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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(2)2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1602775

ABSTRACT

Pooled testing increases efficiency by grouping individual samples and testing the combined sample, such that many individuals can be cleared with one negative test. This short paper demonstrates that pooled testing is particularly advantageous in the setting of pandemics, given repeated testing, rapid spread, and uncertain risk. Repeated testing mechanically lowers the infection probability at the time of the next test by removing positives from the population. This effect alone means that increasing frequency by x times only increases expected tests by around [Formula: see text] However, this calculation omits a further benefit of frequent testing: Removing infections from the population lowers intragroup transmission, which lowers infection probability and generates further efficiency. For this reason, increasing testing frequency can paradoxically reduce total testing cost. Our calculations are based on the assumption that infection rates are known, but predicting these rates is challenging in a fast-moving pandemic. However, given that frequent testing naturally suppresses the mean and variance of infection rates, we show that our results are very robust to uncertainty and misprediction. Finally, we note that efficiency further increases given natural sampling pools (e.g., workplaces, classrooms) that induce correlated risk via local transmission. We conclude that frequent pooled testing using natural groupings is a cost-effective way to provide consistent testing of a population to suppress infection risk in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uncertainty
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1365, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to estimate the cost of clinical management of COVID-19 infected patients based on their severity by exploring the resources used in health care provision in Myanmar. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cost analysis of COVID-19 patients was performed using the micro-costing approach from the perspective of the health system. It covered two cost components, namely direct and indirect cost of treating a patient. Input data and their quantities were obtained from COVID-19 Standard Treatment Guidelines of Ministry of Health and Sports, and administrative and financial records of resource utilization of three designated health facilities in Yangon Region. Valuation of these resources was based on the price list from the Procurement Section of the Ministry. RESULTS: This study estimated the unit cost of clinical management of COVID-19 infected patients with no symptom to be 953,552 MMK(717 USD), with mild-moderate symptoms to be 1,155,222 MMK(869 USD) and with severe-critically ill conditions to be 5,705,052 MMK(4290 USD). Average cost for a patient par day was 86,687 MMK(65 USD) for asymptomatic patients, 105,020 MMK(79 USD) for mild-moderate patients and 283,252 MMK(214 USD) for severe-critically ill patients. Since the first case detected till December 31, 2020, COVID-19 clinical management cost was accounted for 139 Billion MMK (104 Million USD) for total 124,630 confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic has caused health systems to incur the significant health care expenses. Timely implementation of the sustainable, affordable and efficient policy for COVID-19 responses is of utmost important for every nation especially in the face of a pandemic. This study provides the fundamental inputs for strategic planning, for future economic evaluations of different policy interventions, and policy recommendations for health systems to remain resilient during and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Myanmar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Care Costs , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572492

