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1.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324609

ABSTRACT

A 7-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with fever, cough, congestion, abdominal pain, myalgias, and morbilliform rash. Several aspects of the patient's history, including recent travel, living on a farm, exposure to sick contacts, and new medications, resulted in a wide differential diagnosis. Initial laboratory testing revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and elevated atypical lymphocytes, but did not reveal any infectious causes of illness. He was discharged from the hospital, but then represented to the emergency department a day later with worsening rash, continued fever, abdominal pain, and poor intake. He was then admitted. A more comprehensive laboratory evaluation was initiated. During this hospital course, the patient's physical examination changed when he developed head and neck edema, and certain laboratory trends became clearer. With the assistance of several specialists, the team was able to reach a more definitive diagnosis and initiate treatment to appropriately manage his condition.


Subject(s)
Cough , Exanthema , Male , Humans , Child , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Leukocytosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Exanthema/etiology
2.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 130(5): 681-689, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313520

ABSTRACT

Nationwide statistics in the United States and Australia reveal that cough of undifferentiated duration is the most common complaint for which patients of all ages seek medical care in the ambulatory setting. Management of chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for new patient visits to respiratory specialists. Because symptomatic cough is such a common problem and so much has been learned about how to diagnose and treat cough of all durations but especially chronic cough, this 2-part yardstick has been written to review in a practical way the evidence-based guidelines most of which have been developed from high-quality systematic reviews on how best to manage cough of all durations in adults, adolescents, and children. Chronic cough in children is often benign and self-limiting. Using established and validated protocols and specific pointers (clues in history, findings on examination) can aid the clinician in identifying causes when present and improve outcomes. In this manuscript, part 2 of the 2-part series, we provide evidence-based, expert opinion recommendations on the management of chronic cough in the pediatric patient (<14 years of age).


Subject(s)
Cough , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/therapy , Cough/etiology , Chronic Disease , Australia
3.
COPD ; 20(1): 71-79, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296866

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a cornerstone intervention for controlling respiratory symptoms in people with chronic respiratory diseases. Chronic cough affects up to 90% of people with chronic respiratory diseases, however, it is currently unknown whether chronic cough is assessed and/or managed in pulmonary rehabilitation. This study aimed to determine if and how chronic cough is assessed and managed in pulmonary rehabilitation. This was a cross-sectional study. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs in Canada were identified via online websites. A representative from each program was invited to complete an online survey including the following topics: program demographics, assessment and management practices, and barriers and facilitators. Of 133 programs contacted, 31 returned a completed survey (23% response rate). Approximately half (52%) of respondents reported enrolling patients with chronic cough. Of those, 45% reported assessing and 62% reported intervening in chronic cough. Inadequate knowledge of assessment and management techniques was commonly identified to be a barrier and increased education was suggested as a possible facilitator. Based on pulmonary rehabilitation programs that responded to our survey, chronic cough is a prevalent symptom; however, it is scarcely assessed and managed. A need for structured education and the use of standardised strategies were reported as facilitators to the assessment and management of chronic cough in pulmonary rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Canada , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 58(3): 934-940, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised substantial concern for patients with chronic lung diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children with persistent tachypnea of infancy (PTI). METHODS: Data on the history of COVID-19, including diagnosis and clinical course of the infection, were collected during the regular follow-up visits of children previously diagnosed with PTI. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on laboratory criteria recommended by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022, 62 patients with PTI (median age 3.7 years; 42 boys, 20 girls) were evaluated. COVID-19 was diagnosed in 38 patients (61.3%). Sixteen patients (42.1%) were asymptomatic, and 22 (57.9%) were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were rhinorrhea or nasal congestion, cough, and sore throat. Sixteen patients (42.1%) were classified as having a mild course of COVID-19, three children (7.9%) as moderate, and three children (7.9%) as severe. Follow-up performed after a median of 6 months (range 3-12 months) revealed that, after COVID-19, nearly all PTI patients returned to their prior status (32/38, 84.2%); 4 children (10.5%) suffered from exacerbating symptoms of PTI for 1 month. Two children (5.3%) became asymptomatic after COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with PTI is usually mild, and the risk of hospitalization is low. The course of PTI did not change after COVID-19 in most children, and only a few patients experienced an exacerbation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachypnea/epidemiology , Cough/etiology
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(3): e232328, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282932

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 variants have not been systematically compared in children. Objective: To compare symptoms, emergency department (ED) chest radiography, treatments, and outcomes among children with different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study was performed at 14 Canadian pediatric EDs. Participants included children and adolescents younger than 18 years (hereinafter referred to as children) tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in an ED between August 4, 2020, and February 22, 2022, with 14 days of follow-up. Exposure(s): SARS-CoV-2 variants detected on a specimen collected from the nasopharynx, nares, or throat. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was presence and number of presenting symptoms. The secondary outcomes were presence of core COVID-19 symptoms, chest radiography findings, treatments, and 14-day outcomes. Results: Among 7272 participants presenting to an ED, 1440 (19.8%) had test results positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, 801 (55.6%) were boys, with a median age of 2.0 (IQR, 0.6-7.0) years. Children with the Alpha variant reported the fewest core COVID-19 symptoms (195 of 237 [82.3%]), which were most often reported by participants with Omicron variant infection (434 of 468 [92.7%]; difference, 10.5% [95% CI, 5.1%-15.9%]). In a multivariable model with the original type as the referent, the Omicron and Delta variants were associated with fever (odds ratios [ORs], 2.00 [95% CI, 1.43-2.80] and 1.93 [95% CI, 1.33-2.78], respectively) and cough (ORs, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.06-1.91] and 1.57 [95% CI, 1.13-2.17], respectively). Upper respiratory tract symptoms were associated with Delta infection (OR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.38-2.79]); lower respiratory tract and systemic symptoms were associated with Omicron variant infection (ORs, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.04-1.92] and 1.77 [95% CI, 1.24-2.52], respectively). Children with Omicron infection most often had chest radiography performed and received treatments; compared with those who had Delta infection, they were more likely to have chest radiography performed (difference, 9.7% [95% CI, 4.7%-14.8%]), to receive intravenous fluids (difference, 5.6% [95% CI, 1.0%-10.2%]) and corticosteroids (difference, 7.9% [95% CI, 3.2%-12.7%]), and to have an ED revisit (difference, 8.8% [95% CI, 3.5%-14.1%]). The proportions of children admitted to the hospital and intensive care unit did not differ between variants. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 variants suggest that the Omicron and Delta variants were more strongly associated with fever and cough than the original-type virus and the Alpha variant. Children with Omicron variant infection were more likely to report lower respiratory tract symptoms and systemic manifestations, undergo chest radiography, and receive interventions. No differences were found in undesirable outcomes (ie, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission) across variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Adolescent , Male , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 25(3): 289-294, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Delta variant infection in different ages groups. METHODS: A total of 45 children with COVID-19 caused by Delta variant infection who were hospitalized in the designated hospital in Henan Province, China, from November 17 to December 17, 2021, were included. They were divided into three groups: <6 years group (n=16), 6-13 years group (n=16), and >13 years group (n=13). The three groups were compared in clinical features and laboratory examination data. RESULTS: COVID-19 in all age groups was mainly mild. Main manifestations included cough and expectoration in the three groups, and fever was only observed in the 6-13 years group. The <6 years group had significantly higher serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase isoenzymes than the other two groups (P<0.05). The 6-13 years group had the highest proportion of children with elevated serum creatinine levels (50%). Among the three groups, only 4 children in the >13 years group had an increase in serum C-reactive protein levels. The 6-13 years group had the lowest counts of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes, CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes, and natural killer cells in the peripheral blood among the three groups. The >13 years group had a significantly higher positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG on admission than the other two groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the imaging findings on chest CT among the three groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of COVID-19 caused by Delta variant infection in children of different age groups may be different: children aged <6 years tend to develop myocardial injury, and those aged 6-13 years have fever except cough and expectoration and tend to develop renal and immune dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/etiology , Killer Cells, Natural , China/epidemiology , Fever , Retrospective Studies
9.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 58(5): 558-566, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250581

