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3.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 161, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been identified as related to the diseases of susceptible population, but the spatial heterogeneity of its economic burden and its determinants are rarely investigated. The issue is of great policy significance, especially after the epidemic of COVID-19, when human are facing the joint crisis of health and environment, and some areas is prone to falling into poverty. METHODS: The geographical detector was adopted to study the spatial distribution characteristics of the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (ICHE) for older adults in 100 rural areas in China at the prefecture-city level. The health factors, sociological factors, policy factors and environmental factors and their interactions are identified. RESULTS: First, most health service factors had strong explanatory power for ICHE whether it interacts with air pollution. Second, 50 single-factor high-risk areas of ICHE were found in the study, but at the same time, there were 21 areas dominated by multiple factors. CONCLUSION: The different contributions and synergy among the factors constitute the complex mechanism of factors and catastrophic health expenditure. Moreover, during this process, air pollution aggravates the contribution of health service factors toward ICHE. In addition, the leading factors of ICHE are different among regions. At the end, this paper also puts forward some policy suggestions from the perspective of health and environment crisis in the post-COVID-19 world: environmental protection policies should be combined with the prevention of infectious diseases; advanced health investment is the most cost-effective policy for the inverse health sequences of air pollution and infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); integrating environmental protection policy into healthy development policy, different regions take targeted measures to cope with the intertwined crisis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financial Stress , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cities , Cost of Illness , China/epidemiology
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 757, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have grown that post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 may affect significant numbers of survivors. However, the analyses used to guide policy-making for Australia's national and state re-opening plans have not incorporated non-acute illness in their modelling. We, therefore, develop a model by which to estimate the potential acute and post-acute COVID-19 burden using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the re-opening of Australian borders and the easing of other public health measures, with particular attention to longer-term, post-acute consequences and the potential impact of permanent functional impairment following COVID-19. METHODS: A model was developed based on the European Burden of Disease Network protocol guideline and consensus model to estimate the burden of COVID-19 using DALYs. Data inputs were based on publicly available sources. COVID-19 infection and different scenarios were drawn from the Doherty Institute's modelling report to estimate the likely DALY losses under the Australian national re-opening plan. Long COVID prevalence, post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) and potential permanent functional impairment incidences were drawn from the literature. DALYs were calculated for the following health states: the symptomatic phase, Long COVID, PICS and potential permanent functional impairment (e.g., diabetes, Parkinson's disease, dementia, anxiety disorders, ischemic stroke). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed to examine the robustness of the results. RESULTS: Mortality was responsible for 72-74% of the total base case COVID-19 burden. Long COVID and post-intensive care syndrome accounted for at least 19 and 3% of the total base case DALYs respectively. When included in the analysis, potential permanent impairment could contribute to 51-55% of total DALYs lost. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of Long COVID and potential long-term post-COVID disabilities could contribute substantially to the COVID-19 burden in Australia's post-vaccination setting. As vaccination coverage increases, the share of COVID-19 burden driven by longer-term morbidity rises relative to mortality. As Australia re-opens, better estimates of the COVID-19 burden can assist with decision-making on pandemic control measures and planning for the healthcare needs of COVID-19 survivors. Our estimates highlight the importance of valuing the morbidity of post-COVID-19 sequelae, above and beyond simple mortality and case statistics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Critical Illness , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 186-189, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Italy, the case fatality rate (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the first wave of the pandemic showed significant geographic heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between the CFR and measures of disease burden in the Italian regions using an ecological approach. METHODS: Cumulated regional data for the period February 24 to May 11, 2020 were analysed to assess the association of the CFR with the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 and the ratio between the maximum number of COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICU) and ICU beds available before the pandemic (ICU load), adjusting for median age of the patients at disease onset, number of nasopharyngeal swabs performed per confirmed case, and prevalence of chronic diseases . RESULTS: During the study period, the COVID-19 CFR in the Italian regions ranged between 5.0% and 18.4%. On multivariable regression analysis, the CFR was found to be significantly associated with the cumulative incidence (relative rate (RR) 1.02 per 100 cases/1 million increase), median patient age (RR 1.07 per 1 year increase), and ICU load (RR 1.72, 2.18, and 2.57, for >40-70% vs ≤40%, 70-140% vs ≤40%, and ≥140 vs ≤40%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A high burden of COVID-19 may contribute to increased disease fatality, possibly as a result of the increasing demand for care of critically ill patients beyond health system capability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost of Illness , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099545

