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1.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(9): e577-e586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple voluntary surveillance platforms were developed across the world in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a real-time understanding of population-based COVID-19 epidemiology. During this time, testing criteria broadened and health-care policies matured. We aimed to test whether there were consistent associations of symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 test status across three surveillance platforms in three countries (two platforms per country), during periods of testing and policy changes. METHODS: For this observational study, we used data of observations from three volunteer COVID-19 digital surveillance platforms (Carnegie Mellon University and University of Maryland Facebook COVID-19 Symptom Survey, ZOE COVID Symptom Study app, and the Corona Israel study) targeting communities in three countries (Israel, the UK, and the USA; two platforms per country). The study population included adult respondents (age 18-100 years at baseline) who were not health-care workers. We did logistic regression of self-reported symptoms on self-reported SARS-CoV-2 test status (positive or negative), adjusted for age and sex, in each of the study cohorts. We compared odds ratios (ORs) across platforms and countries, and we did meta-analyses assuming a random effects model. We also evaluated testing policy changes, COVID-19 incidence, and time scales of duration of symptoms and symptom-to-test time. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and July 31, 2020, 514 459 tests from over 10 million respondents were recorded in the six surveillance platform datasets. Anosmia-ageusia was the strongest, most consistent symptom associated with a positive COVID-19 test (robust aggregated rank one, meta-analysed random effects OR 16·96, 95% CI 13·13-21·92). Fever (rank two, 6·45, 4·25-9·81), shortness of breath (rank three, 4·69, 3·14-7·01), and cough (rank four, 4·29, 3·13-5·88) were also highly associated with test positivity. The association of symptoms with test status varied by duration of illness, timing of the test, and broader test criteria, as well as over time, by country, and by platform. INTERPRETATION: The strong association of anosmia-ageusia with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 test was consistently observed, supporting its validity as a reliable COVID-19 signal, regardless of the participatory surveillance platform, country, phase of illness, or testing policy. These findings show that associations between COVID-19 symptoms and test positivity ranked similarly in a wide range of scenarios. Anosmia, fever, and respiratory symptoms consistently had the strongest effect estimates and were the most appropriate empirical signals for symptom-based public health surveillance in areas with insufficient testing or benchmarking capacity. Collaborative syndromic surveillance could enhance real-time epidemiological investigations and public health utility globally. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Health Research, Alzheimer's Society, Wellcome Trust, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Cough , Dyspnea , Fever , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Digital Technology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(7): 588-603, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis provides a quantitative measure of the otorhinolaryngological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 in children. METHODS: A structured literature review was carried out using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central, employing pertinent search terms. The statistical analysis was performed using Stata version 14.2 software, and the analysed data were expressed as the pooled prevalence of the symptoms with 95 per cent confidence intervals. RESULTS: The commonest symptoms noted were cough (38 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 33-42; I2 = 97.5 per cent)), sore throat (12 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval =10-14; I2 = 93.7 per cent)), and nasal discharge (15 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 12-19; I2 = 96.9 per cent)). Anosmia and taste disturbances showed a pooled prevalence of 8 per cent each. Hearing loss, vertigo and hoarseness were rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Cough, sore throat and nasal discharge were the commonest otorhinolaryngological symptoms in paediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Compared with adults, anosmia and taste disturbances were infrequently reported in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Adult , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31361, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115854

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Paxlovid has shown the potential decreasing the hospitalization rate of mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and death in few of clinical trials, and is expected to the most promising medicine targeting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SRAS-COV-2). However, there are no enough evidences to show it effectiveness for all patients with SARS-COV-2, especially among elderly patients and newest Omicron variant. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: A 79 year's old female patient was admitted to hospital because of the moderate COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant BA2.0. He presented the initial syndromes including Xerostomia, cough and fever. Chest computed tomography (CT) scanning at admission showed the exudation lesions on lung. The laboratory examination revealed that there are increased C-reactive protein (CRP), Ferritin and erythrocytesedimentationrate (ESR) and decreased white blood cells. INTERVENTIONS: The oral Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir) was administrated on second day after admission. OUTCOMES: The syndromes of Xerostomia, cough and fever was improved on third day after use of Paxlovid. The levels of CRP, ESR and counts of white blood cells returned the normal after three days of admission. The chest CT scanned on the third and sixth day after Paxlovid used showed the absorption of lesions. The examination of SARS-COVS viral nucleic acid turned negative at fifth day of admission. LESSONS: As a result, we would consider that Paxlovid is a suitable oral drug for elderly patients with SARS-COV2 even Omicron variant, it's benefit to improve patient's symptom and signs and can prevents COVID-19 with the high-risk factors from severe disease, although it didn't shorten the time for viral nucleic acid to turn negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Male , Humans , Female , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/etiology , RNA, Viral , Fever/etiology
4.
Medwave ; 22(9): e2581, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090780

