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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(17)2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767717

ABSTRACT

The infection of health care workers during the 2013 to 2016 Ebola outbreak raised concerns about fomite transmission. In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations are ongoing to determine the role of fomites in coronavirus transmission as well. The bacteriophage phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human enveloped viruses. The persistence of phi 6 was evaluated as a surrogate for Ebola virus (EBOV) and coronaviruses on porous and nonporous hospital surfaces. Phi 6 was suspended in a body fluid simulant and inoculated onto 1-cm2 coupons of steel, plastic, and two fabric curtain types. The coupons were placed at two controlled absolute humidity (AH) levels: a low AH of 3.0 g/m3 and a high AH of 14.4 g/m3 Phi 6 declined at a lower rate on all materials under low-AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.06-log10 PFU/day to 0.11-log10 PFU/day, than under the higher AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.65-log10 PFU/h to 1.42-log10 PFU/day. There was a significant difference in decay rates between porous and nonporous surfaces at both low AH (P < 0.0001) and high AH (P < 0.0001). Under these laboratory-simulated conditions, phi 6 was found to be a conservative surrogate for EBOV under low-AH conditions in that it persisted longer than Ebola virus in similar AH conditions. Additionally, some coronaviruses persist longer than phi 6 under similar conditions; therefore, phi 6 may not be a suitable surrogate for coronaviruses.IMPORTANCE Understanding the persistence of enveloped viruses helps inform infection control practices and procedures in health care facilities and community settings. These data convey to public health investigators that enveloped viruses can persist and remain infective on surfaces, thus demonstrating a potential risk for transmission. Under these laboratory-simulated Western indoor hospital conditions, we assessed the suitability of phi 6 as a surrogate for environmental persistence research related to enveloped viruses, including EBOV and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage phi 6/isolation & purification , Bacteriophage phi 6/physiology , Coronavirus/physiology , Ebolavirus/physiology , Environmental Microbiology , Fomites/virology , Virus Inactivation , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ebolavirus/isolation & purification , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Humidity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Porosity , Temperature
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 241-261, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761356

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus entry encompasses the initial steps of infection, from virion attachment to genome release. Advances in fluorescent labeling of viral and cellular components and confocal imaging enable broad spectrum studies on this process. Here, we describe methods for visualization of coronavirus entry into immortalized cell lines and 3D tissue culture models.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Cell Line , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Endocytosis , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Triiodobenzoic Acids/chemistry , Virus Internalization
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 41-53, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761345

ABSTRACT

Wild birds are natural hosts of multiple microbial agents, including a wide diversity of coronaviruses. Here we describe a pan-Coronavirus detection RT-PCR method to identify those viruses regardless of the coronavirus genus or nature of the specimen. We also describe a protocol using high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain their entire genome, which overcomes the inherent difficulties of wild bird coronavirus sequencing, that is, their genetic diversity and the lack of virus isolation methods.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Animals, Wild , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , RNA Replicase/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 596-600, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746340

ABSTRACT

There is a new public health problem around the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV). The disease "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) was caused by SARS-CoV-2. As virus isolates are unavailable so the public laboratories are now facing a challenge for detecting the virus because there is growing evidence of the outbreak which is more widespread than initially thought. We aimed here to discuss about the current diagnostic methodology for detecting the SARS-CoV-2 in health laboratories. Here we use the Novel Corona virus (2019-nCoV) Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Kit (PCR-Fluorescence Probing) which is a real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test. A total of 230 samples in the department of microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College from 1st, April 2020 were selected for this study. Among them 20(8.69%) were positive for SARS CoV-2 and remaining were negative. Among the positive samples 55% could amplify both the ORF 1ab and N genes. The single gene ORF 1ab or N was positive in 15% and 30% cases respectively. The Ct values (<38) of ORF 1ab gene indicated by FAM dye was 92.8% and N gene curve indicated by ROX dye was 100%. The presence of IC gene curve with Ct values (<38) indicated by CY5 dye among the positives were 70% and 100% in negatives. The Ct values (38-40) of IC (CY5) among the positives were 15%. The present study demonstrates the enormous response capacity of the study kit for detecting SARS-CoV-2 within the laboratories in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bangladesh , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 589-595, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746324

