Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 792
Filter
1.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(Suppl 3): 16, 2022 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158217

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Humans , Cough , Pain
2.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(10): 1085-1091, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155735

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features and prognosis of children and their family members with family clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant infection under the admission mode of parent-child ward. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 190 children and 190 family members with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection who were admitted to Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, the designated hospital for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), April 8 to May 10, 2022. RESULTS: Both the child and adult groups were mainly mild COVID-19, and the proportion of mild cases in the child group was higher than that in the adult group (P<0.05). Respiratory symptoms were the main clinical manifestations in both groups. Compared with the adult group, the child group had higher incidence rates of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and wheezing (P<0.05) and lower incidence rates of nasal obstruction, runny nose, cough, dry throat, throat itching, and throat pain (P<0.05). Compared with the child group, the adult group had higher rates of use of Chinese patent drugs, traditional Chinese medicine decoction, recombinant interferon spray, cough-relieving and phlegm-eliminating drugs, and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir tablets (P<0.05). Compared with the adult group, the child group had a lower vaccination rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (30.5% vs 71.1%, P<0.001) and a shorter duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (P<0.05). The patients with mild COVID-19 had a shorter duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid than those with common COVID-19 in both groups (P<0.05). The patients with underlying diseases had a longer duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid than those without such diseases in both groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both children and adults with family clusters of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection manifest mainly mild COVID-19. Despite lower vaccination rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children, they have rapid disease recovery, with a shorter duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid than adults, under the admission mode of parent-child ward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Family
3.
Anesthesiology ; 134(1): 61-71, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with inoculation dose. This has triggered interest in intubation barrier devices to block droplet exposure; however, aerosol protection with these devices is not known. This study hypothesized that barrier devices reduce aerosol outside of the barrier. METHODS: Aerosol containment in closed, semiclosed, semiopen, and open barrier devices was investigated: (1) "glove box" sealed with gloves and caudal drape, (2) "drape tent" with a drape placed over a frame, (3) "slit box" with armholes and caudal end covered by vinyl slit diaphragms, (4) original "aerosol box," (5) collapsible "interlocking box," (6) "simple drape" over the patient, and (7) "no barrier." Containment was investigated by (1) vapor instillation at manikin's right arm with video-assisted visual evaluation and (2) submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosol particles ejected through the manikin's mouth with ventilation and coughs. Samples were taken from standardized locations inside and around the barriers using a particle counter and a mass spectrometer. Aerosol evacuation from the devices was measured using standard hospital suction, a surgical smoke evacuator, and a Shop-Vac. RESULTS: Vapor experiments demonstrated leakage via arm holes and edges. Only closed and semiclosed devices and the aerosol box reduced aerosol particle counts (median [25th, 75th percentile]) at the operator's mouth compared to no barrier (combined median 29 [-11, 56], n = 5 vs. 157 [151, 166], n = 5). The other barrier devices provided less reduction in particle counts (133 [128, 137], n = 5). Aerosol evacuation to baseline required 15 min with standard suction and the Shop-Vac and 5 min with a smoke evacuator. CONCLUSIONS: Barrier devices may reduce exposure to droplets and aerosol. With meticulous tucking, the glove box and drape tent can retain aerosol during airway management. Devices that are not fully enclosed may direct aerosol toward the laryngoscopist. Aerosol evacuation reduces aerosol content inside fully enclosed devices. Barrier devices must be used in conjunction with body-worn personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Aerosols/adverse effects , Cough/prevention & control , Cough/virology , Health Personnel , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
4.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(7): 588-603, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis provides a quantitative measure of the otorhinolaryngological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 in children. METHODS: A structured literature review was carried out using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central, employing pertinent search terms. The statistical analysis was performed using Stata version 14.2 software, and the analysed data were expressed as the pooled prevalence of the symptoms with 95 per cent confidence intervals. RESULTS: The commonest symptoms noted were cough (38 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 33-42; I2 = 97.5 per cent)), sore throat (12 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval =10-14; I2 = 93.7 per cent)), and nasal discharge (15 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 12-19; I2 = 96.9 per cent)). Anosmia and taste disturbances showed a pooled prevalence of 8 per cent each. Hearing loss, vertigo and hoarseness were rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Cough, sore throat and nasal discharge were the commonest otorhinolaryngological symptoms in paediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Compared with adults, anosmia and taste disturbances were infrequently reported in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Adult , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology
5.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 226: 107109, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 outbreak has become one of the most challenging problems for human being. It is a communicable disease caused by a new coronavirus strain, which infected over 375 million people already and caused almost 6 million deaths. This paper aims to develop and design a framework for early diagnosis and fast classification of COVID-19 symptoms using multimodal Deep Learning techniques. METHODS: we collected chest X-ray and cough sample data from open source datasets, Cohen and datasets and local hospitals. The features are extracted from the chest X-ray images are extracted from chest X-ray datasets. We also used cough audio datasets from Coswara project and local hospitals. The publicly available Coughvid DetectNow and Virufy datasets are used to evaluate COVID-19 detection based on speech sounds, respiratory, and cough. The collected audio data comprises slow and fast breathing, shallow and deep coughing, spoken digits, and phonation of sustained vowels. Gender, geographical location, age, preexisting medical conditions, and current health status (COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19) are recorded. RESULTS: The proposed framework uses the selection algorithm of the pre-trained network to determine the best fusion model characterized by the pre-trained chest X-ray and cough models. Third, deep chest X-ray fusion by discriminant correlation analysis is used to fuse discriminatory features from the two models. The proposed framework achieved recognition accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 98.91%, 96.25%, and 97.69%, respectively. With the fusion method we obtained 94.99% accuracy. CONCLUSION: This paper examines the effectiveness of well-known ML architectures on a joint collection of chest-X-rays and cough samples for early classification of COVID-19. It shows that existing methods can effectively used for diagnosis and suggesting that the fusion learning paradigm could be a crucial asset in diagnosing future unknown illnesses. The proposed framework supports health informatics basis on early diagnosis, clinical decision support, and accurate prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , X-Rays , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31361, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115854