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created and exacerbated emotional, financial, and technical challenges for informal caregivers of older people. The aim of this study was to explore the caregiving situation and subjective burden of informal caregivers of older family members during COVID-19, and to investigate how a caregiving situation's characteristics predict the subjective burden of care in times of COVID-19. The study was conducted in April and May 2021 via an online access panel. The sample (n = 612) was determined using a screening test that enabled us to focus on a Slovenian population of informal caregivers aged 40+ caring for a person aged 65+ for at least four hours/week on average. Our findings reveal that the subjective burden of care was high among informal caregivers during COVID-19. Multiple regression analysis showed that the provision of activities of daily living, care duration, average hours of care per week, formal care status, and recipients' health problems related to dementia or other memory problems significantly predicted the subjective burden of caregivers. These findings call for better recognition of the role of informal caregivers. The time and effort devoted to informal care should be supported by legislation and social security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Humans , Aged , Caregivers/psychology , Caregiver Burden/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2800-2807, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062777

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 sublineage occurred in Shanghai, China from February 26 to June 30, 2022. We use official reported data retrieved from Shanghai municipal Health Commissions to estimate the incidence of infections, severe/critical infections, and deaths to assess the disease burden. By adjusting for right censoring and RT-PCR sensitivity, we provide estimates of clinical severity, including the infection fatality ratio, symptomatic case fatality ratio, and risk of developing severe/critical disease upon infection. The overall infection rate, severe/critical infection rate, and mortality rate were 2.74 (95% CI: 2.73-2.74) per 100 individuals, 6.34 (95% CI: 6.02-6.66) per 100,000 individuals and 2.42 (95% CI: 2.23-2.62) per 100,000 individuals, respectively. The severe/critical infection rate and mortality rate increased with age, noted in individuals aged 80 years or older. The overall fatality ratio and risk of developing severe/critical disease upon infection were 0.09% (95% CI: 0.09-0.10%) and 0.27% (95% CI: 0.24-0.29%), respectively. Having received at least one vaccine dose led to a 10-fold reduction in the risk of death for infected individuals aged 80 years or older. Under the repeated population-based screenings and strict intervention policies implemented in Shanghai, our results found a lower disease burden and mortality of the outbreak compared to other settings and countries, showing the impact of the successful outbreak containment in Shanghai. The estimated low clinical severity of this Omicron BA.2 epidemic in Shanghai highlight the key contribution of vaccination and availability of hospital beds to reduce the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Disease Outbreaks
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236053, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059206

ABSTRACT

Importance: The global impact of COVID-19 has led to an increased need to continuously assess disease surveillance tools. The utility of SARS-CoV-2 serologic tools in determining immunity levels across different age groups and locations in helping to quickly assess the burden of COVID-19 with significant health policy implications is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with respect to the age group and sex of participants. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional survey of 4904 individuals across 12 states with high and low COVID-19 disease burden in Nigeria was carried out between June 29 and August 21, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the detection of specific SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies, such as the nucleocapsid protein-NCP and spike protein S1. Interviewer-administered questionnaires provided information on participants' history of disease and associated risk factors. Results: A total of 4904 individuals participated in the study (3033 were female [61.8%]; mean [SD] age, 26.7 [6.51] years). A high seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (78.9%) was obtained. Seropositivity was consistent across the states surveyed, ranging from 69.8% in Lagos to 87.7% in Borno. There was no association between sex and seropositivity (female, 2414 [79.6%]; male, 1456 [77.8%]; P = .61); however, an association was noted between age and seropositivity, with the peak prevalence observed in participants aged 15 to 19 years (616 [83.6%]; P = .001). Similarly, loss of appetite (751 [82.3%]; P = .04) and smell (309 [84.4%]; P = .01) were associated with seropositivity. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, a high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was obtained among the study population during the low level of vaccination at the time of the survey. Thus, there is a need for both an efficacy and antibody neutralization test study to ascertain the efficacy of the antibody detected and the potential for herd immunity in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Nefrologia (Engl Ed) ; 42(1): 65-84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049702

