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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25429, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 cases increased precipitously in the United States, policy makers and health officials marshalled their pandemic responses. As the economic impacts multiplied, anecdotal reports noted the increased use of web-based crowdfunding to defray these costs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the web-based crowdfunding response in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States to understand the incidence of initiation of COVID-19-related campaigns and compare them to non-COVID-19-related campaigns. METHODS: On May 16, 2020, we extracted all available data available on US campaigns that contained narratives and were created between January 1 and May 10, 2020, on GoFundMe. We identified the subset of COVID-19-related campaigns using keywords relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the incidence of COVID-19-related campaigns by geography, by category, and over time, and we compared the characteristics of the campaigns to those of non-COVID-19-related campaigns after March 11, when the pandemic was declared. We then used a natural language processing algorithm to cluster campaigns by narrative content using overlapping keywords. RESULTS: We found that there was a substantial increase in overall GoFundMe web-based crowdfunding campaigns in March, largely attributable to COVID-19-related campaigns. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic persisted and progressed, the number of campaigns per COVID-19 case declined more than tenfold across all states. The states with the earliest disease burden had the fewest campaigns per case, indicating a lack of a case-dependent response. COVID-19-related campaigns raised more money, had a longer narrative description, and were more likely to be shared on Facebook than other campaigns in the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based crowdfunding appears to be a stopgap for only a minority of campaigners. The novelty of an emergency likely impacts both campaign initiation and crowdfunding success, as it reflects the affective response of a community. Crowdfunding activity likely serves as an early signal for emerging needs and societal sentiment for communities in acute distress that could be used by governments and aid organizations to guide disaster relief and policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Crowdsourcing/statistics & numerical data , Financial Support , COVID-19/economics , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowdsourcing/economics , Government , Humans , Narration , Natural Language Processing , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 947-952, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To outline the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Five databases were searched for articles referring to the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The search was conducted for the period from November 2019 to April 2021. The search was conducted over one month (May 2021). RESULTS: Four studies that met the objective were included. Altogether, there were 1045 patients. Various questionnaires were used to assess quality of life. Overall, the quality of life deficit affected 67.7 per cent of patients. Quality of life domains investigated include overall quality of life (four studies), food and taste dysfunction (two studies), mental health (two studies), cognitive function (one study), functional outcome (one study) and safety domains (one study). CONCLUSION: Quality of life deficit was reported to be 67.7 per cent among coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The high prevalence of persistent olfactory dysfunction prompts more serious research, as the long-standing consequences of olfactory dysfunction are detrimental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cost of Illness , Olfaction Disorders/psychology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1179, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV can generate costs both within and outside the health sector (i.e. intersectoral costs). This systematic review aims (i) to explore the intersectoral costs associated with STIs and HIV considered in cost-of-illness (COI) studies, (ii) to categorise and analyse these costs according to cost sectors, and (iii) to illustrate the impact of intersectoral costs on the total cost burden. METHODS: Medline (PubMed), EMBASE (Ovid), Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EconLit and NHS EED were searched between 2009 and 2019. Key search terms included terms for cost-of-illness, cost analysis and all terms for STIs including specific infections. Studies were included that assessed intersectoral costs. A standardised data extraction form was adopted. A cost component table was established based on pre-defined sector-specific classification schemes. Cost results for intersectoral costs were recorded. The quality of studies was assessed using a modified version of the CHEC-list. RESULTS: 75 COI studies were considered for title/abstract screening. Only six studies were available in full-text and eligible for data extraction and narrative synthesis. Intersectoral