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1.
Ter Arkh ; 94(3): 401-408, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848073

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the dynamics and contribution of mortality from Diseases of the respiratory system (DRS) in 2019 and 2020 to mortality from all causes with and without deaths from COVID-19 in 82 regions of the Russian Federation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data provided by Rosstat for 2019 and 2020 on the average annual population and the number of deaths due to causes of DRS (class J00J99) were used the standardised death rate (SDR) were calculated, the regional average value, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. RESULTS: The average increase in the SDR from DRS in 2020 was 22.1913.22 per 100 thousand population (66.4489.6% higher than in 2019). The average regional SDR from DRS + COVID-19 in 2020 was higher than the SDR from DRS in 2019 by 87.6530.1 per 100 thousand population. The average regional share of SDR in the structure of mortality excluding COVID-19 increased from 3.661.44 to 5.062.49%; taking into account COVID-19, it increased to 10.963.13%. In 16 regions, the SDR from DRS + COVID-19 exceeded the increase in mortality from all causes. No correlation was found between SDR (2020) from all causes and SDR from COVID-19 (r=0.09; p=0.39); an inverse correlation was found between SDR from DRS and SDR from COVID-19 in 2020 (r=-0.42; p0.0001). CONCLUSION: Against the background of high interregional variability of SDR from DRS in most regions, an increase in the mortality rate from DRS and the contribution of DRS to total mortality in 2020 was registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Russia/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Mortality
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(4): 1403-1413, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was planned to determine the burnout levels of physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to contribute to taking the necessary measures by determining the associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was designed via Google Online Form as an online survey with questions of Sociodemographic Data Form, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory and was conducted with 40 specialist physicians actively working at the Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital. The same questionnaire was re-applied online after two months, and 24 out of 40 physicians were accessed. The SPSS 25 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) program was used for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: According to the Maslach Burnout Inventory applied in the pre-test, it was found that the feeling of personal accomplishment was high, emotional burnout was normal, and depersonalization was low. Anxiety and burnout were found to be positively correlated, and there were no statistically significant differences in the average values of the pre-and post-test Maslach Burnout Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting possible burnout in physicians working in a pandemic, identifying associated factors and taking required measures can be beneficial both for physicians and society from a biopsychosocial perspective.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Workload/psychology , Adult , Anxiety , Correlation of Data , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Conditions , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1677, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661974

ABSTRACT

By the end of May 2020, all states in the US have eased their COVID-19 mitigation measures. Different states adopted markedly different policies and timing for reopening. An important question remains in how the relaxation of mitigation measures is related to the number of casualties. To address this question, we compare the actual data to a hypothetical case in which the mitigation measures are left intact using a projection of the data from before mitigation measures were eased. We find that different states have shown significant differences between the actual number of deaths and the projected figures within the present model. We relate these differences to the states different policies and reopening schedules. Our study provides a gauge for the effectiveness of the approaches by different state governments and can serve as a guide for implementing best policies in the future. According to the Pearson correlation coefficients we obtained, the face mask mandate has the strongest correlation with the death count than any other policies we considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Masks , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Correlation of Data , Humans , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580701