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is highly pathogenic viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Currently, COVID-19 has caused global health concern. WHO has declared COVID-19 as a pandemic disease on March 11, 2020 and characterized by fever, dry cough, fatigue, myalgia and chest pain with pneumonia in severe cases. The virus has spread to at least 213 countries and more than 9093827 confirmed cases and 471490 deaths have been recorded. In the beginning, the world public health authorities tried to eradicate the disease in China through quarantine but are now transitioning to prevention strategies worldwide to delay its spread. There are some newly developed and promising methods for detection of SARS-CoV-2, in order to facilitate the development of novel approaches for early diagnosis. Nucleic acid based tests currently offer the most sensitive and early detection and confirmation for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among them Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the most popular and the "gold standard" testing method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The present study was carried out to detect 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by rRT-PCR method at Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from 1st April, 2020 to 31st May, 2020. A total of 14356 samples were tested from four districts of Mymensingh division namely, Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Sherpur, Netrokona and some parts of Sunamganj for rRT-PCR. Among them 1086 (7.5%) patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Out of 1086 positive cases 716(65.9%) were male and 370(34.1%) were female with a Mean±SD age 34.1±12 years. Maximum positivity was found in Mymensingh district followed by Netrokona, Jamalpur, Sherpur and Sunamganj respectively. This is the first base line study for genetic detection of 2019-nCoV in Mymensingh division which may reflect the total scenario of Bangladesh situation. We hope this paper will help the researcher to increase the availability, accuracy, and speed of widespread COVID-19 testing throughout the world in this crisis moment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bangladesh , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
6.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(8): 801-804, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of seroconverted real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases at different days post-symptom onset; and also find the agreement of chemiluminescence assay used for total antibody detection using RT-PCR as a reference method. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Chughtai Institute of Pathology from April to May 2020. METHODOLOGY: Fifty pre-pandemic samples (healthy population) and 75 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients were divided into 3 equal groups (25 each), according to the days of symptom onset. The samples were analysed using electro-chemiluminescence as assay principle. Positive and negative agreement of COVID-19 antibodies was calculated using EP evaluator to find out the sensitivity of chemiluminescence assay for total antibody detection. The results were analysed using SPSS version 23.0. RESULTS: All the pre-pandemic samples tested were negative for antibodies with a negative agreement of 100%. Total agreement at day 7 post-symptom onset was 84%; whereas, it was 94% at day 14 and increased rapidly to 100% at day 21 post-symptom onset. At day 7 post-symptom onset, 68% of patients were seroconverted; and this percentage was 88% and 100% at day 14 and 21 post-symptom onset, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pre-pandemic samples were non-reactive for COVID-19 antibodies and seroconversion started within the first week post-virus exposure. There was 100% concordance between RT-PCR result and antibody positivity 21 days post-symptom onset. Key Words: COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, Seroconversion, Chemiluminescence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Luminescence , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Seroconversion
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200494, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740419

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with only non-respiratory symptoms has been challenging. We reported the diagnosis of a child who tested positive for COVID-19 with abdominal pain/diarrhea and tracked his family cluster. One member of the family tested positive for COVID-19 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and three other family members had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Pharyngitis/etiology
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 41-53, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729899

ABSTRACT

Wild birds are natural hosts of multiple microbial agents, including a wide diversity of coronaviruses. Here we describe a pan-Coronavirus detection RT-PCR method to identify those viruses regardless of the coronavirus genus or nature of the specimen. We also describe a protocol using high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain their entire genome, which overcomes the inherent difficulties of wild bird coronavirus sequencing, that is, their genetic diversity and the lack of virus isolation methods.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Animals, Wild , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , RNA Replicase/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 33-40, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728130