costs were captured in the following sectors: Patient & family, Informal care and Productivity (Paid Labour). Patient & family costs were addressed in four studies, including patient out-of-pocket payments/co-payments and travel costs. Informal care costs including unpaid (home) care support by family/friends and other caregiver costs were considered in three studies. All six studies estimated productivity costs for paid labour including costs in terms of absenteeism, disability, cease-to-work, presenteeism and premature death. Intersectoral costs largely contributed to the total economic cost burden of STIs and HIV. The quality assessment revealed methodological differences. CONCLUSIONS: It is evident that intersectoral costs associated with STIs and HIV are substantial. If relevant intersectoral costs are not included in cost analyses the total cost burden of STIs and HIV to society is severely underestimated. Therefore, intersectoral costs need to be addressed in order to ensure the total economic burden of STIs and HIV on society is assessed, and communicated to policy/decision-makers.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Caregivers , Cost of Illness , Humans , Presenteeism
5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(10): 708-718, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, SARS-CoV-2 infection is usually asymptomatic or causes a mild illness of short duration. Persistent illness has been reported; however, its prevalence and characteristics are unclear. We aimed to determine illness duration and characteristics in symptomatic UK school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2 using data from the COVID Symptom Study, one of the largest UK citizen participatory epidemiological studies to date. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, data from UK school-aged children (age 5-17 years) were reported by an adult proxy. Participants were voluntary, and used a mobile application (app) launched jointly by Zoe Limited and King's College London. Illness duration and symptom prevalence, duration, and burden were analysed for children testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 for whom illness duration could be determined, and were assessed overall and for younger (age 5-11 years) and older (age 12-17 years) groups. Children with longer than 1 week between symptomatic reports on the app were excluded from analysis. Data from symptomatic children testing negative for SARS-CoV-2, matched 1:1 for age, gender, and week of testing, were also assessed. FINDINGS: 258 790 children aged 5-17 years were reported by an adult proxy between March 24, 2020, and Feb 22, 2021, of whom 75 529 had valid test results for SARS-CoV-2. 1734 children (588 younger and 1146 older children) had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and calculable illness duration within the study timeframe (illness onset between Sept 1, 2020, and Jan 24, 2021). The most common symptoms were headache (1079 [62·2%] of 1734 children), and fatigue (954 [55·0%] of 1734 children). Median illness duration was 6 days (IQR 3-11) versus 3 days (2-7) in children testing negative, and was positively associated with age (Spearman's rank-order rs 0·19, p<0·0001). Median illness duration was longer for older children (7 days, IQR 3-12) than younger children (5 days, 2-9). 77 (4·4%) of 1734 children had illness duration of at least 28 days, more commonly in older than younger children (59 [5·1%] of 1146 older children vs 18 [3·1%] of 588 younger children; p=0·046). The commonest symptoms experienced by these children during the first 4 weeks of illness were fatigue (65 [84·4%] of 77), headache (60 [77·9%] of 77), and anosmia (60 [77·9%] of 77); however, after day 28 the symptom burden was low (median 2 symptoms, IQR 1-4) compared with the first week of illness (median 6 symptoms, 4-8). Only 25 (1·8%) of 1379 children experienced symptoms for at least 56 days. Few children (15 children, 0·9%) in the negatively tested cohort had symptoms for at least 28 days; however, these children experienced greater symptom burden throughout their illness (9 symptoms, IQR 7·7-11·0 vs 8, 6-9) and after day 28 (5 symptoms, IQR 1·5-6·5 vs 2, 1-4) than did children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Although COVID-19 in children is usually of short duration with low symptom burden, some children with COVID-19 experience prolonged illness duration. Reassuringly, symptom burden in these children did not increase with time, and most recovered by day 56. Some children who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 also had persistent and burdensome illness. A holistic approach for all children with persistent illness during the pandemic is appropriate. FUNDING: Zoe Limited, UK Government Department of Health and Social Care, Wellcome Trust, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK Research and Innovation London Medical Imaging and Artificial Intelligence Centre for Value Based Healthcare, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, and Alzheimer's Society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Citizen Science , Cohort Studies , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Kingdom
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502073