ABSTRACT

Using drugs to treat COVID-19 symptoms may induce adverse effects and modify patient outcomes. These adverse events may be further aggravated in obese patients, who often present different illnesses such as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease. In Rennes University Hospital, several drug such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used in the clinical trial HARMONICOV to treat COVID-19 patients, including obese patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether HCQ metabolism and hepatotoxicity are worsened in obese patients using an in vivo/in vitro approach. Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with untargeted screening and molecular networking were employed to study drug metabolism in vivo (patient's plasma) and in vitro (HepaRG cells and RPTEC cells). In addition, HepaRG cells model were used to reproduce pathophysiological features of obese patient metabolism, i.e., in the condition of hepatic steatosis. The metabolic signature of HCQ was modified in HepaRG cells cultured under a steatosis condition and a new metabolite was detected (carboxychloroquine). The RPTEC model was found to produce only one metabolite. A higher cytotoxicity of HCQ was observed in HepaRG cells exposed to exogenous fatty acids, while neutral lipid accumulation (steatosis) was further enhanced in these cells. These in vitro data were compared with the biological parameters of 17 COVID-19 patients treated with HCQ included in the HARMONICOV cohort. Overall, our data suggest that steatosis may be a risk factor for altered drug metabolism and possibly toxicity of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Correlation of Data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors
6.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Soluble ST2 (sST2) reflects inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis, is produced in the lungs and is an established biomarker in heart failure. We sought to determine the role of sST2 in COVID-19 by assessing pathophysiological correlates and its association to in-hospital outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled 123 consecutive, hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in the prospective, observational COVID-19 MECH study. Biobank samples were collected at baseline, day 3 and day 9. The key exposure variable was sST2, and the outcome was ICU treatment with mechanical ventilation or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Concentrations of sST2 at baseline was median 48 (IQR 37-67) ng/mL, and 74% had elevated concentrations (>37.9 ng/mL). Higher baseline sST2 concentrations were associated with older age, male sex, white race, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Baseline sST2 also associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viraemia, lower oxygen saturation, higher respiratory rate and increasing concentrations of biomarkers reflecting inflammation, thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. During the hospitalisation, 8 (7%) patients died and 27 (22%) survivors received intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Baseline sST2 concentrations demonstrated a graded association with disease severity (median, IQR): medical ward 43 (36-59) ng/mL; ICU 67 (39-104) ng/mL and non-survivors 107 (72-116) ng/mL (p<0.001 for all comparisons). These associations persisted at day 3 and day 9 . CONCLUSIONS: sST2 concentrations associate with SARS-CoV-2 viraemia, hypoxaemia and concentrations of inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. There was a robust association between baseline sST2 and disease severity that was independent of, and superior to, established risk factors. sST2 reflects key pathophysiology and may be a promising biomarker in COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypoxia , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Correlation of Data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/etiology
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 482-490, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require prolonged mechanical ventilation, but to date optimal timing of tracheostomy has not been established. The evidence concerning tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is particularly scarce. We aimed to describe the relationship between early tracheostomy (≤10 days since intubation) and outcomes for patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed in 152 centres across 16 European countries from February to December 2020. We included patients aged ≥70 yr with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to an intensive care unit, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the association between early tracheostomy and clinical outcomes including 3-month mortality, intensive care length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The final analysis included 1740 patients with a mean age of 74 yr. Tracheostomy was performed in 461 (26.5%) patients. The tracheostomy rate varied across countries, from 8.3% to 52.9%. Early tracheostomy was performed in 135 (29.3%) patients. There was no difference in 3-month mortality between early and late tracheostomy in either our primary analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.33) or a secondary landmark analysis (HR=0.78; 95% CI, 0.57-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation across Europe in the timing of tracheostomy for critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, we found no evidence that early tracheostomy is associated with any effect on survival amongst older critically ill patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04321265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/mortality , Tracheostomy/mortality , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Correlation of Data , Europe , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 913: 174632, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509762