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic for coronavirus 19. Typical symptoms were fever, cough, asthenia, dyspnea, and muscle pain. Pulmonary and central nervous system compromise presented challenging characteristics for healthcare physicians. The objectives of this study were to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SARS-COV-2 infection survivors in a region of Argentina and to determine differences between gender, age groups, year of infection, and evolution time since diagnosis. Methods: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional observational study was carried out. A self-administered questionnaire was applied, which was available between August and December 2021. Results: Among 1868 individuals included, the mean age was 39.4 ± 13.9 years, and 72.8% were female. Arterial hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity (11.7%). The majority were outpatients (81.9%). The most frequent presentation symptoms at all ages were asthenia (83.7%), fever (54.9%), headache (60.8%), anosmia (64.8%), ageusia (53.2%), cough (54.4%) and myalgias (53.7%). For the 18 to 29 years old age group, the most prevalent presentation symptoms were: headache (69.4%), anosmia (69.1%), ageusia (60.2%), odynophagia (45%), and rhinitis/nasal congestion (46.9%). In the 30 to 64 years old age group, there was a higher prevalence of myalgias (55.8%), arthralgias (41%), and concentration/memory disorder (28.3%). Male showed higher prevalence of fever (64.9% versus 51.1%; p < 0.001) and pneumonia (23.5% versus 13.4%; p < 0.001). After 12 weeks from diagnosis, 38.1% of patients persisted with asthenia, 23.6% with anosmia/dysosmia, and 21.2% with concentration/memory disorders. Conclusions: Systemic symptoms were common to all age groups with coronavirus 19 disease; however, younger, and intermediate age groups presented a higher prevalence of central nervous system symptoms such as anosmia and cognitive disorders, respectively. Symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis reached slightly more than 10% of the participants.