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Paxlovid has shown the potential decreasing the hospitalization rate of mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and death in few of clinical trials, and is expected to the most promising medicine targeting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SRAS-COV-2). However, there are no enough evidences to show it effectiveness for all patients with SARS-COV-2, especially among elderly patients and newest Omicron variant. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: A 79 year's old female patient was admitted to hospital because of the moderate COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant BA2.0. He presented the initial syndromes including Xerostomia, cough and fever. Chest computed tomography (CT) scanning at admission showed the exudation lesions on lung. The laboratory examination revealed that there are increased C-reactive protein (CRP), Ferritin and erythrocytesedimentationrate (ESR) and decreased white blood cells. INTERVENTIONS: The oral Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir) was administrated on second day after admission. OUTCOMES: The syndromes of Xerostomia, cough and fever was improved on third day after use of Paxlovid. The levels of CRP, ESR and counts of white blood cells returned the normal after three days of admission. The chest CT scanned on the third and sixth day after Paxlovid used showed the absorption of lesions. The examination of SARS-COVS viral nucleic acid turned negative at fifth day of admission. LESSONS: As a result, we would consider that Paxlovid is a suitable oral drug for elderly patients with SARS-COV2 even Omicron variant, it's benefit to improve patient's symptom and signs and can prevents COVID-19 with the high-risk factors from severe disease, although it didn't shorten the time for viral nucleic acid to turn negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Male , Humans , Female , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/etiology , RNA, Viral , Fever/etiology
7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(9): 905-908, 2022 Sep.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics in patients with persistent positive pharyngeal swab of 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant and results of nucleic acid testing of anal swabs to provide basis for prevention and control measures. METHODS: This study included 93 patients whose pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test were persistent positive and admitted to the ward of Daping Hospital in the National Exhibition and Convention Center (Shanghai) Makeshift Hospital from May 1 to May 24, 2022. The gender, age, underlying diseases, vaccination status, clinical symptoms, interval between infection onset and anal sampling, length of hospital stay, the nucleic acid test result of pharyngeal swabs and anal swabs and the time turning negative were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The age of 93 patients ranged from 8 to 72 years old with a median of (46.0±16.0) years old. Among them, 30 cases (32.3%) were male and 63 cases (67.7%) were female. Sixty-five patients (69.9%) received 2-3 shots of vaccine, 2 patients (2.1%) received 1 shot, and 26 patients (28.0%) did not receive any vaccination. Twenty patients (21.5%) had underlying diseases, of which hypertension (13 cases, 14.0%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (6 cases, 6.5%) were the most common. Twenty-four patients (25.8%) had asymptomatic infection and the rest (69 cases, 74.2%) had mild symptoms. Cough (50 cases, 53.8%) and sore throat (28 cases, 30.1%) were the most common clinical manifestations of the upper respiratory tract in these patients. Only 6 patients (6.5%) had gastrointestinal symptoms (including diarrhea in 5 patients and diarrhea with vomiting in 1 patient). Pharyngeal and anal swabs were collected simultaneously from all 93 patients at 8-16th days [(11.55±2.27) days] after 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant infection. The pharyngeal swabs were positive in 79 patients (85.0%) and the anal swabs were positive in 5 patients (5.4%). The time of pharyngeal swabs turning negative was (14.7±2.9) days, and that of anal swab turning positive was (14.2±1.9) days. The median length of hospital stay was (16.7±2.9) days. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with persistent positive nucleic acid of the 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant, there were more mild infection than asymptomatic. The upper respiratory tract symptoms such as cough and sore throat were the most. The likelihood of transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant through the digestive tract may be low. The correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms and 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant RNA in the digestive tract is uncertain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Nucleic Acids , Pharyngitis , Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough , China , Diarrhea
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30874, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the common signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and dyspnea, with multiple organ injuries in severe cases. Therefore, finding drugs to prevent and treat COVID-19 is urgently needed and expected by the public. Several studies suggested beneficial effects of melatonin for the relevant prevention and treatment. To explore the effect and safety of melatonin in the treatment and provide theoretical support and reference for seeking the most suitable drug for COVID-19, the meta-analysis was carried out accordingly. METHODS: It included randomized clinical trials of patients with COVID-19 treated with melatonin. Total effective rate was the primary outcome, while C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), white blood cell count (WBC) were the secondary measures. Random-effect and fixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effect size of some indicators in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Six eligible studies with 338 participants were included. One hundred seventy subjects were treated with melatonin adjuvant therapy and 168 subjects were assigned to the control group, with total excellent effective rate in subjects treated with melatonin [odds ratio = 3.05, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.47, 6.31, P = .003]. Homogeneity was analyzed by fixed effect model (I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference in CRP between the melatonin group and the control group (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.36, 95% CI = -3.65, 2.92, P = .83). Significant difference was not existed in SaO2 between the melatonin treatment group and the control group (WMD = 1, 95% CI = -1.21, 3.22, P = .37). In terms of WBC, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (WMD = -1.07, 95% CI = -2.44, 0.30, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis showed that melatonin had the beneficial effects for COVID-19 prevention and treatment as an adjunctive agent in combination with basic treatment for the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cough/drug therapy , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1009894, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119886