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases and widespread outbreaks influence different sectors of the economy, including the stock market. In this article, we investigate the effect of EBOV and COVID-19 outbreaks on stock market indices. We employ time-varying and constant bivariate copula methods to measure the dependence structure between the infectious disease equity market volatility index (IEMV) and the stock market indices of several sectors. The results show that the financial and communication services sectors have the highest and the lowest negative dependency on IEMV during the Ebola virus (EBOV) pandemic, respectively. However, the health care and energy sectors have the highest and lowest negative dependency on IEMV during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Therefore, the results confirm the heterogeneous time-varying dependency between infectious diseases and the stock market indices. The finding of our study contributes to the ongoing literature on the impact of disease outbreaks, especially the novel coronavirus outbreak on global large-cap companies in the stock market.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Cost of Illness , Disease Outbreaks/economics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/economics , Commerce , Ebolavirus , Humans , Time
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0251683, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502053

ABSTRACT

Previous research has shown that the COVID-19 outbreak, social distancing, and lockdown can affect people's psychological well-being. The aims of this study were (1) to estimate the extent to which perceptions and expectations regarding the social, economic, and domestic effects of the COVID-19 outbreak are associated with psychological distress and (2) to identify some demographic, psychosocial, and economic factors associated with increased vulnerability to psychological distress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Chile. 1078 people participated in a telephone survey between May 30 and June 10, 2020. The sample is representative of the Chilean adult population. Psychological distress was assessed through a questionnaire of anxious and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-4). We analyzed the data set using ordinary least-squares regression models, first estimating models for the entire sample, and then stratifying the sample into different groups to explore differences by gender and age. 19.2% of participants displayed significant psychological distress (PHQ-4 ≥ 6), with moderate to severe anxiety-depression symptoms being more prevalent in women than in men (23.9% vs 14.1%, χ2 16.78, p<0.001). The results of this study suggest that being a woman, feeling lonely and isolated, living in the areas hit hardest by the pandemic and lockdown, expecting a lack of income due to having to stop working as a consequence of the pandemic, and having a history of diagnosed mental disorders are significantly associated with psychological distress (p<0.05). The results of this study highlight the need to implement psychosocial programs to guard people's psychological well-being and social policies to address economic uncertainty during the current COVID-19 outbreak in Chile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cost of Illness , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/economics , Chile , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pandemics , Young Adult
9.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 65, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias currently represent the fifth most common cause of death in the world, according to the World Health Organization, with a projected future increase as the proportion of the elderly in the population is growing. Air pollution has emerged as a plausible risk factor for AD, but studies estimating dementia cases attributable to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and resulting monetary estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used data on average population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 for the entire population of Sweden above 30 years of age. To estimate the annual number of dementia cases attributable to air pollution in the Swedish population above 60 years of age, we used the latest concentration response functions (CRF) between PM2.5 exposure and dementia incidence, based on ten longitudinal cohort studies, for the population above 60 years of age. To estimate the monetary burden of attributable cases, we calculated total costs related to dementia, including direct and indirect lifetime costs and intangible costs by including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost. Two different monetary valuations of QALYs in Sweden were used to estimate the monetary value of reduced quality-of-life from two different payer perspectives. RESULTS: The annual number of dementia cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure was estimated to be 820, which represents 5% of the annual dementia cases in Sweden. Direct and indirect lifetime average cost per dementia case was estimated to correspond € 213,000. A reduction of PM2.5 by 1 µg/m3 was estimated to yield 101 fewer cases of dementia incidences annually, resulting in an estimated monetary benefit ranging up to 0.01% of the Swedish GDP in 2019. CONCLUSION: This study estimated that 5% of annual dementia cases could be attributed to PM2.5 exposure, and that the resulting monetary burden is substantial. These findings suggest the need to consider airborne toxic pollutants associated with dementia incidence in public health policy decisions.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cost of Illness , Dementia/economics , Dementia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/economics , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/economics , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/economics , Quality of Life , Sweden/epidemiology
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1169, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human resources management plays an important role in social development and economic growth. Absence from work due to health problems can make obstacles to the growth of economy. This study conducted aimed to estimate the absenteeism costs of COVID-19 among the personnel of hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February 19, 2020, and September 21, 2020. The absenteeism costs were calculated using the human capital approach. Finally, we applied the linear regression to assess the impact of variables on the lost productivity of absenteeism due to COVID-19 among the personnel of hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that 1958 personnel had COVID-19. The total of absenteeism days in our study were 32,209 days, with an average of 16.44 absenteeism days. Total costs due to absenteeism were estimated to be nearly $1.3 million, with an average of $671.4 per patient. The results of regression model showed that gender (male), age (> 50 years), employment Type (non-permanent) and monthly income had a positive relationship with the absenteeism cost. Also, there are a negative significant relationship between absenteeism cost with job (physicians) and work experience. CONCLUSIONS: Absenteeism costs of COVID-19 in the hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences represent a significant economic burden. The findings of our study emphasize the emergency strategies to prevent and control COVID-19 among the healthcare workers. It can decrease the economic impacts of COVID-19 and improve human resources management during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Absenteeism , COVID-19 , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7007-7014, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza economic burden in risk groups for severe influenza are important to guide targeted influenza immunization, especially in resource-limited settings. However, this information is limited in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We estimated the cost (from a health system and societal perspective) and years of life lost (YLL) for influenza-associated illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 among (i) children aged 6-59 months, (ii) individuals aged 5-64 years with HIV, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and selected underlying medical conditions (UMC), separately, (iii) pregnant women and (iv) individuals aged ≥65 years, using publicly available data and data collected through laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance and costing studies. All costs were expressed in 2015 prices using the South Africa all-items Consumer Price Index. RESULTS: During 2013-2015, the mean annual cost of influenza-associated illness among the selected risk groups accounted for 52.1% ($140.9/$270.5 million) of the total influenza-associated illness cost (for the entire population of South Africa), 45.2% ($52.2/$115.5 million) of non-medically attended illness costs, 43.3% ($46.7/$107.9 million) of medically-attended mild illness costs and 89.3% ($42.0/$47.1 million) of medically-attended severe illness costs. The YLL among the selected risk groups accounted for 86.0% (262,069 /304,867 years) of the total YLL due to influenza-associated death. CONCLUSION: In South Africa, individuals in risk groups for severe influenza accounted for approximately half of the total influenza-associated illness cost but most of the cost of influenza-associated medically attended severe illness and YLL. This study provides the foundation for future studies on the cost-effectiveness of influenza immunization among risk groups.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , South Africa/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(11): e474-e487, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488012

