory disease in calves. A cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 128 outbreaks (29 dairy, 58 dairy-mixed, and 41 beef) in Belgium (2016-2018). A semiquantitative PCR for 7 respiratory pathogens was done on a pooled nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage sample for each herd. Potential risk factors were collected by questionnaire and derived from the national cattle registration databank. Most outbreaks occurred between October and March, and single and multiple viral infections were detected in 58.6% (75/128) and 13.3% (17/128), respectively. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) was the most frequently isolated virus (38.4%), followed by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV; 29.4%) and parainfluenzavirus type 3 (PI-3; 8.1%). Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni were detected in 33.3, 41.2, 89.1, and 36.4% of the herds, respectively. Specific risk factors for BCV detection were detection of M. haemolytica [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-7.5)], increasing herd size [OR = 1.3 (1.0-1.8) for each increase with 100 animals] and detection of BCV by antigen ELISA on feces in calves in the last year [OR = 3.6 (1.2-11.1)]. A seasonal effect was shown for bRSV only {more in winter compared with autumn [OR = 10.3 (2.8-37.5)]}. Other factors associated with bRSV were PI-3 detection [OR = 13.4 (2.1-86.0)], prevalence of calves with respiratory disease [OR = 1.02 (1.00-1.04) per 1% increase], and number of days with respiratory signs before sampling [OR = 0.99 (0.98-0.99) per day increase]. Next to its association with BCV, M. haemolytica was more frequently detected in herds with 5 to 10 animals per pen [OR = 8.0 (1.4-46.9)] compared with <5 animals, and in herds with sawdust as bedding [OR = 18.3 (1.8-191.6)]. Also, for H. somni, housing on sawdust was a risk factor [OR = 5.2 (1.2-23.0)]. Purchase of cattle [OR = 2.9 (1.0-8.0)] and housing of recently purchased animals in the same airspace [OR = 5.0 (1.5-16.5)] were risk factors for M. bovis. This study identified pathogen-specific risk factors that might be useful for the development of customized control and prevention and for the design of decision support tools to justify antimicrobial use by predicting the most likely pathogen before sampling results are available.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Animals , Belgium/epidemiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feces/microbiology , Female , Male , Mannheimia haemolytica/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma bovis/isolation & purification , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine/isolation & purification , Pasteurella multocida/isolation & purification , Pasteurellaceae/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Risk Factors , Species Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789512

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is zoonotically transmissible among species, since BCoV-like viruses have been detected in wild ruminants and humans. BCoV causing enteric and respiratory disease is widespread in cattle farms worldwide; however, limited information is available regarding the molecular characterization of BCoV because of its large genome size, despite its significant economic impact. This study aimed to better understand the genomic characterization and evolutionary dynamics of BCoV via comparative sequence and phylogenetic analyses through whole genome sequence analysis using 67 BCoV isolates collected throughout Japan from 2006 to 2017. On comparing the genomic sequences of the 67 BCoVs, genetic variations were detected in 5 of 10 open reading frames (ORFs) in the BCoV genome. Phylogenetic analysis using whole genomes from the 67 Japanese BCoV isolates in addition to those from 16 reference BCoV strains, revealed the existence of two major genotypes (classical and US wild ruminant genotypes). All Japanese BCoV isolates originated from the US wild ruminant genotype, and they tended to form the same clusters based on the year and farm of collection, not the disease type. Phylogenetic trees on hemagglutinin-esterase protein (HE), spike glycoprotein (S), nucleocapsid protein (N) genes and ORF1 revealed clusters similar to that on whole genome, suggesting that the evolution of BCoVs may be closely associated with variations in these genes. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of BCoV S genes including those of European and Asian BCoVs and human enteric coronavirus along with the Japanese BCoVs revealed that BCoVs differentiated into two major types (European and American types). Moreover, the European and American types were divided into eleven and three genotypes, respectively. Our analysis also demonstrated that BCoVs with different genotypes periodically emerged and predominantly circulated within the country. These findings provide useful information to elucidate the detailed molecular characterization of BCoVs, which have spread worldwide. Further genomic analyses of BCoV are essential to deepen the understanding of the evolution of this virus.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/classification , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 513-526, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-683369

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronaviruses (BoCVs) have been found in respiratory tissues in cattle and frequently associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD); however, pathogenesis studies in calves are limited. To characterize the pathogenesis and pathogenicity of BoCV isolates, we used 5 different BoCV strains to inoculate colostrum-deprived calves, ~ 2-5 wk of age. Later, to determine if dual viral infection would potentiate pathogenicity of BoCV, calves were inoculated with BoCV alone, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) alone, or a series of dual-infection (BVDV-BoCV) schemes. A negative control group was included in all studies. Clinical signs and body temperature were monitored during the study and samples collected for lymphocyte counts, virus isolation, and serology. During autopsy, gross lesions were recorded and fixed tissues collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry; fresh tissues were collected for virus isolation. Results suggest increased pathogenicity for isolate BoCV OK 1776. Increased body temperature was found in all virus-inoculated groups. Lung lesions were present in calves in all dual-infection groups; however, lesions were most pronounced in calves inoculated with BVDV followed by BoCV inoculation 6 d later. Lung lesions were consistent with mild-to-moderate interstitial pneumonia, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of BoCV antigen. Our studies demonstrated that BVDV-BoCV dual infection may play an important role in BRD pathogenesis, and timing between infections seems critical to the severity of lesions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/pathology , Cattle , Colostrum , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/immunology , Female , Pregnancy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology
8.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103814, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124709

ABSTRACT

Bovine rotavirus (BRoV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are major enteric viral pathogens responsible for calve diarrhoea. They are widespread both in dairy and beef cattle throughout the world and causing huge economic losses. The diagnosis of these agents is very difficult due to non-specific nature of lesions and the involvement of some intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. We performed postmortem of 45 calves, which was below three months of age. Out of 45 necropscid calves, three (6.66%) cases were positive for BRoV and four (8.88%) cases were found positive for BCoV, screened by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Further RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded intestinal tissue sections. Three cases of enteritis caused by BRoV showed the hallmark lesions of the shortening and fusion of villi, denudation and infiltration of mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. The BRoV antigen distribution was prominent within the lining epithelium of the villi, peyer's patches in the ileum and strong immunoreactions in the lymphocytes and some macrophages of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Four cases in which BCoV was detected, grossly lesions characterized by colonic mucosa covered with thick, fibrinous and diphtheritic membrane. Histopathologically, jejunum showed skipping lesion of micro-abscesses in crypts. The BCoV antigen distribution was prominent within the necrotic crypts in the jejunum and cryptic micro-abscesses in the colon and ileum. It is the first report of BRoV and BCoV antigen demonstration in the jejunum, colon, ileum, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of naturally infected calves from India by using IHC.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/physiology , Enteritis/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus/physiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Enteritis/pathology , Enteritis/virology , Feces/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus Infections/pathology , Rotavirus Infections/virology
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