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To summarize the clinical characteristics of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant and explore the risk factors affecting the progression in a Fangcang hospital, Shanghai, China. Methods: A total of 25,207 patients were retrospectively enrolled. We described the clinical characteristics and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors for non-severe to severe COVID-19 or death. Results: According to the outcomes, there were 39 severe patients (including 1 death) and 25,168 non-severe patients enrolled in this study. Among the 25,207 cases, the median age was 45 years (IQR 33-54), and 65% patients were male. Cough (44.5%) and expectoration (38.4%) were the most two common symptoms. Hypertension (10.4%) and diabetes (3.5%) were most two common comorbidities. Most patients (81.1%) were fully vaccinated. The unvaccinated and partially vaccinated patients were 15.1% and 3.9%, respectively. The length of viral shedding time was six days (IQR 4-9) in non-severe patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that age (OR=1.062, 95%CI 1.034-1.090, p<0.001), fever (OR=2.603, 95%CI 1.061-6.384, p=0.037), cough (OR=0.276, 95%CI 0.119-0.637, p=0.003), fatigue (OR=4.677, 95%CI 1.976-11.068, p<0.001), taste disorders (OR=14.917, 95%CI 1.884-118.095, p=0.010), and comorbidity (OR=2.134, 95%CI 1.059-4.302, p=0.034) were predictive factors for deterioration of SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant infection. Conclusions: Non-critical patients have different clinical characteristics from critical patients. Age, fever, cough, fatigue, taste disorders, and comorbidity are predictors for the deterioration of SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Hospitals , Taste Disorders , Fatigue , Disease Progression
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937760, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND On rare occasions, viral infections are known to also depress immune cell lines, further worsening clinical outcomes. We describe a patient who presented 3 weeks after recovery from mild COVID-19 disease with clinical features of an atypical pneumonia and was found to have a low CD4+ T-cell count. CASE REPORT An 82-year-old man with a past medical history of coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation presented with a 1-week history of progressively worsening shortness of breath and cough. He was noted to have recovered from mild SARS-CoV-2 infection 3 weeks prior to his current presentation and had been at his baseline level of health following infection. A T cell subset panel was obtained, which revealed an absolute CD3 count of 92 (reference range 840-3060), absolute CD4 count of 52 (reference range 500-1400), absolute CD8 count of 37 (reference range 180-1170), and a normal CD4: CD8 ratio. He was subsequently started on atovaquone for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for lymphocyte depletion in older patients with multiple comorbidities who present during or after SARS-CoV-2 infection with atypical symptoms that are suggestive of immunosuppression. In such instances, there should be a low threshold to start prophylactic therapy for possible opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Male , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Cough
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276796, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated COVID-19 symptoms, case fatality rate (CFR), and viral load among all Long-Term Care Facility (LTCF) residents and staff in South Limburg, the Netherlands (February 2020-June 2020, wildtype SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain). METHODS: Patient information was gathered via regular channels used to notify the public health services. Ct-values were obtained from the Maastricht University Medical Centre laboratory. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between COVID-19, symptoms, CFR, and viral load. RESULTS: Of 1,457 staff and 1,540 residents, 35.1% and 45.2% tested positive for COVID-19. Symptoms associated with COVID-19 for female staff were fever, cough, muscle ache and loss of taste and smell. Associated symptoms for men were cough, and loss of taste and smell. Associated symptoms for residents were subfebrility, fatigue, and fever for male residents only. LTCF residents had a higher mean viral load compared to staff. Male residents had a higher CFR (35.8%) compared to women (22.5%). Female residents with Ct-values 31 or less had increased odds of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Subfebrility and fatigue seem to be associated with COVID-19 in LTCF residents. Therefore, physicians should also consider testing residents who (only) show aspecific symptoms whenever available resources prohibit testing of all residents. Viral load was higher in residents compared to staff, and higher in male residents compared to female residents. All COVID-19 positive male residents, as well as female residents with a medium to high viral load (Ct-values 31 or lower) should be monitored closely, as these groups have an overall increased risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Long-Term Care , Viral Load , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Cough , Delivery of Health Care , Fatigue
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18472, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096811

