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1.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306

ABSTRACT

SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1230-1235, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254219

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Covid-19 is a contagious disease, and it is characterised by different symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Rising concerns about Covid-19 have severely affected the healthcare system in all countries as the Covid-19 outbreak has developed at a rapid rate all around the globe. Intriguing, a clinically used drug, acetazolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, CA, EC 4.2.1.1), is used to treat high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE), showing a high degree of clinical similarities with the pulmonary disease caused by Covid-19. In this context, this preliminary study aims to provide insights into some factors affecting the Covid-19 patients, such as hypoxaemia, hypoxia as well as the blood CA activity. We hypothesise that patients with Covid-19 problems could show a dysregulated acid-base status influenced by CA activity. These preliminary results suggest that the use of CA inhibitors as a pharmacological treatment for Covid-19 may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carbonic Anhydrases/blood , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Altitude Sickness/blood , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Bicarbonates/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Cough/blood , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Drug Repositioning , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/virology , Fever/blood , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/blood , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Oximetry , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5452-5457, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220448

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is generally detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA can be found in other samples including blood. Recently, associations between SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia and disease severity and mortality have been reported in adults, while no reports are available in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality, severity, clinical, and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in blood in 96 pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19. Among all patients, 6 (6%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Out of the six patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, four (67%) had a severe form of the disease, and two out of the 6 patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away (33%). Our results show that the symptoms more commonly found in the cases of COVID-19 in the study (fever, cough, tachypnea, and vomiting), were found at a higher percentage in the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Creatine phosphokinase and magnesium tests showed significant differences between the positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia groups. Among all laboratory tests, magnesium and creatine phosphokinase could better predict SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with area under the curve  levels of 0.808 and 0.748, respectively. In conclusion, 67% of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia showed a severe COVID-19 and one-third of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away. Our findings suggest that magnesium and creatine phosphokinase might be considered as markers to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Magnesium/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viremia/pathology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tachypnea/diagnosis , Tachypnea/mortality , Tachypnea/pathology , Tachypnea/virology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/mortality , Viremia/virology
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 769-777, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From December 2019 to February 2020, 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a serious outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Related clinical features are needed. METHODS: We reviewed 69 patients who were hospitalized in Union hospital in Wuhan between 16 January and 29 January 2020. All patients were confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2, and the final date of follow-up was 4 February 2020. RESULTS: The median age of 69 enrolled patients was 42.0 years (interquartile range 35.0-62.0), and 32 patients (46%) were men. The most common symptoms were fever (60 [87%]), cough (38 [55%]), and fatigue (29 [42%]). Most patients received antiviral therapy (66 [98.5%] of 67 patients) and antibiotic therapy (66 [98.5%] of 67 patients). As of 4 February 2020, 18 (26.9%) of 67 patients had been discharged, and 5 patients had died, with a mortality rate of 7.5%. According to the lowest SpO2 during admission, cases were divided into the SpO2 ≥ 90% group (n = 55) and the SpO2 < 90% group (n = 14). All 5 deaths occurred in the SpO2 < 90% group. Compared with SpO2 ≥ 90% group, patients of the SpO2 < 90% group were older and showed more comorbidities and higher plasma levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL10, lactate dehydrogenase, and C reactive protein. Arbidol treatment showed tendency to improve the discharging rate and decrease the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 appears to show frequent fever, dry cough, and increase of inflammatory cytokines, and induced a mortality rate of 7.5%. Older patients or those with underlying comorbidities are at higher risk of death.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cough/metabolism , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/metabolism , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1631-1638, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206817

ABSTRACT

Many healthcare workers (HCWs) have been confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 in China. A retrospective, single-center study was conducted. The median age of the 132 HCWs with COVID-19 was 32 years, with 92 (69.7%) being females. There were 47 (35.6%) doctors, 72 (54.6%) nurses, and 13 (9.9%) other HCWs. Ten of the 132 patients (7.6%) had underlying diseases. The most common symptoms of illness onset were fever (70, 53.0%), cough (66, 50.0%), and fatigue (58, 43.9%). All patients were categorized into mild or moderate COVID-19 type on admission to hospital, and five (3.8%) progressed to the severe COVID-19 type. Sixty-six HCWs patients were included in both the early and later discharged group. In the logistic analysis, the later discharged patients had a longer time for illness onset to hospital admission (per 1 day; OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18; p = .006), a higher proportion of >3 onset symptoms clustering (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.27-7.62; p = .01), and a higher percentage of other HCWs (OR, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.49-25.80; p = .01). HCW patients were young female nurses with fewer comorbidities, and most were mild or moderate COVID-19 type. The later discharged patients exhibited characteristics of longer time for illness onset to hospitalization and clustering of onset symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(10)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119271

ABSTRACT

Face masks prevent transmission of infectious respiratory diseases by blocking large droplets and aerosols during exhalation or inhalation. While three-layer masks are generally advised, many commonly available or makeshift masks contain single or double layers. Using carefully designed experiments involving high-speed imaging along with physics-based analysis, we show that high-momentum, large-sized (>250 micrometer) surrogate cough droplets can penetrate single- or double-layer mask material to a significant extent. The penetrated droplets can atomize into numerous much smaller (<100 micrometer) droplets, which could remain airborne for a significant time. The possibility of secondary atomization of high-momentum cough droplets by hydrodynamic focusing and extrusion through the microscale pores in the fibrous network of the single/double-layer mask material needs to be considered in determining mask efficacy. Three-layer masks can effectively block these droplets and thus could be ubiquitously used as a key tool against COVID-19 or similar respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Cough/pathology , Masks , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Particle Size , Probability , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
8.
Infection ; 49(1): 153-157, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680113

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to assess respiratory function at the time of clinical recovery and 6 weeks after discharge in patients surviving to COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Our case series consisted of 13 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: At the time of clinical recovery, FEV1 (2.07 ± 0.72 L) and FVC (2.25 ± 0.86 L) were lower compared to lower limit of normality (LLN) values (2.56 ± 0.53 L, p = 0.004, and 3.31 ± 0.65 L, p < 0.001, respectively), while FEV1/FVC (0.94 ± 0.07) was higher compared to upper limit of normality (ULN) values (0.89 ± 0.01, p = 0.029). After 6 weeks pulmonary function improved but FVC was still lower than ULN (2.87 ± 0.81, p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that COVID-19 pneumonia may result in clinically relevant alterations in pulmonary function tests, with a mainly restrictive pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(3): 2583-2587, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-675981

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, an increasing number of cases associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019­nCoV) have emerged in Wuhan, China, which has resulted in a rapid outbreak in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to describe the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of 2019­nCoV pneumonia (NCP) in Zhejiang province, outside of Wuhan. A total of 74 patients with 2019­nCoV were continuously enrolled between January 22 and March 2, 2020 at Zhejiang Hospital. Diagnosis was confirmed at Zhejiang Hospital by reverse transcription­PCR (RT­PCR), which was approved by the Chinese government. Subsequently, the clinical features between positive­ and negative­NCP patients in Zhejiang were compared. Among the 74 hospitalized patients with suspected 2019­NCP, six patients (one male and five female patients) were confirmed to be infected with 2019­nCoV by RT­PCR. The average age of the confirmed patients was 40±13 years. There were three family clusters among the confirmed cases, one patient from each of these families had travel history or contact with patients from Wuhan within 2 weeks. Compared with non­NCP patients, the most common symptoms at onset for patients with NCP were fever (5/6; 83.3%) and cough (5/6; 83.3%), followed by dyspnea/pharyngalgia (2/6; 33.3%), whereas myalgia (1/6; 16.7%) and fatigue (1/6; 16.7%) were less common. All 74 patients with suspected NCP exhibited abnormal computerized tomography (CT) images. In total, 2/6 (33.3%) patients with confirmed NCP presented with bilateral pneumonia, and 21/68 (30.9%) non­NCP patients exhibited bilateral pneumonia, with bilateral distribution of patchy shadows or ground glass opacity. The present study revealed that epidemiological history was critical to the diagnosis of 2019­nCoV in low epidemic regions outside Hubei province. It was also identified that chest CT could not replace nucleic acid testing due to similar radiological manifestations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Female , Fever/pathology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108545, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670405

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 rapidly turned to a global pandemic posing lethal threats to overwhelming health care capabilities, despite its relatively low mortality rate. The clinical respiratory symptoms include dry cough, fever, anosmia, breathing difficulties, and subsequent respiratory failure. No known cure is available for COVID-19. Apart from the anti-viral strategy, the supports of immune effectors and modulation of immunosuppressive mechanisms is the rationale immunomodulation approach in COVID-19 management. Diet and nutrition are essential for healthy immunity. However, a group of micronutrients plays a dominant role in immunomodulation. The deficiency of most nutrients increases the individual susceptibility to virus infection with a tendency for severe clinical presentation. Despite a shred of evidence, the supplementation of a single nutrient is not promising in the general population. Individuals at high-risk for specific nutrient deficiencies likely benefit from supplementation. The individual dietary and nutritional status assessments are critical for determining the comprehensive actions in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Cough/diet therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/immunology , Cough/pathology , Disease Management , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/diet therapy , Fever/immunology , Fever/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/diet therapy , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diet therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
11.
Infection ; 48(3): 445-452, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-66355

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak spread in China and is a threat to the world. We reported on the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of children cases to help health workers better understand and provide timely diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Retrospectively, two research centers' case series of 67 consecutive hospitalized cases including 53 adult and 14 children cases with COVID-19 between 23 Jan 2020 and 15 Feb 2020 from Jinan and Rizhao were enrolled in this study. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of children and adults were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Most cases in children were mild (21.4%) and conventional cases (78.6%), with mild clinical signs and symptoms, and all cases were of family clusters. Fever (35.7%) and dry cough (21.4%) were described as clinical manifestations in children cases. Dry cough and phlegm were not the most common symptoms in children compared with adults (p = 0.03). In the early stages of the disease, lymphocyte counts did not significantly decline but neutrophils count did in children compared with adults (p = 0.02). There was a lower level of CRP (p = 0.00) in children compared with adults. There were 8 (57.1%) asymptomatic cases and 6 (42.9%) symptomatic cases among the 14 children cases. The age of asymptomatic patients was younger than that of symptomatic patients (p = 0.03). Even among asymptomatic patients, 5 (62.5%) cases had lung injuries including 3 (60%) cases with bilateral involvement, which was not different compared with that of symptomatic cases (p = 0.58, p = 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical symptoms of children are mild, there is substantial lung injury even among children, but that there is less clinical disease, perhaps because of a less pronounced inflammatory response, and that the occurrence of this pattern appears to inversely correlate with age.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/pathology , Fever/pathology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Age Factors , Asymptomatic Diseases , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Cough/epidemiology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Fever/diagnostic imaging , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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