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been proposed recently as therapy for SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, but during 3 months of extensive use concerns were raised related to their clinical effectiveness and arrhythmogenic risk. Therefore, we estimated for these compounds several proarrhythmogenic risk predictors according to the Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) paradigm. Experiments were performed with either CytoPatch™2 automated or manual patch-clamp setups on HEK293T cells stably or transiently transfected with hERG1, hNav1.5, hKir2.1, hKv7.1+hMinK, and on Pluricyte® cardiomyocytes (Ncardia), using physiological solutions. Dose-response plots of hERG1 inhibition fitted with Hill functions yielded IC50 values in the low micromolar range for both compounds. We found hyperpolarizing shifts of tens of mV, larger for chloroquine, in the voltage-dependent activation but not inactivation, as well as a voltage-dependent block of hERG current, larger at positive potentials. We also found inhibitory effects on peak and late INa and on IK1, with IC50 of tens of µM and larger for chloroquine. The two compounds, tested on Pluricyte® cardiomyocytes using the ß-escin-perforated method, inhibited IKr, ICaL, INa peak, but had no effect on If. In current-clamp they caused action potential prolongation. Our data and those from literature for Ito were used to compute proarrhythmogenic risk predictors Bnet (Mistry HB, 2018) and Qnet (Dutta S et al., 2017), with hERG1 blocking/unblocking rates estimated from time constants of fractional block. Although the two antimalarials are successfully used in autoimmune diseases, and chloroquine may be effective in atrial fibrillation, assays place these drugs in the intermediate proarrhythmogenic risk group.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Action Potentials/drug effects , Biological Assay , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Correlation of Data , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , ERG1 Potassium Channel/agonists , ERG1 Potassium Channel/antagonists & inhibitors , ERG1 Potassium Channel/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , KCNQ1 Potassium Channel/antagonists & inhibitors , KCNQ1 Potassium Channel/metabolism , Kinetics , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel/metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/antagonists & inhibitors , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/metabolism , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii29-iii33, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no prior study of the effect of mobility-limiting measures on the occurrence of COVID-19 in Iraq. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between publicly available mobility index data and the growth ratio (GR) of COVID-19. METHOD: We used Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports to extract Iraq's mobility data and the official Ministry of Health COVID-19 statements. We used the data to calculate the Pearson's correlation coefficient and fit a linear regression model to determine the relationship between percentage change from the baseline in the mobility indices and the GR of COVID-19 in Iraq. RESULTS: There was a moderate positive correlation between each of the mobility indices except the residential index and COVID-19 GR in Iraq. The general linear model indicated that as each of the mobility indices increases by one unit, the GR of COVID19 increases by 0.002-0.003 except for the residential index. As the residential mobility index increases by one unit, the GR decreases by 0.009. All the findings were statistically significant (P-value < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Mobility-limiting measures may be able to reduce the growth rate of COVID-19 moderately. Accordingly, mobility-limiting measures should be combined with other public control measures particularly mass mask use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Correlation of Data , Humans , Iraq , Population Dynamics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15110, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322504

ABSTRACT

The lockdown measures that were taken to combat the COVID-19 pandemic minimized anthropogenic activities and created natural laboratory conditions for studying air quality. Both observations and WRF-Chem simulations show a 20-50% reduction (compared to pre-lockdown and same period of previous year) in the concentrations of most aerosols and trace gases over Northwest India, the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP), and the Northeast Indian regions. It is shown that this was mainly due to a 70-80% increase in the height of the boundary layer and the low emissions during lockdown. However, a 60-70% increase in the pollutants levels was observed over Central and South India including the Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal during this period, which is attributed to natural processes. Elevated (dust) aerosol layers are transported from the Middle East and Africa via long-range transport, and a decrease in the wind speed (20-40%) caused these aerosols to stagnate, enhancing the aerosol levels over Central and Southern India. A 40-60% increase in relative humidity further amplified aerosol concentrations. The results of this study suggest that besides emissions, natural processes including background meteorology and dynamics, play a crucial role in the pollution concentrations over the Indian sub-continent.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Aerosols/analysis , Africa , Bays , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Correlation of Data , Dust/analysis , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Humans , India , Meteorology , Middle East , Oceans and Seas , Pandemics
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14387, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309467

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the monitoring and predictive value of web-based symptoms (fever, cough, dyspnea) searches for COVID-19 spread. Daily search interests from Turkey, Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom were obtained from Google Trends (GT) between January 1, 2020, and August 31, 2020. In addition to conventional correlational models, we studied the time-varying correlation between GT search and new case reports; we used dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) and sliding windows correlation models. We found time-varying correlations between pulmonary symptoms on GT and new cases to be significant. The DCC model proved more powerful than the sliding windows correlation model. This model also provided better at time-varying correlations (r ≥ 0.90) during the first wave of the pandemic. We used a root means square error (RMSE) approach to attain symptom-specific shift days and showed that pulmonary symptom searches on GT should be shifted separately. Web-based search interest for pulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 is a reliable predictor of later reported cases for the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Illness-specific symptom search interest on GT can be used to alert the healthcare system to prepare and allocate resources needed ahead of time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Correlation of Data , France , Humans , Italy , Spain , Turkey , United Kingdom
12.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(3): 627-636, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293420

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1), which is a proximal tubule injury biomarker in subclinical acute kidney injury (AKI) that may occur in COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The study included proteinuric (n = 30) and non-proteinuric (n = 30) patients diagnosed with mild/moderate COVID-19 infection between March and September 2020 and healthy individuals as a control group (n = 20). The uKIM-1, serum creatinine, cystatin C, spot urine protein, creatinine, and albumin levels of the patients were evaluated again after an average of 21 days. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) uKIM-1 level at the time of presentation was 246 (141-347) pg/mL in the proteinuric group, 83 (29-217) pg/mL in the non-proteinuric group, and 55 (21-123) pg/mL in the control group and significantly high in the proteinuric group than the others (p < 0.001). Creatinine and cystatin C were significantly higher in the proteinuric group than in the group without proteinuria, but none of the patients met the KDIGO-AKI criteria. uKIM-1 had a positive correlation with PCR, non-albumin proteinuria, creatinine, cystatin C, CRP, fibrinogen, LDH, and ferritin, and a negative correlation with eGFR and albumin (p < 0.05). In the multivariate regression analysis, non-albumin proteinuria (p = 0.048) and BUN (p = 0.034) were identified as independent factors predicting a high uKIM-1 level. After 21 ± 4 days, proteinuria regressed to normal levels in 20 (67%) patients in the proteinuric group. In addition, the uKIM-1 level, albuminuria, non-albumin proteinuria, and CRP significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that the kidney is one of the target organs of the COVID-19 and it may cause proximal tubule injury even in patients that do not present with AKI or critical/severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/analysis , Noncommunicable Diseases , Urinalysis , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Correlation of Data , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/urine , Cystatin C/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/drug therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Proteinuria , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Turkey/epidemiology , Urinalysis/methods , Urinalysis/statistics & numerical data
13.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1113-1119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287454

ABSTRACT

The amazing effort of vaccination against COVID-19, with more than 2 billion vaccine doses administered all around the world as of 16 June 2021, has changed the history of this pandemic, drastically reducing the number of severe cases or deaths in countries were mass vaccination campaign have been carried out. However, the people's rising enthusiasm has been blunted in late February 2021 by the report of several cases of unusual thrombotic events in combination with thrombocytopenia after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Vaxzevria), and a few months later also after Ad26.COV2. S vaccines. Of note, both products used an Adenovirus-based (AdV) platform to deliver the mRNA molecule - coding for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. A clinical entity characterized by cerebral and/or splanchnic vein thrombosis, often associated with multiple thromboses, with thrombocytopenia and bleeding, and sometimes disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), was soon recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). VITT was mainly observed in females under 55 years of age, between 4 and 16 days after receiving only Adenovirus-based vaccine and displayed a seriously high fatality rate. This prompted the Medicine Regulatory Agencies of various countries to enforce the pharmacovigilance programs, and to provide some advices to restrict the use of AdV-based vaccines to some age groups. This point-of view is aimed at providing a comprehensive review of epidemiological issues, pathogenetic hypothesis and treatment strategies of this rare but compelling syndrome, thus helping physicians to offer an up-to dated and evidence-based counseling to their often alarmed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Correlation of Data , Expert Testimony , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/physiopathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
14.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00367, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259761

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection has been associated with both endotoxemia and thrombosis of small and large vessels, but the relationship between these 2 phenomena has not been pursued. Oliva et al. in this issue of Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology demonstrate an association between the 2 findings and suggest that increased intestinal permeability is a possible mechanism to explain the endotoxemia. Although the evidence to support this hypothesis is only suggestive, the role of the small intestine in the illness produced by the virus needs to be further explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Intestine, Small , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Endotoxemia/diagnosis , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Endotoxemia/virology , Humans , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/virology , Permeability , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology
15.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00348, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259760

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia display enhanced levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) compared with controls, suggesting that low-grade endotoxemia may be implicated in vascular disturbances. It is unknown whether this occurs in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on thrombotic complications. METHODS: We measured serum levels of zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, LPS, and D-dimer in 81 patients with COVID-19 and 81 healthy subjects; the occurrence of thrombotic events in COVID-19 during the intrahospital stay was registered. RESULTS: Serum LPS and zonulin were higher in patients with COVID-19 than in control subjects and, in COVID-19, significantly correlated (R = 0.513; P < 0.001). Among the 81 patients with COVID-19, 11 (14%) experienced thrombotic events in the arterial (n = 5) and venous circulation (n = 6) during a median follow-up of 18 days (interquartile range 11-27 days). A logistic regression analysis showed that LPS (P = 0.024) and D-dimer (P = 0.041) independently predicted thrombotic events. DISCUSSION: The study reports that low-grade endotoxemia is detectable in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombotic events. The coexistence of low-grade endotoxemia with enhanced levels of zonulin may suggest enhanced gut permeability as an underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Haptoglobins/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Protein Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Endotoxemia/diagnosis , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Endotoxemia/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Permeability , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11302, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246400

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic continues to obstruct social lives and the world economy other than questioning the healthcare capacity of many countries. Weather components recently came to notice as the northern hemisphere was hit by escalated incidence in winter. This study investigated the association between COVID-19 cases and two components, average temperature and relative humidity, in the 16 states of Germany. Three main approaches were carried out in this study, namely temporal correlation, spatial auto-correlation, and clustering-integrated panel regression. It is claimed that the daily COVID-19 cases correlate negatively with the average temperature and positively with the average relative humidity. To extract the spatial auto-correlation, both global Moran's [Formula: see text] and global Geary's [Formula: see text] were used whereby no significant difference in the results was observed. It is evident that randomness overwhelms the spatial pattern in all the states for most of the observations, except in recent observations where either local clusters or dispersion occurred. This is further supported by Moran's scatter plot, where states' dynamics to and fro cold and hot spots are identified, rendering a traveling-related early warning system. A random-effects model was used in the sense of case-weather regression including incidence clustering. Our task is to perceive which ranges of the incidence that are well predicted by the existing weather components rather than seeing which ranges of the weather components predicting the incidence. The proposed clustering-integrated model associated with optimal barriers articulates the data well whereby weather components outperform lag incidence cases in the prediction. Practical implications based on marginal effects follow posterior to model diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cold Temperature , Computer Simulation , Correlation of Data , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , Seasons , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Weather
17.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 58(1): 141-148, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238469