ABSTRACT

The northern region of Brazil is already vulnerable to other infectious diseases and it was no different in COVID-19. However, cardiovascular diseases still lead the causes of death. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the clinical predictors and outcome of severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients with and without CVD in this region of the Amazon. A retrospective cohort, referring to the notifications from January 1 to December 31, 2020, including cases confirmed by molecular testing. The study consisted of 9223 confirmed cases for COVID-19. Of these, 6011 (65.17%) did not have cardiovascular disease and 3212 (34.83%) had some cardiovascular disease. The significance of deaths was in the age group of < 1 to 59 CVD carriers (< 0.001). Predictor of mortality were invasive ventilation for patients with CVD, (OR 23,688 CI 18,180-30,866), followed by chronic kidney disease (OR 2442 CI 1568-3740), dyspnea (OR 2312 CI 1817-3941), respiratory distress (OR 1523 CI 1210-2919), cough (OR 1268 CI 1005-1599), Lower oxygen saturation 95% (OR 1281 CI 1039-1579), diabetes mellitus (OR 1267 CI 1050-1528) and age (OR 1051 CI 1044-1058). Carriers of CVD had a lower survival rate (< 0.0001). The order of the predictors of death differed among the non-carriers, as well as the high odds ratio in the predictors of CVD, only cough was an independent predictor. The age group under 59 years was associated with deaths. We also show the shorter survival in CVD carriers, as well as the higher cardiovascular morbidity rate than other studies in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Cough/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Dyspnea/complications
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18230, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096798

ABSTRACT

Healthcare providers are vulnerable to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of their close proximity to patients with coronavirus disease 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is mainly transmitted via direct and indirect contact with respiratory droplets, and its airborne transmission has also been identified. However, evidence for environmental factors is scarce, and evidence-based measures to minimize the risk of infection in clinical settings are insufficient. Using computational fluid dynamics, we simulated exhalation of large and small aerosol particles by patients in an otolaryngology examination room, where medical procedures require the removal of a face mask. The effects of coughing were analyzed, as well as those of humidity as a controllable environmental factor and of a suction device as an effective control method. Our results show that a suction device can minimize aerosol exposure of healthcare workers by efficiently removing both large (11.6-98.2%) and small (39.3-99.9%) aerosol particles. However, for coughing patients, the removal efficiency varies inversely with the particle size, and the humidity notably affects the aerosol behavior, indicating the need for countermeasures against smaller aerosols. Overall, these results highlight the potential and limitation of using a suction device to protect against SARS-CoV-2 and future respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Infection Control , Cough , Hospitals
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1006631, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093783