ABSTRACT

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) rank as one of the top 10 leading causes of death and illness in developed countries. ADRs show differential features depending upon genotype, age, sex, race, pathology, drug category, route of administration, and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) provides the physician effective clues for optimizing drug efficacy and safety in major problems of health such as cardiovascular disease and associated disorders, cancer and brain disorders. Important aspects to be considered are also the impact of immunopharmacogenomics in cutaneous ADRs as well as the influence of genomic factors associated with COVID-19 and vaccination strategies. Major limitations for the routine use of PGx procedures for ADRs prevention are the lack of education and training in physicians and pharmacists, poor characterization of drug-related PGx, unspecific biomarkers of drug efficacy and toxicity, cost-effectiveness, administrative problems in health organizations, and insufficient regulation for the generalized use of PGx in the clinical setting. The implementation of PGx requires: (i) education of physicians and all other parties involved in the use and benefits of PGx; (ii) prospective studies to demonstrate the benefits of PGx genotyping; (iii) standardization of PGx procedures and development of clinical guidelines; (iv) NGS and microarrays to cover genes with high PGx potential; and (v) new regulations for PGx-related drug development and PGx drug labelling.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/metabolism , Pharmacogenetics/trends , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Development , Genotype , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Phenotype
5.
Value Health ; 24(11): 1551-1569, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on our society, with drastic policy restrictions being implemented to contain the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This study aimed to provide an overview of the available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of various coronavirus disease 2019 policy measures. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Health economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Their quality was comprehensively assessed using the Consensus Health Economic Criteria checklist. Next, the quality of the epidemiological models was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 3688 articles were identified (March 2021), of which 23 were included. The studies were heterogeneous with regard to methodological quality, contextual factors, strategies' content, adopted perspective, applied models, and outcomes used. Overall, testing/screening, social distancing, personal protective equipment, quarantine/isolation, and hygienic measures were found to be cost-effective. Furthermore, the most optimal choice and combination of strategies depended on the reproduction number and context. With a rising reproduction number, extending the testing strategy and early implementation of combined multiple restriction measures are most efficient. CONCLUSIONS: The quality assessment highlighted numerous flaws and limitations in the study approaches; hence, their results should be interpreted with caution because the specific context (country, target group, etc) is a key driver for cost-effectiveness. Finally, including a societal perspective in future evaluations is key because this pandemic has an indirect impact on the onset and treatment of other conditions and on our global economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/standards , Health Policy/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e30690, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy is known to improve the management of chronic pain. However, the components of this therapy are still being investigated and debated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy program with new components (attention-shift, memory work, video feedback, and image training) delivered via videoconferencing. METHODS: This study was unblinded and participants were recruited and assessed face-to-face in the outpatient department. We conducted a randomized controlled trial for chronic pain to compare 16 weekly videoconference-based cognitive behavioral therapy (vCBT) sessions provided by a therapist with treatment as usual (TAU). Thirty patients (age range, 22-75 years) with chronic pain were randomly assigned to either vCBT (n=15) or TAU (n=15). Patients were evaluated at week 1 (baseline), week 8 (midintervention), and week 16 (postintervention). The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity, which was recorded using the numerical rating scale at 16 weeks from the baseline. Secondary outcomes were pain severity and pain interference, which were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Additionally, we evaluated disability, pain catastrophizing cognition, depression, anxiety, quality of life, and cost utility. RESULTS: In the eligibility assessment, 30 patients were eventually randomized and enrolled; finally, 15 patients in the vCBT and 14 patients in the TAU group were analyzed. Although no significant difference was found between the 2 groups in terms of changes in pain intensity by the numerical rating scale scores at week 16 from baseline (P=.36), there was a significant improvement in the comprehensive evaluation of pain by total score of Brief Pain Inventory (-1.43, 95% CI -2.49 to -0.37, df=24; P=.01). Further, significant improvement was seen in pain interference by using the Brief Pain Inventory (-9.42, 95% CI -14.47 to -4.36, df=25; P=.001) and in disability by using the Pain Disability Assessment Scale (-1.95, 95% CI -3.33 to -0.56, df=24; P=.008) compared with TAU. As for the Medical Economic Evaluation, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for 1 year was estimated at 2.9 million yen (about US $25,000) per quality-adjusted life year gained. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study suggest that integrated cognitive behavioral therapy delivered by videoconferencing in regular medical care may reduce pain interference but not pain intensity. Further, this treatment method may be cost-effective, although this needs to be further verified using a larger sample size. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network UMIN000031124; https://tinyurl.com/2pr3xszb.


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Adult , Aged , Chronic Pain/therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing , Young Adult
7.
J Wound Care ; 30(9): 751-762, 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lower limb ulceration is a common cause of suffering in patients and its management poses a significant burden on the NHS, with venous leg ulcers (VLUs) being the most common hard-to-heal wound in the UK. It is estimated that over one million patients in the UK have lower limb ulceration, of which 560,000 were categorised as VLUs, with a cost burden of over £3 billion each year. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this service evaluation was to assess the effects of implementing a self-care delivery model on clinical outcomes with the intention of limiting face-to-face health professional contact to one appointment every 6 weeks. METHOD: A suitability assessment was conducted and a cohort of patients were moved to a self-care delivery model. Patient data were collected, anonymised and independently analysed, comparing time to healing against data on file from a previous report. RESULTS: This highlighted that, in 84 of the 95 patients selected, the VLUs had healed by week 24 on the pathway, a further 10 patients' VLUs had healed by week 42 and only one remaining patient reached 42 weeks without healing. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that patients with VLUs can self-care and deliver clinical effectiveness. It is recommended that all services explore the possibility of introducing a self-care model for VLU care.


Subject(s)
Leg Ulcer , Varicose Ulcer , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Leg Ulcer/therapy , Self Care , Varicose Ulcer/therapy , Wound Healing
8.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(3): e263-e268, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A qualitative fit test using bitter-tasting aerosols is the commonest way to determine filtering face-piece (FFP) mask leakage. This taste test is subjective and biased by placebo. We propose a cheap, quantitative modification of the taste test by measuring the amount of fluorescein stained filter paper behind the mask using image analysis. METHODS: A bitter-tasting fluorescein solution was aerosolised during mask fit tests, with filter paper placed on masks' inner surfaces. Participants reported whether they could taste bitterness to determine taste test 'pass' or 'fail' results. Filter paper photographs were digitally analysed to quantify total fluorescence (TF). RESULTS: Fifty-six healthcare professionals were fit tested; 32 (57%) 'passed' the taste test. TF between the taste test 'pass' and 'fail' groups was significantly different (p<0.001). A cut-off (TF = 5.0 × 106 units) was determined at precision (78%) and recall (84%), resulting in 5/56 participants (9%) reclassified from 'pass' to 'fail' by the fluorescein test. Seven out of 56 (12%) reclassified from 'fail' to 'pass'. CONCLUSION: Fluorescein is detectable and sensitive at identifying FFP mask leaks. These low-cost adaptations can enhance exiting fit testing to determine 'pass' and 'fail' groups, protecting those who 'passed' the taste test but have high fluorescein leak, and reassuring those who 'failed' the taste test despite having little fluorescein leak.