Introducción: En marzo de 2020 la enfermedad por coronavirus 19 fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Los síntomas más comunes fueron fiebre, tos, astenia, disnea y dolor muscular. Los compromisos pulmonar y del sistema nervioso central presentaron características desafiantes para los médicos asistenciales. Los objetivos del estudio fueron conocer las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de sobrevivientes a infección por SARS-CoV-2 en una región de Argentina, y determinar las diferencias entre género, grupos etarias, año de contagio, tiempo de evolución desde el diagnóstico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y analítico de corte transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto administrado, que estuvo disponible entre agosto y diciembre de 2021. Resultados: La media de edad fue de 39,4 ± 13,9 años, el 72,8% fueron mujeres. La comorbilidad más frecuente fue hipertensión arterial (11,7%). La mayoría de los pacientes fueron ambulatorios (81,9%). Los síntomas de presentación más frecuentes a cualquier edad, fueron astenia (83,7%), fiebre (54,9%), cefalea (60,8%), anosmia (64,8%), ageusia (53,2%), tos (54,4%) y mialgias (53,7%). Para el grupo de 18 a 29 años los síntomas de presentación más prevalentes fueron cefalea (69,4%), anosmia 69,1%), ageusia (60,2%), odinofagia (45%) y rinitis/congestión nasal (46,9%). En el grupo de 30 a 64 años se observó mayor prevalencia de mialgias (55,8%), artralgias (41%), falta de concentración/memoria (28,3%). Los hombres mostraron más prevalencia de fiebre (64,9% versus 51,1%; p < 0,001) y neumonía (23,5% versus 13,4%; p < 0,001). Luego de las 12 semanas del diagnóstico 38,1% de los pacientes persistían con astenia, 23,6% con anosmia/disosmia y 21,2% con trastornos de concentración/memoria. Conclusiones: La enfermedad por coronavirus 19 presenta un patrón de síntomas sistémicos común a todos los grupos etarios. No obstante, los grupos más jóvenes presentan más prevalencia de síntomas de afección del sistema nervioso central como la anosmia y los grupos intermedios, mayor prevalencia de trastornos cognitivos. Los síntomas más allá de las 12 semanas del diagnóstico alcanzaron a algo más del 10% de los participantes.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Asthenia , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Survivors
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 613, 2022 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several individual studies from specific countries have reported rising numbers of pediatric COVID-19 cases with inconsistent reports on the clinical symptoms including respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms as well as diverse reports on the mean age and household exposure in children. The epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in children are not fully understood, hence, comprehensive meta-analyses are needed to provide a better understanding of these characteristics. METHODS: This review was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science, and published reports on COVID-19 in children. Data were extracted by two independent researchers and a third researcher resolved disputes. STATA software and the random-effect model were used in the synthesis of our data. For each model, the heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the Q Cochrane test. Heterogeneity and publication bias were calculated using the I2 statistic and Egger's/Begg's tests. RESULTS: The qualitative systematic review was performed on 32 articles. Furthermore, the meta-analysis estimated an overall rate of involvement at 12% (95% CI: 9-15%) among children, with an I2 of 98.36%. The proportion of household exposure was calculated to be 50.99% (95% CI: 20.80%-80.80%) and the proportion of admitted cases was calculated to be 45% (95% CI: 24%-67%). Additionally, the prevalence of cough, fatigue, fever and dyspnea was calculated to be 25% (95% CI: 0.16-0.36), 9% (95% CI: 0.03-0.18), 33% (95% CI: 0.21-0.47) and 9% (95% CI: 0.04-0.15), respectively. It is estimated that 4% (95% CI: 1-8%) of cases required intensive care unit admission. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric clinical picture of COVID-19 is not simply a classic respiratory infection, but unusual presentations have been reported. Given the high incidence of household transmission and atypical clinical presentation in children, we strongly recommend their inclusion in research and population-based preventive measures like vaccination as well as clinical trials to ensure efficacy, safety, and tolerability in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Fever/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/etiology
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937834, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mainly presents with lower respiratory tract symptoms. On the other hand, laryngotracheitis or croup shows barky cough and it is rare in adults. There were no reports of laryngotracheitis with COVID-19 in pregnant women. We report the case of a pregnant woman at 24 weeks of gestation presenting with acute laryngotracheitis and COVID-19 due to the R.1 variant of SARS-CoV-2. CASE REPORT A 29-year-old previously healthy woman at 24 weeks of gestation presented with hoarseness and sore throat without fever, of 1-day duration. Although she was treated by her primary care physician with nebulized epinephrine, her symptoms did not resolve. She came to our hospital the same day. On arrival at our department, she was tachypneic and had a 95% oxygen saturation. She had stridor and barking cough. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed edema under the vocal cords. She was hospitalized urgently. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was positive and the E484K mutation was confirmed. She was treated with oral and inhaled corticosteroids. Two days after admission, her symptoms were improved. She was discharged 10 days after admission. Edema under the vocal cords was completely improved 24 days after discharge. There were no adverse effects on the pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 laryngotracheitis has a more severe disease course than other causes, especially in pregnancy. COVID-19 laryngotracheitis should be use corticosteroids to treatment. Prednisolone is recommended for laryngotracheitis with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Croup , Adult , Cough/etiology , Epinephrine , Female , Humans , Prednisolone , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30073, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The respiratory system is the first line of defense against outside pollutants. Recently, respiratory health has been receiving increasing attention due to the increase in fine dust, which reduces respiratory function and increases incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in coronavirus pandemic, which can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome. METHODS: This clinical pilot trial was designed to secure evidence for a main clinical trial and to confirm the efficacy and safety of Liriope platyphylla (LP) extract for improving respiratory function. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with 22 participants from June 30, 2021, to August 25, 2021. The primary outcome was Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale score. Secondary outcomes included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume at 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, cough assessment test score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score, peripheral blood mononuclear cell counts (white blood cells, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cytokine (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and immunoglobulin E) levels, antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) levels, and nitric oxide level. RESULTS: A total of 22 participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the LP group (n = 11), who took 1000 mg of LP extract per day, and the placebo group, who took 1000 mg of dextrin per day. Participants took 1 capsule twice a day for 4 weeks. For the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale, the interaction between group and visit was statistically significant in a blend of analyses of variance. interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ levels decreased more in the LP group than in the placebo group. The sample size required for large-scale clinical trials in the future was 50. There were no side effects. CONCLUSION: LP extract can enhance respiratory function. The detailed data we obtained support conducting the future main large-scale clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-8 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , Cough/etiology , Dextrins/therapeutic use , Dust , Dyspnea/complications , Glutathione Peroxidase , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Nitric Oxide , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226236, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990379