ABSTRACT

Aim: We aimed to describe the characteristics of individuals infected by BA.4 or BA.5 in France in comparison to BA.1, and analyze the factors associated with hospitalization among BA.4 and BA.5 cases. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on confirmed and probable Omicron cases. Hospitalization risk factors among BA.4/BA.5 cases were analyzed using Poisson regression. Variables with a p-value below 0.2 in the univariate analysis and a priori confounders were included in the multivariable regression model. Results: The median age of the 301 cases investigated was 47 years and 97% of cases were symptomatic. The most common clinical signs were asthenia/fatigue (75.7%), cough (58.3%), fever (58.3%), headache (52.1%) and rhinorrhea (50.7%). Twelve cases were hospitalized, and 27.1% reported risk factors. No admissions to intensive care and no deaths were reported. Vaccination status was available for 292 cases, 20.9% were unvaccinated, 1.4% had received one dose, 38.3% two doses and 39.4% three doses. Cases presenting at least one risk factor were almost seventeen times more likely to be hospitalized than those with no risk factors (aRR = 16.72 [95% CI2.59-326.86]). Conclusion: Despite the longer duration of and the differences in symptoms and their possible immune escape, BA.4/BA.5 Omicron sub-lineages globally showed no severe clinical presentation. The presence of at least one risk factor for severe disease significantly increased the risk of hospitalization for those infected with BA.4 or BA.5.


Subject(s)
Cough , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
15.
Medwave ; 22(9): e2581, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090780

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic for coronavirus 19. Typical symptoms were fever, cough, asthenia, dyspnea, and muscle pain. Pulmonary and central nervous system compromise presented challenging characteristics for healthcare physicians. The objectives of this study were to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SARS-COV-2 infection survivors in a region of Argentina and to determine differences between gender, age groups, year of infection, and evolution time since diagnosis. Methods: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional observational study was carried out. A self-administered questionnaire was applied, which was available between August and December 2021. Results: Among 1868 individuals included, the mean age was 39.4 ± 13.9 years, and 72.8% were female. Arterial hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity (11.7%). The majority were outpatients (81.9%). The most frequent presentation symptoms at all ages were asthenia (83.7%), fever (54.9%), headache (60.8%), anosmia (64.8%), ageusia (53.2%), cough (54.4%) and myalgias (53.7%). For the 18 to 29 years old age group, the most prevalent presentation symptoms were: headache (69.4%), anosmia (69.1%), ageusia (60.2%), odynophagia (45%), and rhinitis/nasal congestion (46.9%). In the 30 to 64 years old age group, there was a higher prevalence of myalgias (55.8%), arthralgias (41%), and concentration/memory disorder (28.3%). Male showed higher prevalence of fever (64.9% versus 51.1%; p < 0.001) and pneumonia (23.5% versus 13.4%; p < 0.001). After 12 weeks from diagnosis, 38.1% of patients persisted with asthenia, 23.6% with anosmia/dysosmia, and 21.2% with concentration/memory disorders. Conclusions: Systemic symptoms were common to all age groups with coronavirus 19 disease; however, younger, and intermediate age groups presented a higher prevalence of central nervous system symptoms such as anosmia and cognitive disorders, respectively. Symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis reached slightly more than 10% of the participants.