ABSTRACT

Risk factors for severe SARS-Cov-2 infection course are poorly described in children following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this international study, we analyzed factors associated with a severe course (intensive care unit (ICU) admission and/or mortality) in post-HCT children. Eighty-nine children (58% male; median age 9 years (min-max 1-18)) who received an allogeneic (85; 96%) or an autologous (4; 4%) HCT were reported from 28 centers (18 countries). Median time from HCT to SARS-Cov-2 infection was 7 months (min-max 0-181). The most common clinical manifestations included fever (37; 42%) and cough (26; 29%); 37 (42%) were asymptomatic. Nine (10%) children following allo-HCT required ICU care. Seven children (8%) following allo-HCT, died at a median of 22 days after SARS-Cov-2 diagnosis. In a univariate analysis, the probability of a severe disease course was higher in allo-HCT children with chronic GVHD, non-malignant disease, immune suppressive treatment (specifically, mycophenolate), moderate immunodeficiency score, low Lansky score, fever, cough, coinfection, pulmonary radiological findings, and high C-reactive protein. In conclusion, SARS-Cov-2 infection in children following HCT was frequently asymptomatic. Despite this, 10% needed ICU admission and 8% died in our cohort. Certain HCT, underlying disease, and SARS-Cov-2 related factors were associated with a severe disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Male , Child , Female , Transplantation, Homologous , Prospective Studies , Bone Marrow , COVID-19 Testing , Cough/etiology , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Disease Progression , Communicable Diseases/etiology
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 57(3): 309-317, 2023 Mar 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254857

ABSTRACT

An epidemic outbreak of the corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) Omicron variant occurred in most regions of China. Children are susceptible to COVID-19 and the vast majority of them suffer from upper respiratory tract infection. Cough is one of the most common symptoms. COVID-19 infection related cough includes acute cough, persistent cough and chronic cough, and children with original chronic cough or chronic lung disease can also induce or aggravate symptom of cough after infection, which has a great impact on children's physical and mental health. The treatment for COVID-19 infection related cough vary with the etiology. Improper treatment would delay the patient's condition and increase adverse drug reaction. Currently, there is no guideline or consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 infection related cough in children in China, therefore this consensus is drafted. Referring to the latest international research and the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for COVID-19 infection (Tenth Edition For Trial Implementation), and combining with clinical diagnosis and treatment experience,the consensus elaborates the pathogenesis and etiology of COVID-19 infection related cough, the use of cough relievers and expectorants, as well as the key points of diagnosis and treatment of different etiological factors. It is expected to provide specific and feasible guidance scheme for pediatricians, general practitioners and clinical pharmacists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cough , Child , Humans , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Consensus , COVID-19 Testing
11.
J Radiol Case Rep ; 17(3): 1-7, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269148

ABSTRACT

Prevotella melanogenica is a typical organism present in the human oral cavity and female reproductive tract, which is responsible for causing periodontal disease and the inflammation of the female reproductive tract. The present report discusses the case of a young female patient who presented with cough and fever as the main clinical symptoms. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed multiple clusters of ground glass density shadows in both lungs, with network-like and paving stone-like changes. The alveolar lavage fluid was collected for next-generation sequencing, which revealed the presence of Prevotella melanogenica. The patient received treatments, CT revealed that the density of multiple flakes of ground glass density in both lungs was lower than the previously observed density. Prevotella melanogenica pneumonia is rare, and the paving stone symptom observed in CT is not specific. Therefore, the case reported here provides a novel perspective regarding the diagnosis of pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Female , Lung , Pneumonia/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cough/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
12.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 57(1): 60-70, 2023 Jan.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240209

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease-2019) is observed to be milder in children, it has been observed that the symptoms continue for a long time in many people after the acute period of the disease, especially the multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (MISC) that developed after COVID-19 with the progression of the pandemic. Although it was first defined by different names such as long COVID and post COVID in adults, it has been observed in studies that similar complaints such as cough, fatigue and difficulty in concentrating continue for a long time in children, just as in adults. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the status of long COVID in childhood. Our study included patients aged from one month to 18 years with moderate and severe symptoms who were hospitalized and discharged for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Istanbul University Faculty of Medicine between November 1, 2020 and November 1, 2021. A questionnaire form was created to learn about the complaints of the patients and their ongoing complaints. The patients/parents were called by phone and their complaints were recorded in the questionnaire. The patients were classified according to the definitions in the guidelines published by NICE, RCGP and SIGN. In total, 116 patients were included; 57.8% (n= 64) male, 42.5% (n= 49) female; 53.4% (n= 62) 0-9, 46.6% (n= 54) 10-18 years old. Comorbid conditions were found in 64 (55.2%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 5.90 ± 3.61 [min-max (1-12)] months; longest symptom durations: decrease in effort loss/fatigue 19.25 ± 74.56 (0-365) days, concentration difficulties 11.12 ± 49.75 (0-365) days, fatigue 9.61 ± 34.96 (0-365) days and cough were 8.34 ± 35.37 (0-365) days. The percentage of the patients who met the definition of subacute/ongoing symptomatic COVID-19 was 37.9% (n= 44). The most common symptoms were the decrease of effort capacity/fatigue 12.1% (n= 14) and the concentration difficulties 10.3% (n= 12) in subacute symptomatic patients. The percentage of patients matching the definition of chronic/post COVID-19 was 11.2% (n= 13). In the first year of the disease, ongoing complaints such as fatigue and concentration difficulties were observed in eight patients. The rate of concentration difficulties in the 10-18 age group was statistically significantly higher than the 0-9 age group (p= 0.037). In terms of other symptoms, no significant difference was found according to age, gender and concomitant disease status. Out of these, one patient was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus during the acute illness, and two patients were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis after COVID-19. A statistically significant difference was found in the rates of concentration disorders according to age groups with subacute/ongoing symptoms. Although only the hospitalized patients were included, fatigue and difficulty in concentration were among the most common ongoing symptoms in our study, similar to the literature, and they were seen to be more common in older children. It is important both for early diagnosis and awareness to follow up children with COVID-19 in terms of symptoms, not only in terms of prolonged symptoms but also in terms of new diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Humans , Male , Child , Female , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology
13.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 165(1): 71, 2023 01.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229848
14.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 45, 2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) impact all age groups and have a significant economic and social burden on society, worldwide. Most URTIs are mild and self-limiting, but due to the wide range of possible causative agents, including Rhinovirus (hRV), Adenovirus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Coronavirus and Influenza, there is no single and effective treatment. Over-the-counter (OTC) remedies, including traditional medicines and those containing plant derived substances, help to alleviate symptoms including inflammation, pain, fever and cough. PURPOSE: This systematic review focuses on the role of the major plant derived substances in several OTC remedies used to treat cold symptoms, with a particular focus on the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels involved in pain and cough. METHODS: Literature searches were done using Pubmed and Web of Science, with no date limitations, using the principles of the PRISMA statement. The search terms used were 'TRP channel AND plant compound', 'cough AND plant compound', 'cough AND TRP channels AND plant compound', 'cough AND P2X3 AND plant compound' and 'P2X3 AND plant compound' where plant compound represents menthol or camphor or eucalyptus or turpentine or thymol. RESULTS: The literature reviewed showed that menthol activates TRPM8 and may inhibit respiratory reflexes reducing irritation and cough. Menthol has a bimodal action on TRPA1, but inhibition may have an analgesic effect. Eucalyptus also activates TRPM8 and inhibits TRPA1 whilst down regulating P2X3, aiding in the reduction of cough, pain and airway irritation. Camphor inhibits TRPA1 and the activation of TRPM8 may add to the effects of menthol. Activation of TRPV1 by camphor, may also have an analgesic effect. CONCLUSIONS: The literature suggests that these plant derived substances have multifaceted actions and can interact with the TRP 'cough' receptors. The plant derived substances used in cough and cold medicines have the potential to target multiple symptoms experienced during a cold.