ABSTRACT

The increasing burden of cancer represents a substantial problem for Latin America and the Caribbean. Two Lancet Oncology Commissions in 2013 and 2015 highlighted potential interventions that could advance cancer care in the region by overcoming existing challenges. Areas requiring improvement included insufficient investment in cancer control, non-universal health coverage, fragmented health systems, inequitable concentration of cancer services, inadequate registries, delays in diagnosis or treatment initiation, and insufficient palliative services. Progress has been made in key areas but remains uneven across the region. An unforeseen challenge, the COVID-19 pandemic, strained all resources, and its negative effect on cancer control is expected to continue for years. In this Series paper, we summarise progress in several aspects of cancer control since 2015, and identify persistent barriers requiring commitment of additional resources to reduce the cancer burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Early Detection of Cancer , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/education , Neoplasms/epidemiology
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1115, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the global strategies to fight the SARS-COV-2 infection (COVID-19) evolved, response strategies impacted the magnitude and distribution of health-related expenditures. Although the economic consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic has been dire, and its true scale is yet to be ascertained, one key component of the response is the management of infected persons which its cost has not been adequately examined, especially in Africa. METHODS: To fill gaps in context-specific cost of treating COVID-19 patients, we adopted a health system's perspective and a bottom-up, point of care resource use data collection approach to estimate the cost of clinical management of COVID-19 infection in Ghana. The analysis was based on the national protocol for management of COVID-19 patients at the time, whether in public or private settings. No patients were enrolled into the study as it was entirely a protocol-based cost of illness analysis. RESULT: We found that resource use and average cost of treatment per COVID-19 case varied significantly by disease severity level and treatment setting. The average cost of treating COVID-19 patient in Ghana was estimated to be US$11,925 (GH¢68,929) from the perspective of the health system; ranging from US$282 (GH¢1629) for patients with mild/asymptomatic disease condition managed at home to about US$23,382 (GH¢135,149) for critically ill patients requiring sophisticated and specialised care in hospitals. The cost of treatment increased by some 20 folds once a patient moved from home management to the treatment centre. Overheard costs accounted for 63-71% of institutionalised care compared to only 6% for home-based care. The main cost drivers in overhead category in the institutionalised care were personal protective equipment (PPEs) and transportation, whilst investigations (COVID-19 testing) and staff time for follow-up were the main cost drivers for home-based care. CONCLUSION: Cost savings could be made by early detection and effective treatment of COVID-19 cases, preferably at home, before any chance of deterioration to the next worst form of the disease state, thereby freeing up more resources for other aspects of the fight against the pandemic. Policy makers in Ghana should thus make it a top priority to intensify the early detection and case management of COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Cost of Illness , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476484