ABSTRACT

Importance: Kawasaki disease (KD) symptoms significantly overlap with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children due to COVID-19. Patients with KD may be at risk for adverse outcomes from exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Objective: To describe the outcomes of patients with KD to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series evaluated 2 cohorts using an existing KD database and reviewed individual electronic medical records for the period spanning January 1, 2020, through January 31, 2022, via electronic medical records that include Washington state immunization records. Vaccine cohort inclusion criteria consisted of being 21 years or younger at immunization and receiving 1 or more BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Moderna) vaccine doses. The COVID-19 cohort included patients 21 years or younger with positive polymerase chain reaction or nuclear capsid IgG findings for SARS-CoV-2. Participants included 826 patients from a preexisting KD database. One hundred fifty-three patients received at least 1 BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine dose and were included in the mRNA vaccine cohort. Thirty-seven patients had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 and were included in the COVID-19 cohort. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and/or infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adverse events after mRNA vaccination and/or COVID-19, including clinician visits, emergency department encounters, or hospitalizations. Results: Among the 153 patients included in the mRNA vaccination cohort (mean [SD] age, 13.0 [4.3] years; 94 male [61.4%]), the BNT162b2 vaccine was provided for 143 (93.5%), and the remaining 10 (6.5%) received mRNA-1273 or a combination of both. Among patients in the vaccine cohort, 129 (84.3%) were fully vaccinated or received a third-dose booster. No clinically severe adverse events occurred, and there were no reports of vaccine-related hospitalizations or outpatient visits. The COVID-19 cohort included 37 patients (mean [SD] age, 11.0 [5.5] years; 22 male [59.5%]). No patients required hospitalization due to COVID-19. The most common symptoms included low-grade fever, fatigue, cough, and myalgia with resolution within a few days. Two patients, aged 9 and 19 years, had extended cough and fatigue for 3 to 4 weeks. One patient developed COVID-19 within 6 weeks of receiving intravenous immunoglobulin for KD. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the mRNA vaccines may be safe and COVID-19 may not be severe for patients with a history of KD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Viral Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Male , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines
10.
J Evid Based Med ; 15(3): 201-215, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide, but there is so far no comprehensive analysis of all known symptoms of the disease. Our study aimed to present a comprehensive picture of the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 using an evidence map. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane library from their inception to March 16, 2021. We included systematic reviews reporting the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients. We followed the PRISMA guidelines, and the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were done by two individuals independently. We assessed the methodological quality of the studies using AMSTAR. We visually presented the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and their prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 102 systematic reviews were included, of which, 68 studies (66.7%) were of high quality, 19 studies (18.6%) of medium quality, and 15 studies (14.7%) of low quality. We identified a total of 74 symptoms including 17 symptoms of the respiratory system, 21 symptoms of the neurological system, 10 symptoms of the gastrointestinal system, 16 cutaneous symptoms, and 10 ocular symptoms. The most common symptoms were fever (67 studies, ranging 16.3%-91.0%, pooled prevalence: 64.6%, 95%CI, 61.3%-67.9%), cough (68 studies, ranging 30.0%-72.2%, pooled prevalence: 53.6%, 95%CI, 52.1%-55.1%), muscle soreness (56 studies, ranging 3.0%-44.0%, pooled prevalence: 18.7%, 95%CI, 16.3%-21.3%), and fatigue (52 studies, ranging 3.3%-58.5%, pooled prevalence: 29.4%, 95%CI, 27.5%-31.3%). The prevalence estimates for COVID-19 symptoms were generally lower in neonates, children and adolescents, and pregnant women than in the general populations. CONCLUSION: At least 74 different clinical manifestations are associated with COVID-19. Fever, cough, muscle soreness, and fatigue are the most common, but attention should also be paid to the rare symptoms that can help in the early diagnosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Myalgia/etiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Respir J ; 16(9): 604-610, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968079

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, which can persist for weeks or months. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gabapentin (GBT) alone and in combination with montelukast (MTL) for improving cough. METHODS: In this open-label randomized controlled clinical trial, eligible cases were patients hospitalized with moderate to severe COVID-19 who had cough with a Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale (BCSS) score of at least 2 based on its cough subscale. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups including two experimental groups and one control group. The first and second experimental groups received GBT and GBT/MTL, respectively, whereas the control group received dextromethorphan (DXM). Treatment duration was 5 days in all groups. Before and after the interventions, the severity of cough was evaluated using BCSS scale and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). RESULTS: A total of 180 patients were included; GPT, GPT/MTL, and DXM consisted of 76, 51, and 53 patients, respectively. There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities (P > 0.05). Regarding BCSS and VAS scores, there was significant reduction from the baseline values in all groups (P < 0.0001), with the change rate being significantly higher in DXM group. The amount of reduction of BCSS in the GPT/MTL group was significantly more than the GPT group, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding VAS score. Although the duration of hospitalization differed between the groups with the GPT/MTL group having the shortest duration, the difference was statistically significant only between the GPT and GPT/MTL groups (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: GPT, both alone and in combination with MTL, improves cough frequency and severity in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, with the combination being more efficacious. This regimen may be useful in patients who cannot tolerate opioids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Acetates , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Cyclopropanes , Dextromethorphan/therapeutic use , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Humans , Quinolines , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfides , Treatment Outcome
13.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 168-176, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931551
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931217