Introducción: En marzo de 2020 la enfermedad por coronavirus 19 fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Los síntomas más comunes fueron fiebre, tos, astenia, disnea y dolor muscular. Los compromisos pulmonar y del sistema nervioso central presentaron características desafiantes para los médicos asistenciales. Los objetivos del estudio fueron conocer las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de sobrevivientes a infección por SARS-CoV-2 en una región de Argentina, y determinar las diferencias entre género, grupos etarias, año de contagio, tiempo de evolución desde el diagnóstico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y analítico de corte transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto administrado, que estuvo disponible entre agosto y diciembre de 2021. Resultados: La media de edad fue de 39,4 ± 13,9 años, el 72,8% fueron mujeres. La comorbilidad más frecuente fue hipertensión arterial (11,7%). La mayoría de los pacientes fueron ambulatorios (81,9%). Los síntomas de presentación más frecuentes a cualquier edad, fueron astenia (83,7%), fiebre (54,9%), cefalea (60,8%), anosmia (64,8%), ageusia (53,2%), tos (54,4%) y mialgias (53,7%). Para el grupo de 18 a 29 años los síntomas de presentación más prevalentes fueron cefalea (69,4%), anosmia 69,1%), ageusia (60,2%), odinofagia (45%) y rinitis/congestión nasal (46,9%). En el grupo de 30 a 64 años se observó mayor prevalencia de mialgias (55,8%), artralgias (41%), falta de concentración/memoria (28,3%). Los hombres mostraron más prevalencia de fiebre (64,9% versus 51,1%; p < 0,001) y neumonía (23,5% versus 13,4%; p < 0,001). Luego de las 12 semanas del diagnóstico 38,1% de los pacientes persistían con astenia, 23,6% con anosmia/disosmia y 21,2% con trastornos de concentración/memoria. Conclusiones: La enfermedad por coronavirus 19 presenta un patrón de síntomas sistémicos común a todos los grupos etarios. No obstante, los grupos más jóvenes presentan más prevalencia de síntomas de afección del sistema nervioso central como la anosmia y los grupos intermedios, mayor prevalencia de trastornos cognitivos. Los síntomas más allá de las 12 semanas del diagnóstico alcanzaron a algo más del 10% de los participantes.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Asthenia , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Survivors
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 613, 2022 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several individual studies from specific countries have reported rising numbers of pediatric COVID-19 cases with inconsistent reports on the clinical symptoms including respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms as well as diverse reports on the mean age and household exposure in children. The epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in children are not fully understood, hence, comprehensive meta-analyses are needed to provide a better understanding of these characteristics. METHODS: This review was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science, and published reports on COVID-19 in children. Data were extracted by two independent researchers and a third researcher resolved disputes. STATA software and the random-effect model were used in the synthesis of our data. For each model, the heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the Q Cochrane test. Heterogeneity and publication bias were calculated using the I2 statistic and Egger's/Begg's tests. RESULTS: The qualitative systematic review was performed on 32 articles. Furthermore, the meta-analysis estimated an overall rate of involvement at 12% (95% CI: 9-15%) among children, with an I2 of 98.36%. The proportion of household exposure was calculated to be 50.99% (95% CI: 20.80%-80.80%) and the proportion of admitted cases was calculated to be 45% (95% CI: 24%-67%). Additionally, the prevalence of cough, fatigue, fever and dyspnea was calculated to be 25% (95% CI: 0.16-0.36), 9% (95% CI: 0.03-0.18), 33% (95% CI: 0.21-0.47) and 9% (95% CI: 0.04-0.15), respectively. It is estimated that 4% (95% CI: 1-8%) of cases required intensive care unit admission. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric clinical picture of COVID-19 is not simply a classic respiratory infection, but unusual presentations have been reported. Given the high incidence of household transmission and atypical clinical presentation in children, we strongly recommend their inclusion in research and population-based preventive measures like vaccination as well as clinical trials to ensure efficacy, safety, and tolerability in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Fever/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/etiology
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(42): e31289, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To systematically review and meta-analyze the efficacy of vitamin A as an adjuvant therapy for pneumonia in children. METHODS: We searched in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database and Chongqing VIP information network from libraries building to March 2022, screening randomized controlled trials (RCT) about vitamin A combined with conventional therapy for pneumonia in children. Two researchers used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess the quality of included studies dependently. Data analysis was conducted in the RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: 15 trials involving 3496 patients (treated group: 1898; control group: 1598) were analyzed in this study. The Meta-analysis showed that vitamin A combined with conventional therapy improved clinical efficacy (P < .05), shortened the duration of fever and cough, negative time of chest X-ray, and the hospitalization, lung rale disappearance, choking milk disappearance, shortness of breath disappearance and perilabial cyanosis disappearance (P < .05). However, vitamin A combined with conventional therapy did not reduce the mortality of pneumonia in children (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Vitamin A contributes to relieve the clinical symptoms and signs, and also shorten the hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Child , Humans , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Cough , Fever
18.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937834, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mainly presents with lower respiratory tract symptoms. On the other hand, laryngotracheitis or croup shows barky cough and it is rare in adults. There were no reports of laryngotracheitis with COVID-19 in pregnant women. We report the case of a pregnant woman at 24 weeks of gestation presenting with acute laryngotracheitis and COVID-19 due to the R.1 variant of SARS-CoV-2. CASE REPORT A 29-year-old previously healthy woman at 24 weeks of gestation presented with hoarseness and sore throat without fever, of 1-day duration. Although she was treated by her primary care physician with nebulized epinephrine, her symptoms did not resolve. She came to our hospital the same day. On arrival at our department, she was tachypneic and had a 95% oxygen saturation. She had stridor and barking cough. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed edema under the vocal cords. She was hospitalized urgently. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was positive and the E484K mutation was confirmed. She was treated with oral and inhaled corticosteroids. Two days after admission, her symptoms were improved. She was discharged 10 days after admission. Edema under the vocal cords was completely improved 24 days after discharge. There were no adverse effects on the pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 laryngotracheitis has a more severe disease course than other causes, especially in pregnancy. COVID-19 laryngotracheitis should be use corticosteroids to treatment. Prednisolone is recommended for laryngotracheitis with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Croup , Adult , Cough/etiology , Epinephrine , Female , Humans , Prednisolone , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079755