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is critical for identifying high-value interventions that address significant unmet need. This study examines whether CEA study volume is proportionate to the burden associated with 21 major disease categories. METHODS: We searched the Tufts Medical Center CEA and Global Health CEA Registries for studies published between 2010 and 2019 that measured cost per quality-adjusted life-year or cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY). Stratified by geographical region and country income level, the relationship between literature volume and disease burden (as measured by 2019 Global Burden of Disease estimates of population DALYs) was analysed using ordinary least squares linear regression. Additionally, the number of CEAs per intervention deemed 'essential' for universal health coverage by the Disease Control Priorities Network was assessed to evaluate how many interventions are supported by cost-effectiveness evidence. RESULTS: The results located below the regression line but with relatively high burden suggested disease areas that were 'understudied' compared with expected study volume. Understudied disease areas varied by region. Higher-income and upper-middle-income country (HUMIC) CEA volume for non-communicable diseases (eg, mental/behavioural disorders) was 100-fold higher than that in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). LLMIC study volume remained concentrated in HIV/AIDS as well as other communicable and neglected tropical diseases. Across 60 essential interventions, only 33 had any supporting CEA evidence, and only 21 had a decision context involving a low-income or middle-income country. With the exception of one intervention, available CEA evidence revealed the 21 interventions to be cost-effective, with base-case findings less than three times the GDP per capita. CONCLUSION: Our analysis highlights disease areas that require significant policy attention. Research gaps for highly prevalent, lethal or disabling diseases, as well as essential interventions may be stifling potential efficiency gains. Large research disparities between HUMICs and LLMICs suggest funding opportunities for improving allocative efficiency in LLMIC health systems.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Disabled Persons , Global Health , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Universal Health Insurance
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1827, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) combine the impact of morbidity and mortality, allowing for comprehensive comparisons of the population. The aim was to estimate the DALYs due to Covid-19 in Malta (March 2020-21) and investigate its impact in relation to other causes of disease at a population level. METHODS: Mortality and weekly hospital admission data were used to calculate DALYs, based on the European Burden of Disease Network consensus Covid-19 model. Covid-19 infection duration of 14 days was considered. Sensitivity analyses for different morbidity scenarios, including post-acute consequences were presented. RESULTS: An estimated 70,421 people were infected (with and without symptoms) by Covid-19 in Malta (March 2020-1), out of which 1636 required hospitalisation and 331 deaths, contributing to 5478 DALYs. These DALYs positioned Covid-19 as the fourth leading cause of disease in Malta. Mortality contributed to 95% of DALYs, while post-acute consequences contributed to 60% of morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 over 1 year has impacted substantially the population health in Malta. Post-acute consequences are the leading morbidity factors that require urgent targeted action to ensure timely multidisciplinary care. It is recommended that DALY estimations in 2021 and beyond are calculated to assess the impact of vaccine roll-out and emergence of new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Cost of Illness , Humans , Malta/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1115-1121, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data-driven evidence about the burden of homelessness, and lack of a holistic measure of effectiveness for evaluating interventions targeting homelessness. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) can help holistically capture the burden of homelessness, and facilitate the valuation and comparison of interventions designed to address homelessness. OBJECTIVE: This study estimated utility values required to compute the QALYs associated with homelessness, and also examined individual-level characteristics that affect these values. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study is cross-sectional and derived from a large national survey conducted during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. SUBJECTS: A sample of 6607 middle- and low-income adults in the United States. MEASURES: A self-completion standard gamble survey was used to estimate utility values associated with homelessness. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between individual-level characteristics and these utility values. RESULTS: The study estimated the average utility value associated with homelessness as 43.4% among the study participants. This implies that 1 year of life as a homeless individual is perceived to be equivalent to less than half a year of life as a stably housed individual in good health. The study also found that individuals who have experienced homelessness and financial distress value life as a homeless person considerably less than those who have not had these experiences. CONCLUSIONS: The method developed in this study can be used to estimate QALYs in studies evaluating homelessness interventions, thereby establishing the societal value of these interventions and informing policy and budgetary decision-making. Future studies estimating the utility values associated with homelessness in the general population, as well as specific homeless groups, are required to provide more generalizable evidence.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463313

ABSTRACT

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created the GenomeTrakr Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Network in 2013, as a tool to improve food safety. This study presents an analysis of Whole Genome source tracking implementation on potential food contamination and related illnesses through theoretical, empirical, and cost benefit analyses. We conduct empirical tests using data from FDA regulated food commodity outbreaks garnering FDA response from 1999 through 2019 and examine the effect of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Pathogen detection program of source tracking WGS isolates collected in the U.S. on outbreak illnesses for three pilot pathogens (E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella). Empirical results are consistent with the theoretical model and suggest that each additional 1,000 WGS isolates added to the public NCBI database is associated with a reduction of approximately 6 illnesses per WGS pathogen, per year. Empirical results are connected to existing literature for a Monte Carlo analysis to estimate benefits and costs. By 2019, annual health benefits are estimated at nearly $500 million, compared to an approximately $22 million investment by public health agencies. Even under conservative assumptions, the program likely broke even in its second year of implementation and could produce increasing public health benefits as the GenomeTrakr network matures.


Subject(s)
Whole Genome Sequencing/economics , Cost of Illness , Disease Outbreaks , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/economics , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Humans , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Statistics as Topic , United States
18.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211044344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440890

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed many aspects of everyday life. Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are in a particularly difficult situation. The purpose of the present study was to contribute to the very limited research on the everyday aspects of functioning in PID patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey included 85 adult PID patients treated with immunoglobulin replacement therapy in four reference centers for immunology. Everyday functioning of the patients as well as their opinion concerning new solutions in medical care were analyzed. RESULTS: During the pandemic, the percentage of patients experiencing fear/anxiety has increased from 47% to 70%. The wide dissemination of information about the SARS-CoV-2 in the media has increased anxiety in 40% of the patients. Patients diagnosed with PID were most afraid of the exposure to contact with strangers, especially in public places. As many as 67 respondents (79%) considered the introduction of restrictions concerning social functioning as good. Only every fifth person learned about the pandemic from reliable sources. Eighty three percent of the patients receiving immunoglobulin substitution experienced less fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients positively evaluated the solutions related to the direct delivery of drugs to the place of residence in order to continue home IgRT therapy. Fifty three respondents (62.5%) believed that the possibility of a remote consultation was a very good solution. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to increase educational activities concerning the pandemic provided by health care professionals, as patients obtain information mainly from the media and the Internet, which adversely affects the feeling of anxiety. The pandemic, in addition to the very negative impact on patients and the deterioration of their daily functioning, has made patients appreciate their life more, devote more time to family and friends, and do things they like.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/drug therapy , Access to Information , Adult , Affect , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cost of Illness , Drug Substitution , Fear , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Education as Topic , Poland , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/psychology , Social Behavior , Telemedicine , Treatment Outcome
20.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(4): e107-e115, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435924

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related mental health status on chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) has not been addressed before. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the depression, anxiety and stress levels, and the fear of COVID-19 in patients with mild-to-moderate CSU and to determine their impact on urticaria activity during the pandemic. Methods: A total of 509 patients with mild-to-moderate CSU were prospectively evaluated with validated scales, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) during the lockdown period (LP) and the return to normal period (RTNP). CSU activity was determined with the urticaria activity score summed over 7 days (UAS7) and medication scores (MS). UAS7 and MS before the pandemic were retrospectively collected from medical records. Results: The median UAS7 and MS were both significantly higher in the LP than in the median of related scores during the prepandemic period (p < 0.0001) and the RTNP (p < 0.0001). The mean FCV-19S and DASS-21 scores were both significantly higher in the LP than in the RTNP (p < 0.0001). The FCV-19S and the DASS-21 anxiety and stress subscales were significantly higher in women. The UAS7s were positively correlated with the FCV-19S and depression, anxiety, and stress subscale scores. Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19, anxiety, depression, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially when strict isolation measures are taken, have a significant impact on mental health and urticaria activity in patients with mild-to-moderate CSU, even though they are not infected. Psychological support for patients with CSU seems to be important to control disease activity during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Urticaria/psychology , Cost of Illness , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Chronic Urticaria/diagnosis , Chronic Urticaria/epidemiology , Chronic Urticaria/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
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