Subject(s)
TRPM Cation Channels , Transient Receptor Potential Channels , Humans , Menthol/pharmacology , Menthol/therapeutic use , Camphor/pharmacology , TRPA1 Cation Channel , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Pain , Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics/therapeutic use
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 129: 49-56, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although long COVID-19 is widely recognized in adults, less information is available about this condition in children, especially in developing countries. Here, we studied the long-term symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection beyond 3 months and the associated risk factors in a pediatric population. METHODS: This observational study included 639 Argentinian children and adolescents with previously confirmed COVID-19 from June 2020-June 2021 and 577 children without previous COVID-19. Parents completed a survey about symptoms that their child had for >3 months after the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: At least one persistent symptom was observed more frequently in children with previous COVID-19 than in the non-COVID-19 group (34% vs 13%, P <0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the risk of headache, dizziness, loss of taste, dyspnea, cough, fatigue, muscle pain, and loss of weight by three- to seven-fold. The loss of smell was only reported in infected children. After controlling for the other variables, older age, symptomatic COVID-19, and comorbidities were independent predictors of long-term symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of children experienced persistent symptoms after COVID-19. Older age, symptomatic infection, and comorbidities were shown to be risk factors for long COVID-19. Pediatric long COVID-19 is a new condition that requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology
16.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(1)2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200505

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis caused by trematodes belonging to the genus Paragonimus is often accompanied by chronic respiratory symptoms such as cough, the accumulation of sputum, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Prolonged symptoms, including respiratory symptoms, after coronavirus disease 2019 infection (COVID-19) are collectively called post-COVID-19 conditions. Paragonimiasis and COVID-19 may cause similar respiratory symptoms. We encountered five cases of paragonimiasis in patients in Japan for whom diagnoses were delayed due to the initial characterization of the respiratory symptoms as a post-COVID-19 condition. The patients had consumed homemade drunken freshwater crabs together. One to three weeks after consuming the crabs, four of the five patients were diagnosed with probable COVID-19. The major symptoms reported included cough, dyspnea, and chest pain. The major imaging findings were pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and nodular lesions of the lung. All the patients were diagnosed with paragonimiasis based on a serum antibody test and peripheral blood eosinophilia (560-15,610 cells/µL) and were treated successfully with 75 mg/kg/day praziquantel for 3 days. Before diagnosing a post-COVID-19 condition, it is necessary to consider whether other diseases, including paragonimiasis, may explain the symptoms. Further, chest radiographic or blood tests should be performed in patients with persistent respiratory symptoms after being infected with COVID-19 to avoid overlooking the possibility of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Paragonimiasis , Humans , Paragonimiasis/diagnosis , Paragonimiasis/complications , Cough/etiology , Delayed Diagnosis/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Chest Pain , COVID-19 Testing
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(1): 185-192, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2168474