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS, SARS-CoV2 and MERS and the discovery of novel coronaviruses in animals and birds suggest that the Coronavirus family is far more diverse than previously thought. In the last decade, several new coronaviruses have been discovered in rodents around the globe, suggesting that they are the natural reservoirs of the virus. In this chapter we describe the process of screening rodent tissue for novel coronaviruses with PCR, a method that is easily adaptable for screening a range of animals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rodentia , Animals , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(33)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727369

ABSTRACT

We report three clusters related with potential pre-symptomatic transmission of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) between January and February 2020 in Shanghai, China. Investigators interviewed suspected COVID-19 cases to collect epidemiological information, including demographic characteristics, illness onset, hospital visits, close contacts, activities' trajectories between 14 days before illness onset and isolation, and exposure histories. Respiratory specimens of suspected cases were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay. The interval between the onset of illness in the primary case and the last contact of the secondary case with the primary case in our report was 1 to 7 days. In Cluster 1 (five cases), illness onset in the five secondary cases was 2 to 5 days after the last contact with the primary case. In Cluster 2 (five cases) and Cluster 3 (four cases), the illness onset in secondary cases occurred prior to or on the same day as the onset in the primary cases. The study provides empirical evidence for transmission of COVID-19 during the incubation period and indicates that pre-symptomatic person-to-person transmission can occur following sufficient exposure to confirmed COVID-19 cases. The potential pre-symptomatic person-to-person transmission puts forward higher requirements for prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(32)2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721443

ABSTRACT

We show the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genetic clades over time and between countries and outline potential genomic surveillance objectives. We applied three genomic nomenclature systems to all sequence data from the World Health Organization European Region available until 10 July 2020. We highlight the importance of real-time sequencing and data dissemination in a pandemic situation, compare the nomenclatures and lay a foundation for future European genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA Replicase/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , World Health Organization
12.
Euro Surveill ; 25(32)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717669

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract peaks around symptom onset and infectious virus persists for 10 days in mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease (n = 324 samples analysed). RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values correlate strongly with cultivable virus. Probability of culturing virus declines to 8% in samples with Ct > 35 and to 6% 10 days after onset; it is similar in asymptomatic and symptomatic persons. Asymptomatic persons represent a source of transmissible virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serologic Tests , Viral Load , Virus Shedding/genetics
13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 356, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now become the main health concern all over the world. Since effective antiviral treatments have not been developed until now, SARS-CoV-2 is severely affecting countries and territories around the world. METHODS: At the present review, articles in PubMed were searched with the following terms: mesenchymal stem cells, exosomes, coronavirus, and SARS-CoV-2, either alone or in a combination form. The most relevant selected functions were mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes and SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 could damage pulmonary cells and induce secretion of different types of inflammatory cytokines. In the following, these cytokines trigger inflammation that damages the lungs and results in lethal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The main characteristic of ARDS is the onset of inflammation in pulmonary, hyaline formation, pulmonary fibrosis, and edema. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) are believed to have anti-inflammatory effects and immune-modulating capacity as well as the ability to induce tissue regeneration, suggesting a significant therapeutic opportunity that could be used to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treatment. Besides, exosomes may serve as a biomarker, drug delivery system, and vaccine for the management of the patient with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: MSC-Exo may serve as a promising tool in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. However, further work needs to be carried out to confirm the efficacy of exosomes in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/metabolism , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 409, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707467