ABSTRACT

AIM: Mortality rates of coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) disease continue to increase worldwide and in Africa. In this study, we aimed to summarize the available results on the association between sociodemographic, clinical, biological, and comorbidity factors and the risk of mortality due to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We followed the PRISMA checklist (S1 Checklist). We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and European PMC between January 1, 2020, and September 23, 2021. We included observational studies with Subjects had to be laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients; had to report risk factors or predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients, Studies had to be published in English, include multivariate analysis, and be conducted in the sub-Saharan region. Exclusion criteria included case reports, review articles, commentaries, errata, protocols, abstracts, reports, letters to the editor, and repeat studies. The methodological quality of the studies included in this meta-analysis was assessed using the methodological items for nonrandomized studies (MINORS). Pooled hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated separately to identify mortality risk. In addition, publication bias and subgroup analysis were assessed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Twelve studies with a total of 43598 patients met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes of interest were mortality. The results of the analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of mortality in COVID-19 patients was 4.8%. Older people showed an increased risk of mortality from SARS-Cov-2. The pooled hazard ratio (pHR) and odds ratio (pOR) were 9.01 (95% CI; 6.30-11.71) and 1.04 (95% CI; 1.02-1.06), respectively. A significant association was found between COVID-19 mortality and men (pOR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.04-2). In addition, the risk of mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection was strongly influenced by chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension, severe or critical infection on admission, cough, and dyspnea. The major limitations of the present study are that the data in the meta-analysis came mainly from studies that were published, which may lead to publication bias, and that the causal relationship between risk factors and poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 cannot be confirmed because of the inherent limitations of the observational study. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, male sex, CKD, hypertension, severe or critical condition on admission, cough, and dyspnea are clinical risk factors for fatal outcomes associated with coronavirus. These findings could be used for research, control, and prevention of the disease and could help providers take appropriate measures and improve clinical outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Aged , Cough , Dyspnea , Humans , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071836

ABSTRACT

Compared to adults, severe or fatal COVID-19 disease is much less common in children. However, a higher risk for progression has been reported in infants. Different pediatric COVID-19 severity scores are reported in the literature. METHODS: Subjects under 90 days of age admitted to 35 Italian institutions for COVID-19 were included. The severity of COVID-19 was scored as mild/moderate or severe/critical following the classification reported in the literature by Venturini, Dong, Kanburoglu, and Gale. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of each classification system, we stratified all enrolled patients developing a posteriori severity score based on clinical presentation and outcomes and then compared all different scores analyzed. RESULTS: We included 216 infants below 90 days of age. The most common symptom was fever, followed by coryza, poor feeding, cough, and gastrointestinal manifestations. According to Venturini, Dong, Kanburoglu, and Gale's severity scores, 18%, 6%, 4.2%, and 29.6% of infants presented with severe/critical disease, respectively. A correlation analysis between these four scores and the a posteriori severity score assigned to all enrolled subjects was performed, and a crescent strength of correlation from Gale (R = 0.355, p < 0.001) to Venturini (R = 0.425, p < 0.001), Dong (R = 0.734, p < 0.001), and Kanburoglu (R = 0.859, p < 0.001) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of infants with severe COVID-19 varies widely according to the score systems. A unique clinical score should be designed for neonates and infants with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Child , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Fever , Cough
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL