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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 187-204, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761353

ABSTRACT

Biotin-based proximity labeling circumvents major pitfalls of classical biochemical approaches to identify protein-protein interactions. It consists of enzyme-catalyzed biotin tags ubiquitously apposed on proteins located in close proximity of the labeling enzyme, followed by affinity purification and identification of biotinylated proteins by mass spectrometry. Here we outline the methods by which the molecular microenvironment of the coronavirus replicase/transcriptase complex (RTC), i.e., proteins located within a close perimeter of the RTC, can be determined by different proximity labeling approaches using BirAR118G (BioID), TurboID, and APEX2. These factors represent a molecular signature of coronavirus RTCs and likely contribute to the viral life cycle, thereby constituting attractive targets for the development of antiviral intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Enzymes/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Proteomics/methods , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Ascorbate Peroxidases/genetics , Biotinylation , Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases/genetics , Cell Line , Coronavirus/genetics , Enzymes/metabolism , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Microorganisms, Genetically-Modified , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 167-184, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761352

ABSTRACT

The Escherichia coli and vaccinia virus-based reverse genetics systems have been widely applied for the manipulation and engineering of coronavirus genomes. These systems, however, present several limitations and are sometimes difficult to establish in a timely manner for (re-)emerging viruses. In this chapter, we present a new universal reverse genetics platform for the assembly and engineering of infectious full-length cDNAs using yeast-based transformation-associated recombination cloning. This novel assembly method not only results in stable coronavirus infectious full-length cDNAs cloned in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae but also fosters and accelerates the manipulation of their genomes. Such a platform is widely applicable for the scientific community, as it requires no specific equipment and can be performed in a standard laboratory setting. The protocol described can be easily adapted to virtually all known or emerging coronaviruses, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Genomics/methods , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Homologous Recombination , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 67-74, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761347

ABSTRACT

This chapter reports the high-throughput sequencing protocol for sequencing Coronaviruses and other positive strand viruses to produce a dataset of significant depth of coverage. The protocol describes sequencing of infectious bronchitis virus propagated in embryonated eggs and harvested in the allantoic fluid. The protocol is composed of three main steps-enrichment of the allantoic fluid using ultracentrifugation, extraction of total RNA from allantoic fluid, and library preparation from total RNA to DNA sequencing libraries. The workflow will be suitable for all coronaviruses using high-throughput sequencing platforms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Animals , Chorioallantoic Membrane/virology , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Workflow
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 41-53, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761345

ABSTRACT

Wild birds are natural hosts of multiple microbial agents, including a wide diversity of coronaviruses. Here we describe a pan-Coronavirus detection RT-PCR method to identify those viruses regardless of the coronavirus genus or nature of the specimen. We also describe a protocol using high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain their entire genome, which overcomes the inherent difficulties of wild bird coronavirus sequencing, that is, their genetic diversity and the lack of virus isolation methods.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Animals, Wild , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , RNA Replicase/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 596-600, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746340

ABSTRACT

There is a new public health problem around the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV). The disease "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) was caused by SARS-CoV-2. As virus isolates are unavailable so the public laboratories are now facing a challenge for detecting the virus because there is growing evidence of the outbreak which is more widespread than initially thought. We aimed here to discuss about the current diagnostic methodology for detecting the SARS-CoV-2 in health laboratories. Here we use the Novel Corona virus (2019-nCoV) Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Kit (PCR-Fluorescence Probing) which is a real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test. A total of 230 samples in the department of microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College from 1st, April 2020 were selected for this study. Among them 20(8.69%) were positive for SARS CoV-2 and remaining were negative. Among the positive samples 55% could amplify both the ORF 1ab and N genes. The single gene ORF 1ab or N was positive in 15% and 30% cases respectively. The Ct values (<38) of ORF 1ab gene indicated by FAM dye was 92.8% and N gene curve indicated by ROX dye was 100%. The presence of IC gene curve with Ct values (<38) indicated by CY5 dye among the positives were 70% and 100% in negatives. The Ct values (38-40) of IC (CY5) among the positives were 15%. The present study demonstrates the enormous response capacity of the study kit for detecting SARS-CoV-2 within the laboratories in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bangladesh , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 589-595, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746324

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is highly pathogenic viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Currently, COVID-19 has caused global health concern. WHO has declared COVID-19 as a pandemic disease on March 11, 2020 and characterized by fever, dry cough, fatigue, myalgia and chest pain with pneumonia in severe cases. The virus has spread to at least 213 countries and more than 9093827 confirmed cases and 471490 deaths have been recorded. In the beginning, the world public health authorities tried to eradicate the disease in China through quarantine but are now transitioning to prevention strategies worldwide to delay its spread. There are some newly developed and promising methods for detection of SARS-CoV-2, in order to facilitate the development of novel approaches for early diagnosis. Nucleic acid based tests currently offer the most sensitive and early detection and confirmation for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among them Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the most popular and the "gold standard" testing method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The present study was carried out to detect 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by rRT-PCR method at Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from 1st April, 2020 to 31st May, 2020. A total of 14356 samples were tested from four districts of Mymensingh division namely, Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Sherpur, Netrokona and some parts of Sunamganj for rRT-PCR. Among them 1086 (7.5%) patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Out of 1086 positive cases 716(65.9%) were male and 370(34.1%) were female with a Mean±SD age 34.1±12 years. Maximum positivity was found in Mymensingh district followed by Netrokona, Jamalpur, Sherpur and Sunamganj respectively. This is the first base line study for genetic detection of 2019-nCoV in Mymensingh division which may reflect the total scenario of Bangladesh situation. We hope this paper will help the researcher to increase the availability, accuracy, and speed of widespread COVID-19 testing throughout the world in this crisis moment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bangladesh , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(8): 801-804, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of seroconverted real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases at different days post-symptom onset; and also find the agreement of chemiluminescence assay used for total antibody detection using RT-PCR as a reference method. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Chughtai Institute of Pathology from April to May 2020. METHODOLOGY: Fifty pre-pandemic samples (healthy population) and 75 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients were divided into 3 equal groups (25 each), according to the days of symptom onset. The samples were analysed using electro-chemiluminescence as assay principle. Positive and negative agreement of COVID-19 antibodies was calculated using EP evaluator to find out the sensitivity of chemiluminescence assay for total antibody detection. The results were analysed using SPSS version 23.0. RESULTS: All the pre-pandemic samples tested were negative for antibodies with a negative agreement of 100%. Total agreement at day 7 post-symptom onset was 84%; whereas, it was 94% at day 14 and increased rapidly to 100% at day 21 post-symptom onset. At day 7 post-symptom onset, 68% of patients were seroconverted; and this percentage was 88% and 100% at day 14 and 21 post-symptom onset, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pre-pandemic samples were non-reactive for COVID-19 antibodies and seroconversion started within the first week post-virus exposure. There was 100% concordance between RT-PCR result and antibody positivity 21 days post-symptom onset. Key Words: COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, Seroconversion, Chemiluminescence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Luminescence , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Seroconversion
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4235, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738373

ABSTRACT

Bats are presumed reservoirs of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) including progenitors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. However, the evolution and diversification of these coronaviruses remains poorly understood. Here we use a Bayesian statistical framework and a large sequence data set from bat-CoVs (including 630 novel CoV sequences) in China to study their macroevolution, cross-species transmission and dispersal. We find that host-switching occurs more frequently and across more distantly related host taxa in alpha- than beta-CoVs, and is more highly constrained by phylogenetic distance for beta-CoVs. We show that inter-family and -genus switching is most common in Rhinolophidae and the genus Rhinolophus. Our analyses identify the host taxa and geographic regions that define hotspots of CoV evolutionary diversity in China that could help target bat-CoV discovery for proactive zoonotic disease surveillance. Finally, we present a phylogenetic analysis suggesting a likely origin for SARS-CoV-2 in Rhinolophus spp. bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biodiversity , China , Chiroptera/classification , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/virology
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 41-53, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729899

ABSTRACT

Wild birds are natural hosts of multiple microbial agents, including a wide diversity of coronaviruses. Here we describe a pan-Coronavirus detection RT-PCR method to identify those viruses regardless of the coronavirus genus or nature of the specimen. We also describe a protocol using high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain their entire genome, which overcomes the inherent difficulties of wild bird coronavirus sequencing, that is, their genetic diversity and the lack of virus isolation methods.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Animals, Wild , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , RNA Replicase/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 33-40, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728130

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS, SARS-CoV2 and MERS and the discovery of novel coronaviruses in animals and birds suggest that the Coronavirus family is far more diverse than previously thought. In the last decade, several new coronaviruses have been discovered in rodents around the globe, suggesting that they are the natural reservoirs of the virus. In this chapter we describe the process of screening rodent tissue for novel coronaviruses with PCR, a method that is easily adaptable for screening a range of animals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rodentia , Animals , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728129

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cattle , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Virion , Virus Replication
12.
Euro Surveill ; 25(33)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727369

ABSTRACT

We report three clusters related with potential pre-symptomatic transmission of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) between January and February 2020 in Shanghai, China. Investigators interviewed suspected COVID-19 cases to collect epidemiological information, including demographic characteristics, illness onset, hospital visits, close contacts, activities' trajectories between 14 days before illness onset and isolation, and exposure histories. Respiratory specimens of suspected cases were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay. The interval between the onset of illness in the primary case and the last contact of the secondary case with the primary case in our report was 1 to 7 days. In Cluster 1 (five cases), illness onset in the five secondary cases was 2 to 5 days after the last contact with the primary case. In Cluster 2 (five cases) and Cluster 3 (four cases), the illness onset in secondary cases occurred prior to or on the same day as the onset in the primary cases. The study provides empirical evidence for transmission of COVID-19 during the incubation period and indicates that pre-symptomatic person-to-person transmission can occur following sufficient exposure to confirmed COVID-19 cases. The potential pre-symptomatic person-to-person transmission puts forward higher requirements for prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Euro Surveill ; 25(32)2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721443