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
15.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(2): 170-175, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of post-covid-19 syndrome is quite high and requires further monitoring after the patient is discharged from treatment. So we need a proper monitoring method and description of the Covid-19 syndrome in Indonesia.  Methods: This retrospective cohort study with total sampling method uses data from medical records and telemedicine observations of confirmed COVID-19 patients who received treatment in the Kiara room at Cipto Mangunkusumo. The data were then analyzed using chi-squared and multinomial logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: A total of 133 samples were used, including 44.4% male and 55.6% female, with an average age Standard Deviation (SD) of 40.36 (17.94). The severity levels of Covid-19 were mild (66.9%). The most common post-Covid-19 symptom manifestations was cough expressed at the first follow-up (first week after recovery) and second follow-up (the fourth week after recovery). Furthermore, the significant relationship between severity levels and post-Covid-19 symptomatic syndrome outcomes is the critical headache or vertigo symptoms with an RR of 8.70 (95% CI, 1.10-68.69,). In comparison, the telemedicine quality assessment was declared good, as shown by 98.7% of an examined sample. CONCLUSION: The most manifestation shown in the first and fourth week of follow-up is cough. Other symptoms tend to decrease in the second follow-up. The severity level associated with post-Covid-19 manifestations are severe-critical with headache or vertigo as a risk factor and mild with symptoms of headache or vertigo as a preventative. Meanwhile, the quality of telemedicine services was recognized as good by the majority of the sample.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/complications , Cough/etiology , Female , Headache , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Vertigo
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013665, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 illness is highly variable, ranging from infection with no symptoms through to pneumonia and life-threatening consequences. Symptoms such as fever, cough, or loss of sense of smell (anosmia) or taste (ageusia), can help flag early on if the disease is present. Such information could be used either to rule out COVID-19 disease, or to identify people who need to go for COVID-19 diagnostic tests. This is the second update of this review, which was first published in 2020. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms to determine if a person presenting in primary care or to hospital outpatient settings, such as the emergency department or dedicated COVID-19 clinics, has COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: We undertook electronic searches up to 10 June 2021 in the University of Bern living search database. In addition, we checked repositories of COVID-19 publications. We used artificial intelligence text analysis to conduct an initial classification of documents. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were eligible if they included people with clinically suspected COVID-19, or recruited known cases with COVID-19 and also controls without COVID-19 from a single-gate cohort. Studies were eligible when they recruited people presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings. Studies that included people who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection while admitted to hospital were not eligible. The minimum eligible sample size of studies was 10 participants. All signs and symptoms were eligible for this review, including individual signs and symptoms or combinations. We accepted a range of reference standards. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently selected all studies, at both title and abstract, and full-text stage. They resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the QUADAS-2 checklist, and resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Analyses were restricted to prospective studies only. We presented sensitivity and specificity in paired forest plots, in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space and in dumbbell plots. We estimated summary parameters using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis whenever five or more primary prospective studies were available, and whenever heterogeneity across studies was deemed acceptable. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 90 studies; for this update we focused on the results of 42 prospective studies with 52,608 participants. Prevalence of COVID-19 disease varied from 3.7% to 60.6% with a median of 27.4%. Thirty-five studies were set in emergency departments or outpatient test centres (46,878 participants), three in primary care settings (1230 participants), two in a mixed population of in- and outpatients in a paediatric hospital setting (493 participants), and two overlapping studies in nursing homes (4007 participants). The studies did not clearly distinguish mild COVID-19 disease from COVID-19 pneumonia, so we present the results for both conditions together. Twelve studies had a high risk of bias for selection of participants because they used a high level of preselection to decide whether reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing was needed, or because they enrolled a non-consecutive sample, or because they excluded individuals while they were part of the study base. We rated 36 of the 42 studies as high risk of bias for the index tests because there was little or no detail on how, by whom and when, the symptoms were measured. For most studies, eligibility for testing was dependent on the local case definition and testing criteria that were in effect at the time of the study, meaning most people who were included in studies had already been referred to health services based on the symptoms that we are evaluating in this review. The applicability of the results of this review iteration improved in comparison with the previous reviews. This version has more studies of people presenting to ambulatory settings, which is where the majority of assessments for COVID-19 take place. Only three studies presented any data on children separately, and only one focused specifically on older adults. We found data on 96 symptoms or combinations of signs and symptoms. Evidence on individual signs as diagnostic tests was rarely reported, so this review reports mainly on the diagnostic value of symptoms. Results were highly variable across studies. Most had very low sensitivity and high specificity. RT-PCR was the most often used reference standard (40/42 studies). Only cough (11 studies) had a summary sensitivity above 50% (62.4%, 95% CI 50.6% to 72.9%)); its specificity was low (45.4%, 95% CI 33.5% to 57.9%)). Presence of fever had a sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI 23.4% to 54.3%) and a specificity of 75.2% (95% CI 56.3% to 87.8%). The summary positive likelihood ratio of cough was 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.25) and that of fever 1.52 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.10). Sore throat had a summary positive likelihood ratio of 0.814 (95% CI 0.714 to 0.929), which means that its presence increases the probability of having an infectious disease other than COVID-19. Dyspnoea (12 studies) and fatigue (8 studies) had a sensitivity of 23.3% (95% CI 16.4% to 31.9%) and 40.2% (95% CI 19.4% to 65.1%) respectively. Their specificity was 75.7% (95% CI 65.2% to 83.9%) and 73.6% (95% CI 48.4% to 89.3%). The summary positive likelihood ratio of dyspnoea was 0.96 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.11) and that of fatigue 1.52 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.91), which means that the presence of fatigue slightly increases the probability of having COVID-19. Anosmia alone (7 studies), ageusia alone (5 studies), and anosmia or ageusia (6 studies) had summary sensitivities below 50% but summary specificities over 90%. Anosmia had a summary sensitivity of 26.4% (95% CI 13.8% to 44.6%) and a specificity of 94.2% (95% CI 90.6% to 96.5%). Ageusia had a summary sensitivity of 23.2% (95% CI 10.6% to 43.3%) and a specificity of 92.6% (95% CI 83.1% to 97.0%). Anosmia or ageusia had a summary sensitivity of 39.2% (95% CI 26.5% to 53.6%) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI 84.5% to 96.2%). The summary positive likelihood ratios of anosmia alone and anosmia or ageusia were 4.55 (95% CI 3.46 to 5.97) and 4.99 (95% CI 3.22 to 7.75) respectively, which is just below our arbitrary definition of a 'red flag', that is, a positive likelihood ratio of at least 5. The summary positive likelihood ratio of ageusia alone was 3.14 (95% CI 1.79 to 5.51). Twenty-four studies assessed combinations of different signs and symptoms, mostly combining olfactory symptoms. By combining symptoms with other information such as contact or travel history, age, gender, and a local recent case detection rate, some multivariable prediction scores reached a sensitivity as high as 90%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Most individual symptoms included in this review have poor diagnostic accuracy. Neither absence nor presence of symptoms are accurate enough to rule in or rule out the disease. The presence of anosmia or ageusia may be useful as a red flag for the presence of COVID-19. The presence of cough also supports further testing. There is currently no evidence to support further testing with PCR in any individuals presenting only with upper respiratory symptoms such as sore throat, coryza or rhinorrhoea. Combinations of symptoms with other readily available information such as contact or travel history, or the local recent case detection rate may prove more useful and should be further investigated in an unselected population presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings. The diagnostic accuracy of symptoms for COVID-19 is moderate to low and any testing strategy using symptoms as selection mechanism will result in both large numbers of missed cases and large numbers of people requiring testing. Which one of these is minimised, is determined by the goal of COVID-19 testing strategies, that is, controlling the epidemic by isolating every possible case versus identifying those with clinically important disease so that they can be monitored or treated to optimise their prognosis. The former will require a testing strategy that uses very few symptoms as entry criterion for testing, the latter could focus on more specific symptoms such as fever and anosmia.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Aged , Ageusia/complications , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Outpatients , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 8(1): 45, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921618