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people worldwide. Recent evidence raised the question about the possibility that cats may be a domestic host for SARS-CoV-2 with unknown implications in disease dissemination. Based on the fact that the domestic cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, are abundant ectoparasites infesting humans, companion animals and wildlife and that coronavirus-like agents have been identified in the ectoparasite tick vector, Ixodes uriae of seabirds, herein we considered the presence of coronaviruses in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular in C. felis. We identified coronavirus-derived and cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme RNA/proteins in C. felis. Although current evidence suggests that pets are probably dead-end-hosts with small risk of transmission to humans, our results suggested that cat flea may act as biological and/or mechanical vectors of SARS-CoV. Although preliminary, these results indicate a possibility of ectoparasites acting as reservoirs and vectors of SARS-CoV and related beta-coronavirus although with little disease risk due to systemic transmission route, low viremia, virus attenuation or other unknown factors. These results support the need to further study the role of animal SARS-CoV-2 hosts and their ectoparasite vectors in COVID-19 disease spread.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Ctenocephalides/virology , Insect Vectors/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
16.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696041

ABSTRACT

Zoonoses can constitute a threat for public health that can have a global importance, as seen with the current COVID-19 pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Bats have been recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs). In West Africa, where there is a high diversity of bat species, little is known on the circulation of CoVs in these hosts, especially at the interface with human populations. In this study, in Guinea, we tested a total of 319 bats belonging to 14 genera and six families of insectivorous and frugivorous bats across the country, for the presence of coronaviruses. We found CoVs in 35 (11%) of the tested bats-in three insectivorous bat species and five fruit bat species that were mostly captured close to human habitat. Positivity rates varied from 5.7% to 100%, depending on bat species. A wide diversity of alpha and beta coronaviruses was found across the country, including three sequences belonging to SarbeCoVs and MerbeCoVs subgenera known to harbor highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Our findings suggest that CoVs are widely spread in West Africa and their circulation should be assessed to evaluate the risk of exposure of potential zoonotic CoVs to humans.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Genome, Viral , Guinea , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/virology
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(31)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695346

ABSTRACT

A serosurvey of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was performed during March and April 2020. Among 6,586 leftover sera, 24 (0.36%) were positive, with higher prevalence in females, older individuals and residents of large urban areas. Seroprevalence was estimated at 0.02% and 0.25%, respectively, in March and April, infection fatality rate at 2.66% and 0.54%. Our findings confirm low COVID-19 incidence in Greece and possibly the effectiveness of early measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(30)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690919

ABSTRACT

We analysed consecutive RT-qPCR results of 537 symptomatic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients in home quarantine. Respectively 2, 3, and 4 weeks after symptom onset, 50%, 25% and 10% of patients had detectable RNA from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In patients with mild COVID-19, RNA detection is likely to outlast currently known periods of infectiousness by far and fixed time periods seem more appropriate in determining the length of home isolation than laboratory-based approaches.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , RNA Replicase/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , Survival Analysis , Time Factors
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 40-42, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690668

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease started as an epidemic in China in December 2019 that later achieved a pandemic potential spreading to over 210 countries with more than 3.5 million confirmed cases and close to 250,000 deaths till date. Its symptoms most commonly include, dry cough, fever, myalgia, and fatigue. As the number of new cases keeps on rising, many patients have been documented with gastrointestinal manifestations such as diarrhoea, vomiting and abdominal pain. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with the primary complaint of diarrhoea, after positive contact history with a COVID-19 patient. Key Words: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Pneumonia, ARDS, Diarrhoea.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 37-39, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690665

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 45-year male with history of fever and cough, followed by shortness of breath, lethargy and confusion at home. He was a known hypertensive, smoker and naswaar addict. He had history of contact with a friend who had recently returned from China, and used to work there as a physician. On presentation, he was hypoxic with bilateral coarse crepitations; and chest radiograph showed left middle zone consolidation. Considering the current pandemic, provisional diagnosis of meningoencephilits, with bilateral pneumonia owing to COVID-19, was made. Throat swab was sent for COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). He was managed in intensive care unit (ICU) with broad-spectrum antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine alongwith anticoagulants; but he remained hypoxic with rapidly worsening clinical course, requiring mechanical ventilation; and ultimately succumbed to the disease. Report of COVID-19 PCR came positive after 24 hours. Key words: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Meningoencephalitis, Pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Dyspnea/etiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Fatal Outcome , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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