Subject(s)
Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Fluorescein , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512554

ABSTRACT

The lack of portability and high cost of multiplex real-time PCR systems limits the device to be used in POC. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes a compact and cost-effective fluorescence detection system that can be integrated to a multiplex real-time PCR equipment. An open platform camera with embedded lens was used instead of photodiodes or an industrial camera. A compact filter wheel using a sliding tape is integrated, and the excitation LEDs are fixed at a 45° angle near the PCR chip, eliminating the need of additional filter wheels. The results show precise positioning of the filter wheel with an error less than 20 µm. Fluorescence detection results using a reference dye and standard DNA amplification showed comparable performance to that of the photodiode system.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504697

ABSTRACT

Protecting healthcare professionals is crucial in maintaining a functioning healthcare system. The risk of infection and optimal preventive strategies for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic remain poorly understood. Here we report the results of a cohort study that included pre- and asymptomatic healthcare workers. A weekly testing regime has been performed in this cohort since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic to identify infected healthcare workers. Based on these observations we have developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission that integrates the sources of infection from inside and outside the hospital. The data were used to study how regular testing and a desynchronisation protocol are effective in preventing transmission of COVID-19 infection at work, and compared both strategies in terms of workforce availability and cost-effectiveness. We showed that case incidence among healthcare workers is higher than would be explained solely by community infection. Furthermore, while testing and desynchronisation protocols are both effective in preventing nosocomial transmission, regular testing maintains work productivity with implementation costs.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cross Infection , Data Collection , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Models, Theoretical , Occupational Exposure , Pandemics , Risk , Stochastic Processes , Switzerland/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502433

ABSTRACT

Internationally, shifts to more urbanised populations, and resultant reductions in engagements with nature, have been a contributing factor to the mental health crisis facing many developed and developing countries. While the COVID-19 pandemic reinforced recent trends in many countries to give access to green spaces more weight in political decision making, nature-based activities as a form of intervention for those with mental health problems constitute a very small part of patient pathways of care. Nature-based interventions, such as ecotherapy, are increasingly used as therapeutic solutions for people with common mental health problems. However, there is little data about the potential costs and benefits of ecotherapy, making it difficult to offer robust assessments of its cost-effectiveness. This paper explores the capacity for ecotherapy to be cost-effective as a healthcare intervention. Using a pragmatic scoping review of the literature to understand where the potential costs and health benefit lie, we applied value of information methodology to identify what research is needed to inform future cost-effectiveness assessments. We show that there is the potential for ecotherapy for people with mild to moderate common mental health problems to be cost-effective but significant further research is required. Furthermore, nature-based interventions such as ecotherapy also confer potential social and wider returns on investment, strengthening the case for further research to better inform robust commissioning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Relaxation Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(9-a Suppl): C2-C3, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498158

ABSTRACT

DISCLOSURES:: No funding supported the writing of this article. The author has received grants from BeiGene, Ltd., and Pfizer, Inc., and advisory board fees from PhRMA Foundation.


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , Cultural Diversity , Health Status Disparities , Social Values , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Industry , Humans
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(10): e1009518, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496328

ABSTRACT

Stay-at-home orders and shutdowns of non-essential businesses are powerful, but socially costly, tools to control the pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2. Mass testing strategies, which rely on widely administered frequent and rapid diagnostics to identify and isolate infected individuals, could be a potentially less disruptive management strategy, particularly where vaccine access is limited. In this paper, we assess the extent to which mass testing and isolation strategies can reduce reliance on socially costly non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as distancing and shutdowns. We develop a multi-compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission incorporating both preventative non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and testing and isolation to evaluate their combined effect on public health outcomes. Our model is designed to be a policy-guiding tool that captures important realities of the testing system, including constraints on test administration and non-random testing allocation. We show how strategic changes in the characteristics of the testing system, including test administration, test delays, and test sensitivity, can reduce reliance on preventative NPIs without compromising public health outcomes in the future. The lowest NPI levels are possible only when many tests are administered and test delays are short, given limited immunity in the population. Reducing reliance on NPIs is highly dependent on the ability of a testing program to identify and isolate unreported, asymptomatic infections. Changes in NPIs, including the intensity of lockdowns and stay at home orders, should be coordinated with increases in testing to ensure epidemic control; otherwise small additional lifting of these NPIs can lead to dramatic increases in infections, hospitalizations and deaths. Importantly, our results can be used to guide ramp-up of testing capacity in outbreak settings, allow for the flexible design of combined interventions based on social context, and inform future cost-benefit analyses to identify efficient pandemic management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Models, Biological , Physical Distancing
15.
BMJ ; 375: n2593, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495418