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is globally prevalent across all age groups. This disorder is challenging to treat because many pulmonary and extrapulmonary conditions can present with chronic cough, and cough can also be present without any identifiable underlying cause or be refractory to therapies that improve associated conditions. Most patients with chronic cough have cough hypersensitivity, which is characterized by increased neural responsivity to a range of stimuli that affect the airways and lungs, and other tissues innervated by common nerve supplies. Cough hypersensitivity presents as excessive coughing often in response to relatively innocuous stimuli, causing significant psychophysical morbidity and affecting patients' quality of life. Understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to cough hypersensitivity and excessive coughing in different patient populations and across the lifespan is advancing and has contributed to the development of new therapies for chronic cough in adults. Owing to differences in the pathology, the organs involved and individual patient factors, treatment of chronic cough is progressing towards a personalized approach, and, in the future, novel ways to endotype patients with cough may prove valuable in management.


Subject(s)
Cough , Hypersensitivity , Adult , Chronic Disease , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/therapy , Humans , Hypersensitivity/complications , Lung , Quality of Life
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10874, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908286

ABSTRACT

A variety of medical procedures are classified as aerosol generating. However there is no consensus on whether some procedures such as nasopharyngeal swabbing can generate aerosols. During specimen collection, the contact of the nasopharyngeal swab with the respiratory mucosa often triggers defense reflexes such as sneezing and coughing, which generate airborne particles. The accumulation and persistence of a viral load from infectious aerosols for hours after their generation can represent a threat for increased spread of infection. Prospective observational cohort study in individuals tested for RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 from July to October 2020. Participants were evaluated for the prevalence of aerosol generating events (AGEs) triggered by the nasopharyngeal swabbing. We used descriptive statistics to analyze the data set and the chi-square test for AGE comparison between sexes. Among 1239 individuals, we reported 264 in which AGEs were triggered by the specimen collection. 97 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, of which 20 presented AGEs. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of AGEs by age, but significant differences have been identified between sex and the occurrence of AGEs both in the SARS-CoV-2 negative and SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals. The prevalence of coughing or sneezing triggered by the nasopharyngeal swabbing was high among tested individuals. Testing facilities should ensure adequate availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) for the testing personnel, ensure appropriate ventilation of the rooms, and develop additional strategies to limit the risk of contamination of other participants to the testing session from potentially infectious and persistent aerosols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aerosols , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Humans , Nasopharynx , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sneezing
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(2): 6166, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893575

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a girl aged 5 years presented to the coronavirus assessment centre on a remote Scottish island with symptoms consistent with novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Her mother was concerned as she had noted the patient to have an irregular pulse. COVID-19 has been shown to cause cardiac arrhythmia, and so after discussion with tertiary paediatric cardiology services an ECG was recommended. In order to minimise potential spread of coronavirus in the healthcare setting a portable ECG device was immediately delivered to the patient, with the ECG tracing being sent electronically to a cardiologist. A formal diagnosis was then communicated to the parents within 2 hours of the initial contact.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Electrocardiography/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Rural Population , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child, Preschool , Cough/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12038, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892414

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to review the symptomatic manifestations of COVID-19 in children in the scientific literature. An integrative review of studies published between December 2019 and September 5, 2021, from the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Web of Science, Scopus, Literatura Latino-Americana em Ciência de Saúde, and Base de Dados de Enfermagem databases, was carried out to answer the following research question: What symptomatic manifestations does COVID-19 cause in children?". Twenty articles were included. The main symptoms described were fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, sore throat, dyspnea, headache, abdominal pain, malaise, and weakness or tiredness. The findings of this review can contribute to the diagnosis and clinical decision-making of the health team by providing information that facilitates the identification of COVID-19 in the target population, favoring early identification, better care, and consequently a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Cough/etiology , Humans
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