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess current situations regarding anxiety and fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) level among nursing students. DESIGN AND METHODS: A descriptive correlation design was adopted. The sample consisted of 234 nursing students. Data were collected using sociodemographic form, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Fear of COVID-19 scale. FINDINGS: The mean BAI score of the students was 26.56 ± 8.86 and Fear of COVID-19 total score was 18.95 ± 7.00. A positive correlation between total scores of the BAI and Fear of COVID-19. The results of this study reveal that anxiety and fear of COVID-19 levels were high among nursing students. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: These findings have underlined there is an urgent need for interventions to reduce anxiety and fear of COVID-19 among nursing students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Anxiety/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 993-999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In India, COVID-19 case fatality rates (CFRs) have consistently been very high in states like Punjab and Maharashtra and very low in Kerala and Assam. To investigate the discrepancy in state-wise CFRs, datasets on various factors related to demography, socio-economy, public health, and healthcare capacity have been collected to study their association with CFR. METHODS: State-wise COVID-19 data was collected till April 22, 2021. The latest data on the various factors have been collected from reliable sources. Pearson correlation, two-tailed P test, Spearman rank correlation, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) structures have been used to assess the association between various factors and CFR. RESULTS: Life expectancies, prevalence of overweight, COVID-19 test positive rates, and H1N1 fatality rates show a significant positive association with CFR. Human Development Index, per capita GDP, public affairs index, health expenditure per capita, availability of govt. doctors & hospital beds, prevalence of certain diseases, and comorbidities like diabetes and hypertension show insignificant association with CFR. Sex ratio, health expenditure as a percent of GSDP, and availability of govt. hospitals show a significant negative correlation with CFR. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that older people, males of younger age groups, and overweight people are at more fatality risk from COVID-19. Certain diseases and common comorbidities like diabetes and hypertension do not seem to have any significant effect on CFR. States with better COVID-19 testing rates, health expenditure, and healthcare capacity seem to perform better with regard to COVID-19 fatality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Comorbidity , Correlation of Data , Epidemiologic Factors , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Life Expectancy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Neural Networks, Computer , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
19.
Global Health ; 17(1): 54, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely associated with physical and mental health problems; however, little is known about the severity of stigma caused by COVID-19 among its survivors. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare differences in stigma experiences of COVID-19 survivors versus healthy controls after the COVID-19 outbreak peak in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 154 COVID-19 survivors and 194 healthy controls recruited through consecutive and convenience sampling methods, respectively. COVID-19 related stigma was measured by the Social Impact Scale (SIS). Stigma differences between the two groups were compared with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a generalized linear model (GLM) was used to identify independent correlates of COVID-19-related stigma in this study. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, COVID-19 survivors reported more overall stigma (F(1,347) = 60.82, p < 0.001), and stigma in domains of social rejection (F(1,347) = 56.54, p < 0.001), financial insecurity (F(1,347) = 19.96, p < 0.001), internalized shame (F(1,347) = 71.40, p < 0.001) and social isolation (F(1,347) = 34.73, p < 0.001). Status as a COVID-19 survivor, having family members infected with COVID-19, being married, economic loss during the COVID-19 pandemic, and depressive symptoms were positively associated with higher overall stigma levels (all p values < 0.05). CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related stigma is commonly experienced among COVID-19 survivors even though the outbreak has been well-contained in China. Routine assessment of stigma experiences should be conducted on COVID-19 survivors and appropriate psychological assistance, public education, and anti-stigma campaigns and policies should be enforced to reduce stigma within this vulnerable subpopulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Social Stigma , Socioeconomic Factors , Adult , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 700-707, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The large-scale social distancing efforts to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission have dramatically changed human behaviors associated with traumatic injuries. Trauma centers have reported decreases in trauma volume, paralleled by changes in injury mechanisms. We aimed to quantify changes in trauma epidemiology at an urban Level I trauma center in a county that instituted one of the earliest shelter-in-place orders to inform trauma care during future pandemic responses. METHODS: A single-center interrupted time-series analysis was performed to identify associations of shelter-in-place with trauma volume, injury mechanisms, and patient demographics in San Francisco, California. To control for short-term trends in trauma epidemiology, weekly level data were analyzed 6 months before shelter-in-place. To control for long-term trends, monthly level data were analyzed 5 years before shelter-in-place. RESULTS: Trauma volume decreased by 50% in the week following shelter-in-place (p < 0.01), followed by a linear increase each successive week (p < 0.01). Despite this, trauma volume for each month (March-June 2020) remained lower compared with corresponding months for all previous 5 years (2015-2019). Pediatric trauma volume showed similar trends with initial decreases (p = 0.02) followed by steady increases (p = 0.05). Reductions in trauma volumes were due entirely to changes in nonviolent injury mechanisms, while violence-related injury mechanisms remained unchanged (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Although the shelter-in-place order was associated with an overall decline in trauma volume, violence-related injuries persisted. Delineating and addressing underlying factors driving persistent violence-related injuries during shelter-in-place orders should be a focus of public health efforts in preparation for future pandemic responses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Correlation of Data , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
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