ABSTRACT

The studyBarker KL, Room J, Knight R, et al. Outpatient physiotherapy versus home-based rehabilitation for patients at risk of poor outcomes after knee arthroplasty: CORKA RCT. Health Technol Assess 2020;24:1-116.To read the full NIHR Alert, go to: https://evidence.nihr.ac.uk/alert/knee-replacements-home-based-rehabilitation-as-effective-physiotherapy/.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/rehabilitation , Home Care Services , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Physical Therapy Modalities , Standard of Care , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Home Care Services/economics , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities/economics , Standard of Care/economics , Treatment Outcome
16.
Vaccine ; 38(45): 7007-7014, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza economic burden in risk groups for severe influenza are important to guide targeted influenza immunization, especially in resource-limited settings. However, this information is limited in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We estimated the cost (from a health system and societal perspective) and years of life lost (YLL) for influenza-associated illness in South Africa during 2013-2015 among (i) children aged 6-59 months, (ii) individuals aged 5-64 years with HIV, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and selected underlying medical conditions (UMC), separately, (iii) pregnant women and (iv) individuals aged ≥65 years, using publicly available data and data collected through laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance and costing studies. All costs were expressed in 2015 prices using the South Africa all-items Consumer Price Index. RESULTS: During 2013-2015, the mean annual cost of influenza-associated illness among the selected risk groups accounted for 52.1% ($140.9/$270.5 million) of the total influenza-associated illness cost (for the entire population of South Africa), 45.2% ($52.2/$115.5 million) of non-medically attended illness costs, 43.3% ($46.7/$107.9 million) of medically-attended mild illness costs and 89.3% ($42.0/$47.1 million) of medically-attended severe illness costs. The YLL among the selected risk groups accounted for 86.0% (262,069 /304,867 years) of the total YLL due to influenza-associated death. CONCLUSION: In South Africa, individuals in risk groups for severe influenza accounted for approximately half of the total influenza-associated illness cost but most of the cost of influenza-associated medically attended severe illness and YLL. This study provides the foundation for future studies on the cost-effectiveness of influenza immunization among risk groups.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , South Africa/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6238, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493104

ABSTRACT

Low- and middle-income countries are implementing COVID-19 vaccination strategies in light of varying vaccine efficacies and costs, supply shortages, and resource constraints. Here, we use a microsimulation model to evaluate clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a COVID-19 vaccination program in South Africa. We varied vaccination coverage, pace, acceptance, effectiveness, and cost as well as epidemic dynamics. Providing vaccines to at least 40% of the population and prioritizing vaccine rollout prevented >9 million infections and >73,000 deaths and reduced costs due to fewer hospitalizations. Model results were most sensitive to assumptions about epidemic growth and prevalence of prior immunity to SARS-CoV-2, though the vaccination program still provided high value and decreased both deaths and health care costs across a wide range of assumptions. Vaccination program implementation factors, including prompt procurement, distribution, and rollout, are likely more influential than characteristics of the vaccine itself in maximizing public health benefits and economic efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , South Africa
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1887, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 20% of UK children experience socio-emotional difficulties which can have serious implications for themselves, their families and society. Stark socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in children's well-being exist. Supporting parents to develop effective parenting skills is an important preventive strategy in reducing inequalities. Parenting interventions have been developed, which aim to reduce the severity and impact of these difficulties. However, most parenting interventions in the UK focus on early childhood (0-10 years) and often fail to engage families from ethnic minority groups and those living in poverty. Strengthening Families, Strengthening Communities (SFSC) is a parenting programme designed by the Race Equality Foundation, which aims to address this gap. Evidence from preliminary studies is encouraging, but no randomised controlled trials have been undertaken so far. METHODS/DESIGN: The TOGETHER study is a multi-centre, waiting list controlled, randomised trial, which aims to test the effectiveness of SFSC in families with children aged 3-18 across seven urban areas in England with ethnically and socially diverse populations. The primary outcome is parental mental well-being (assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale). Secondary outcomes include child socio-emotional well-being, parenting practices, family relationships, self-efficacy, quality of life, and community engagement. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, post intervention, three- and six-months post intervention. Cost effectiveness will be estimated using a cost-utility analysis and cost-consequences analysis. The study is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 comprised a 6-month internal pilot to determine the feasibility of the trial. A set of progression criteria were developed to determine whether the stage 2 main trial should proceed. An embedded process evaluation will assess the fidelity and acceptability of the intervention. DISCUSSION: In this paper we provide details of the study protocol for this trial. We also describe challenges to implementing the protocol and how these were addressed. Once completed, if beneficial effects on both parental and child outcomes are found, the impact, both immediate and longer term, are potentially significant. As the intervention focuses on supporting families living in poverty and those from minority ethnic communities, the intervention should also ultimately have a beneficial impact on reducing health inequalities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered Randomised Controlled Trial ISRCTN15194500 .