ABSTRACT

The uptake of the current concept of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by the public, physicians and health authorities is low. Physicians still mix up CKD with chronic kidney insufficiency or failure. In a recent manuscript, only 23% of participants in a cohort of persons with CKD had been diagnosed by their physicians as having CKD while 29% has a diagnosis of cancer and 82% had a diagnosis of hypertension. For the wider public and health authorities, CKD evokes kidney replacement therapy (KRT). In Spain, the prevalence of KRT is 0.13%. A prevalent view is that for those in whom kidneys fail, the problem is "solved" by dialysis or kidney transplantation. However, the main burden of CKD is accelerated aging and all-cause and cardiovascular premature death. CKD is the most prevalent risk factor for lethal COVID-19 and the factor that most increases the risk of death in COVID-19, after old age. Moreover, men and women undergoing KRT still have an annual mortality which is 10-100-fold higher than similar age peers, and life expectancy is shortened by around 40 years for young persons on dialysis and by 15 years for young persons with a functioning kidney graft. CKD is expected to become the fifth global cause of death by 2040 and the second cause of death in Spain before the end of the century, a time when 1 in 4 Spaniards will have CKD. However, by 2022, CKD will become the only top-15 global predicted cause of death that is not supported by a dedicated well-funded CIBER network research structure in Spain. Leading Spanish kidney researchers grouped in the kidney collaborative research network REDINREN have now applied for the RICORS call of collaborative research in Spain with the support of the Spanish Society of Nephrology, ALCER and ONT: RICORS2040 aims to prevent the dire predictions for the global 2040 burden of CKD from becoming true. However, only the highest level of research funding through the CIBER will allow to adequately address the issue before it is too late.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nephrology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 731, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study investigated the relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) knowledge and positive aspects of caregiving (PAC), in addition, how caregiving attitude and self-efficacy mediate or moderate this relationship. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine formal caregivers (51males and 178females) who has worked in nursing homes for more than a month were recruited.With a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey, structural questionnaires were implemented to evaluate formal caregiver's BPSD knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and PAC.A 13-item self-developed questionnaire was used to assess caregiver's BPSD knowledge about disease characteristics, care and risks, and treatment needs. Dementia attitude, self-efficacy and positive aspects of caregiving were measured by dementia attitude scale, the General self-efficacy scale, and Chinese version of positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Model 5 in the PROCESS micro was employed in order to verify the mediating effect of attitude and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between BPSD knowledge and PAC. RESULTS: The results showed that greater BPSD knowledge was associated with increased PAC, and this relationship was fully mediated by increased friendly attitude toward people with dementia. Moreover, direct effect was moderated by self-efficacy, and that only among those with high self-efficacy, the direct effect of BPSD knowledge was found on promoting PAC. CONCLUSIONS: By elucidating the knowledge-attitude-practice pathway in handling patient's BPSD, the current study extends existing literature and provides insights for developing psychoeducation programs among formal caregivers.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Self Efficacy
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273923, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza cause a clinical and economic burden for health systems and society. It is necessary to know the cost of the disease in order to perform cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive or treatment interventions. OBJECTIVE: Assess the costs of the care of children with influenza in a third level hospital in Mexico. METHODS: Longitudinal retrospective study based on the review of clinical files of children hospitalized with influenza. The use of resources used during their hospitalization in the emergency room, general ward, or PICU was logged, and the amount of supplies were multiplied by their corresponding prices to calculate the direct medical expenses. Descriptive statistics were used, and a GLM was adjusted in order to assess the effect of the clinical characteristics of the patients on the cost. Goodness of fit tests were performed. RESULTS: 132 files were reviewed, out of which 95% were of subjects who had comorbidities. Subjects admitted at the PICU generates the highest cost (mean $29,608.62 USD), when analyzing the total cost summarizing the three clinical areas (Emergency room, general ward and PICU) by age group, the highest cost was for patients over age 10 (mean $49,674.53 USD). Comorbidities increase the cost of hospitalization by $10,000.00 USD. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza causes a significant financial burden on the health system. Children with comorbidities increase the costs and children over 10 years uses a significant amount of resources and they are not a priority in immunization program. It is necessary to perform studies on the use of resources in the first and second attention levels, which represent the highest incidence of the disease.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Child , Cost of Illness , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mexico/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
15.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 89, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Academic research is one of the main avenues through which humans can fight the threat of infectious diseases. However, there have been concerns regarding whether the academic system has provided sufficient efforts to fight infectious diseases we potentially face. Answering these questions could contribute to evidence-based recommendations for setting research priorities and third-mission policies. METHODS: With a focus on one of the most common categories of communicable diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs), we searched Web of Science for articles and reviews relevant to IPDs published during the period 2000-2019 and retrieved WHO data on disease burden in corresponding years. The academic response patterns were explored by IPD subcategory and by human development level (an index established by the United Nations). We conduct the analysis in particular to gain insight into the dynamic relationship between disease burden and research effort on IPDs, scientific efforts contributed by countries with different development levels, and the variation trends in international joint efforts. RESULTS: The greatest burden of IPDs is clustered in the developing regions of Africa, but has received academic response from both developed and developing countries. Highly developed countries dominate the ranks of academic research in this area, yet there is also a clear increase in research efforts from the countries most affected, despite their low human development scale. In fact, the overall analysis reveals an improved capability for addressing local problems from African regions. In terms of international collaboration, highly developed countries such as the United States and United Kingdom have commonly collaborated with needy regions, whereas prolific but developing nations, like China, have not. CONCLUSIONS: From a global perspective, academia has positively responded to health needs caused by IPDs. Although the relevant research output contribution is primarily from the highly developed countries, concentrated and specialized efforts from the undeveloped regions to ease their local burden can be clearly observed. Our findings also indicate a tendency to focus more on local health needs for both developed and undeveloped regions. The insights revealed in this study should benefit a more informed and systemic plan of research priorities.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Parasitic Diseases , China , Cost of Illness , Humans , Publications
16.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 18(9): 525-539, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996865