ABSTRACT

We show the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genetic clades over time and between countries and outline potential genomic surveillance objectives. We applied three genomic nomenclature systems to all sequence data from the World Health Organization European Region available until 10 July 2020. We highlight the importance of real-time sequencing and data dissemination in a pandemic situation, compare the nomenclatures and lay a foundation for future European genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA Replicase/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , World Health Organization
14.
Euro Surveill ; 25(32)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717669

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract peaks around symptom onset and infectious virus persists for 10 days in mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease (n = 324 samples analysed). RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values correlate strongly with cultivable virus. Probability of culturing virus declines to 8% in samples with Ct > 35 and to 6% 10 days after onset; it is similar in asymptomatic and symptomatic persons. Asymptomatic persons represent a source of transmissible virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serologic Tests , Viral Load , Virus Shedding/genetics
16.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696041

ABSTRACT

Zoonoses can constitute a threat for public health that can have a global importance, as seen with the current COVID-19 pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Bats have been recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs). In West Africa, where there is a high diversity of bat species, little is known on the circulation of CoVs in these hosts, especially at the interface with human populations. In this study, in Guinea, we tested a total of 319 bats belonging to 14 genera and six families of insectivorous and frugivorous bats across the country, for the presence of coronaviruses. We found CoVs in 35 (11%) of the tested bats-in three insectivorous bat species and five fruit bat species that were mostly captured close to human habitat. Positivity rates varied from 5.7% to 100%, depending on bat species. A wide diversity of alpha and beta coronaviruses was found across the country, including three sequences belonging to SarbeCoVs and MerbeCoVs subgenera known to harbor highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Our findings suggest that CoVs are widely spread in West Africa and their circulation should be assessed to evaluate the risk of exposure of potential zoonotic CoVs to humans.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Genome, Viral , Guinea , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/virology
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(30)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690919

ABSTRACT

We analysed consecutive RT-qPCR results of 537 symptomatic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients in home quarantine. Respectively 2, 3, and 4 weeks after symptom onset, 50%, 25% and 10% of patients had detectable RNA from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In patients with mild COVID-19, RNA detection is likely to outlast currently known periods of infectiousness by far and fixed time periods seem more appropriate in determining the length of home isolation than laboratory-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA Replicase/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , Survival Analysis , Time Factors
18.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 40-42, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690668

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease started as an epidemic in China in December 2019 that later achieved a pandemic potential spreading to over 210 countries with more than 3.5 million confirmed cases and close to 250,000 deaths till date. Its symptoms most commonly include, dry cough, fever, myalgia, and fatigue. As the number of new cases keeps on rising, many patients have been documented with gastrointestinal manifestations such as diarrhoea, vomiting and abdominal pain. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with the primary complaint of diarrhoea, after positive contact history with a COVID-19 patient. Key Words: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Pneumonia, ARDS, Diarrhoea.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 37-39, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690665

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 45-year male with history of fever and cough, followed by shortness of breath, lethargy and confusion at home. He was a known hypertensive, smoker and naswaar addict. He had history of contact with a friend who had recently returned from China, and used to work there as a physician. On presentation, he was hypoxic with bilateral coarse crepitations; and chest radiograph showed left middle zone consolidation. Considering the current pandemic, provisional diagnosis of meningoencephilits, with bilateral pneumonia owing to COVID-19, was made. Throat swab was sent for COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). He was managed in intensive care unit (ICU) with broad-spectrum antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine alongwith anticoagulants; but he remained hypoxic with rapidly worsening clinical course, requiring mechanical ventilation; and ultimately succumbed to the disease. Report of COVID-19 PCR came positive after 24 hours. Key words: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Meningoencephalitis, Pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Dyspnea/etiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Fatal Outcome , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 43-45, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690541

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has spread all over the world in a short time and was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). During COVID-19 pandemic, chest computed tomography (CT) imaging has become an important tool with high sensitivity for diagnosis due to the low positive rate of the real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the chest CT has played an important role in the diagnosis of underlying pulmonary lesions. In this case report, we present a patient who was admitted to the emergency department with fever, cough and left shoulder pain, and was subsequently diagnosed with both COVID-19 and pneumothorax following chest CT and RT-PCR test. Key Words: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Pneumothorax, Tomography.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumothorax/etiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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