Subject(s)
Parenting , Quality of Life , Child, Preschool , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Minority Groups , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Parents , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1888, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Locally delivered, place-based public health interventions are receiving increasing attention as a way of improving health and reducing inequalities. However, there is limited evidence on their effectiveness. This umbrella review synthesises systematic review evidence of the health and health inequalities impacts of locally delivered place-based interventions across three elements of place and health: the physical, social, and economic environments. METHODS: Systematic review methodology was used to identify recent published systematic reviews of the effectiveness of place-based interventions on health and health inequalities (PROGRESS+) in high-income countries. Nine databases were searched from 1st January 2008 to 1st March 2020. The quality of the included articles was determined using the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool (R-AMSTAR). RESULTS: Thirteen systematic reviews were identified - reporting 51 unique primary studies. Fifty of these studies reported on interventions that changed the physical environment and one reported on changes to the economic environment. Only one primary study reported cost-effectiveness data. No reviews were identified that assessed the impact of social interventions. Given heterogeneity and quality issues, we found tentative evidence that the provision of housing/home modifications, improving the public realm, parks and playgrounds, supermarkets, transport, cycle lanes, walking routes, and outdoor gyms - can all have positive impacts on health outcomes - particularly physical activity. However, as no studies reported an assessment of variation in PROGRESS+ factors, the effect of these interventions on health inequalities remains unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Place-based interventions can be effective at improving physical health, health behaviours and social determinants of health outcomes. High agentic interventions indicate greater improvements for those living in greater proximity to the intervention, which may suggest that in order for interventions to reduce inequalities, they should be implemented at a scale commensurate with the level of disadvantage. Future research needs to ensure equity data is collected, as this is severely lacking and impeding progress on identifying interventions that are effective in reducing health inequalities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019158309.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Public Health , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Exercise , Housing , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(Suppl 4)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been shown to be acceptable, feasible and effective in increasing HIV testing uptake. Novel testing strategies are critical to achieving the UNAIDS target of 95% HIV-positive diagnosis by 2025 in South Africa and globally. METHODS: We modelled the impact of six HIVST kit distribution modalities (community fixed-point, taxi ranks, workplace, partners of primary healthcare (PHC) antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients), partners of pregnant women, primary PHC distribution) in South Africa over 20 years (2020-2039), using data collected alongside the Self-Testing AfRica Initiative. We modelled two annual distribution scenarios: (A) 1 million HIVST kits (current) or (B) up to 6.7 million kits. Incremental economic costs (2019 US$) were estimated from the provider perspective; assumptions on uptake and screening positivity were based on surveys of a subset of kit recipients and modelled using the Thembisa model. Cost-effectiveness of each distribution modality compared with the status-quo distribution configuration was estimated as cost per life year saved (estimated from life years lost due to AIDS) and optimised using a fractional factorial design. RESULTS: The largest impact resulted from secondary HIVST distribution to partners of ART patients at PHC (life years saved (LYS): 119 000 (scenario A); 393 000 (scenario B)). However, it was one of the least cost-effective modalities (A: $1394/LYS; B: $4162/LYS). Workplace distribution was cost-saving ($52-$76 million) and predicted to have a moderate epidemic impact (A: 40 000 LYS; B: 156 000 LYS). An optimised scale-up to 6.7 million tests would result in an almost threefold increase in LYS compared with a scale-up of status-quo distribution (216 000 vs 75 000 LYS). CONCLUSION: Optimisation-informed distribution has the potential to vastly improve the impact of HIVST. Using this approach, HIVST can play a key role in improving the long-term health impact of investment in HIVST.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Self-Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Pregnancy , South Africa/epidemiology
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