ABSTRACT

As of August 15, 2020, Bangladesh lost 3591 lives since the first Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case announced on March 8. The objective of the study was to report the clinical manifestation of both symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19-positive patients. An online-based cross-sectional survey was conducted for initial recruitment of participants with subsequent telephone interview by the three trained physicians in 237 adults with confirmed COVID-19 infection in Bangladesh. The study period was 27 April to 26th May 2020. Consent was ensured before commencing the interview. Collected data were entered in a pre-designed case record form and subsequently analyzed by SPSS 20.0. The mean±SD age at presentation was 41.59±13.73 years and most of the cases were male (73.0%). A total of 90.29% of patients reside in urban areas. Among the positive cases, 13.1% (n=31) were asymptomatic. Asymptomatic cases were significantly more common in households with 2 to 4 members (p=0.008). Both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients shared similar ages of presentation (p=0.23), gender differences (p=0.30) and co-morbidities (p=0.11). Only 5.3% of patients received ICU care during their treatment. The most frequent presentation was fever (88.3%), followed by cough (69.9%), chest pain (34.5%), body ache (31.1%), and sore throat (30.1%). Thirty-nine percent (n=92) of the patients had co-morbidities, with diabetes and hypertension being the most frequently observed. There has been an upsurge in COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh. Patients were mostly middle-aged and male. Typical presentations were fever and cough. Maintenance of social distancing and increased testing are required to meet the current public health challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology
19.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 2, 2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coughing caused by tracheal extubation is common following general anaesthesia. Heavy aerosol production by coughing during recovery from general anaesthesia in patients with respiratory infections (especially COVID-19) may be one of the highest risk factors for infection in healthcare workers. The application of local anaesthetics to the endotracheal tube is an effective method to reduce coughing. The most commonly used anaesthetics are compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream and tetracaine spray. However, coughing still occurs when the two anaesthetics are used alone. We speculated that the application of compound lidocaine/prilocaine combined with tetracaine spray would better prevent coughing caused by tracheal extubation. METHODS: Patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy or cholecystectomy combined with common bile duct exploration under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to Group C (saline spray), Group L (2 g compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream contains 5 mg of lidocaine and 5 mg prilocaine)), Group T (tetracaine) and Group F (compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream combined with tetracaine). The incidence of coughing, the endotracheal tube tolerance assessment, the incidence of agitation, the active extubation rate, the incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were recorded and analysed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and the plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were measured immediately before extubation and 1 min after extubation. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were randomly assigned to Group C (53 cases), Group L (52 cases), Group T (52 cases) and Group F (54 cases). The primary result is assessment of the incidence of cough. The patients emerged from general anaesthesia, 96% of Group C had cough, which was significantly reduced in Group L (61.5%, P < 0.001), Group T (75%, P < 0.05) and Group F (22.2%, P < 0.001). Group F had a significantly reduced incidence of cough compared to Group L and Group T (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, respectively). The secondary results were assessed. The endotracheal tube tolerance score in Group C ((1, 3) 4, P < 0.001) was higher than Group L ((0, 1) 2), Group T ((0, 1.25) 3) and Group F ((0, 0) 1). Group F had a significantly lower score than Group L and Group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). The incidence of agitation and the active extubation rate were also higher in Group C (96.2% and 71.7%, respectively, P < 0.001) than Group L (48.1% and 15.4%, respectively), Group T (61.5% and 26.9%, respectively) and Group F (17.3% and 7.7%, respectively). Blood pressure, HR and plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in Group C than in all other groups at the time of extubation and 1 min after extubation (P < 0.001). Group F exhibited significantly reduced blood pressure, heart rate and plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine compared to Group L and Group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were not significantly different among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream combined with tetracaine may be a more effective approach for preventing coughing and stabilising circulation during extubation following general anaesthesia. This may play an important role in preventing medical staff from contracting respiratory infectious diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2200058429 (registration date: 09-04-2022) "retrospectively registered".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Humans , Tetracaine , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Cough/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination , Anesthetics, Local , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Prilocaine/therapeutic use , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Norepinephrine , Epinephrine , Double-Blind Method , Pain/etiology
20.
Qual Manag Health Care ; 32(Suppl 1): S3-S10, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This article describes how multisystemic symptoms, both respiratory and nonrespiratory, can be used to differentiate coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) from other diseases at the point of patient triage in the community. The article also shows how combinations of symptoms could be used to predict the probability of a patient having COVID-19. METHODS: We first used a scoping literature review to identify symptoms of COVID-19 reported during the first year of the global pandemic. We then surveyed individuals with reported symptoms and recent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results to assess the accuracy of diagnosing COVID-19 from reported symptoms. The scoping literature review, which included 81 scientific articles published by February 2021, identified 7 respiratory, 9 neurological, 4 gastrointestinal, 4 inflammatory, and 5 general symptoms associated with COVID-19 diagnosis. The likelihood ratio associated with each symptom was estimated from sensitivity and specificity of symptoms reported in the literature. A total of 483 individuals were then surveyed to validate the accuracy of predicting COVID-19 diagnosis based on patient symptoms using the likelihood ratios calculated from the literature review. Survey results were weighted to reflect age, gender, and race of the US population. The accuracy of predicting COVID-19 diagnosis from patient-reported symptoms was assessed using area under the receiver operating curve (AROC). RESULTS: In the community, cough, sore throat, runny nose, dyspnea, and hypoxia, by themselves, were not good predictors of COVID-19 diagnosis. A combination of cough and fever was also a poor predictor of COVID-19 diagnosis (AROC = 0.56). The accuracy of diagnosing COVID-19 based on symptoms was highest when individuals presented with symptoms from different body systems (AROC of 0.74-0.81); the lowest accuracy was when individuals presented with only respiratory symptoms (AROC = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: There are no simple rules that clinicians can use to diagnose COVID-19 in the community when diagnostic tests are unavailable or untimely. However, triage of patients to appropriate care and treatment can be improved by reviewing the combinations of certain types of symptoms across body systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
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