ABSTRACT

The traditional complications of diabetes mellitus are well known and continue to pose a considerable burden on millions of people living with diabetes mellitus. However, advances in the management of diabetes mellitus and, consequently, longer life expectancies, have resulted in the emergence of evidence of the existence of a different set of lesser-acknowledged diabetes mellitus complications. With declining mortality from vascular disease, which once accounted for more than 50% of deaths amongst people with diabetes mellitus, cancer and dementia now comprise the leading causes of death in people with diabetes mellitus in some countries or regions. Additionally, studies have demonstrated notable links between diabetes mellitus and a broad range of comorbidities, including cognitive decline, functional disability, affective disorders, obstructive sleep apnoea and liver disease, and have refined our understanding of the association between diabetes mellitus and infection. However, no published review currently synthesizes this evidence to provide an in-depth discussion of the burden and risks of these emerging complications. This Review summarizes information from systematic reviews and major cohort studies regarding emerging complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus to identify and quantify associations, highlight gaps and discrepancies in the evidence, and consider implications for the future management of diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Risk
17.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 42(8): 352-368, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992065

ABSTRACT

The costs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are devastating. With millions of deaths worldwide, specific serological biomarkers, antiviral agents, and novel therapies are urgently required to reduce the disease burden. For these purposes, a profound understanding of the pathobiology of COVID-19 is mandatory. Notably, the study of immunity against other respiratory infections has generated reference knowledge to comprehend the paradox of the COVID-19 pathogenesis. Past studies point to a complex interplay between cytokines and other factors mediating wound healing and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling that results in exacerbated inflammation, tissue injury, severe manifestations, and a sequela of respiratory infections. This review provides an overview of the immunological process elicited after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Also, we analyzed available data about the participation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) in immune responses of the lungs. Furthermore, we discuss their possible implications in severe COVID-19 and sequela, including pulmonary fibrosis, and remark on the potential of these molecules as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of convalescent COVID-19 patients. Our review provides a theoretical framework for future research aimed to discover molecular hallmarks that, combined with clinical features, could serve as therapeutic targets and reliable biomarkers of the different clinical forms of COVID-19, including convalescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Biomarkers , COVID-19/immunology , Cost of Illness , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology
18.
Lancet ; 400(10351): 490, 2022 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991368
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(10): 1035-1047, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990695

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 on population health is recognised as being substantial, yet few studies have attempted to quantify to what extent infection causes mild or moderate symptoms only, requires hospital and/or ICU admission, results in prolonged and chronic illness, or leads to premature death. We aimed to quantify the total disease burden of acute COVID-19 in the Netherlands in 2020 using the disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure, and to investigate how burden varies between age-groups and occupations. Using standard methods and diverse data sources (mandatory notifications, population-level seroprevalence, hospital and ICU admissions, registered COVID-19 deaths, and the literature), we estimated years of life lost (YLL), years lived with disability, DALY and DALY per 100,000 population due to COVID-19, excluding post-acute sequelae, stratified by 5-year age-group and occupation category. The total disease burden due to acute COVID-19 was 286,100 (95% CI: 281,700-290,500) DALY, and the per-capita burden was 1640 (95% CI: 1620-1670) DALY/100,000, of which 99.4% consisted of YLL. The per-capita burden increased steeply with age, starting from 60 to 64 years, with relatively little burden estimated for persons under 50 years old. SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated premature mortality was responsible for a considerable direct health burden in the Netherlands, despite extensive public health measures. DALY were much higher than for other high-burden infectious diseases, but lower than estimated for coronary heart disease. These findings are valuable for informing public health decision-makers regarding the expected COVID-19 health burden among population subgroups, and the possible gains from targeted preventative interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cost of Illness
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907012, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963637

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Quantifying the combined impact of morbidity and mortality is a key enabler to assessing the impact of COVID-19 across countries and within countries relative to other diseases, regions, or demographics. Differences in methods, data sources, and definitions of mortality due to COVID-19 may hamper comparisons. We describe efforts to support countries in estimating the national-level burden of COVID-19 using disability-adjusted life years. Methods: The European Burden of Disease Network developed a consensus methodology, as well as a range of capacity-building activities to support burden of COVID-19 studies. These activities have supported 11 national studies so far, with study periods between January 2020 and December 2021. Results: National studies dealt with various data gaps and different assumptions were made to face knowledge gaps. Still, they delivered broadly comparable results that allow for interpretation of consistencies, as well as differences in the quantified direct health impact of the pandemic. Discussion: Harmonized efforts and methodologies have allowed for comparable estimates and communication of results. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions, and unravel the indirect health impact of the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
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