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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(7): 790-796, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical characteristics of 71 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The general data, epidemiological data, laboratory tests, imaging examinations, and treatment of 71 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Sixth People's Hospital of Zhengzhou from January 19, 2020 to March 3, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 71 COVID-19 patients, the ages were 4-84 (41.29±15.21) years, 38 (53.5%) patients were male, 33 (46.5%) were female, and 52 (73.2%) were in 22 clusters. The main clinical manifestations were fever (78.9%), cough (64.8%), and sputum (38.0%). The fever was mainly low and moderate, with 49 patients (69.0%) at 37.3-39.0 ℃. Most of the leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were normal, accounting for 47 (66.2%), 51 (71.8%), and 51 (71.8%) patients, respectively; a few of them were decreased, accounting for 21 (29.6%), 16 (22.5%), and 20 (28.2%) patients, respectively. There were 38 (53.5%) and 31 (43.7%) patients with the decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, respectively. There were 41 (57.7%), 38 (53.5%), 32 (45.1%), 26(36.6%), 22 (31.0%), 20 (28.2%), 14 (19.7%), 14 (19.7%), and 9 (12.7%) patients with the increased levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, fibrinogen,interleukin 6, lactate dehydrogenase,D-dimer,alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. Of the 71 patients, the lung was involved in 60 (84.5%) patients, the double lung was involved in 47 (66.2%) patients, and the single lung was involved in 13 (18.3%) patients. The course of the disease was long, and the time from symptom onset to the second severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid negative transformation was (17.22±6.34) days.There were no significant differences in the incubation period (t=-0.453, P>0.05), the complicates (χ2=0.042, P>0.05), and the time from symptom onset to diagnosis (t=-1.330, P>0.05) in patients between the non-severe group and the severe group. The onset age, gender, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative time, lymphocyte count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium ion, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, calcitonin, procalcitonin, and troponin were significantly different between the severe group and the non-severe group (all P<0.05). Among the 71 patients, 4 (5.6%) patients were mild, 59 (83.1%) were normal, and 8 (11.3%) were severe or critical. CONCLUSIONS: The aggregation phenomenon of COVID-19 is obvious. Fever and cough are the main clinical manifestations. White blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the most patients in the early onset are normal. Most COVID-19 patients are light and ordinary type, with good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
2.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7994, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health personnel, including physicians, are a fundamental part of the first line of defense against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To characterize the clinical manifestations and course of the first cases of contagion by SARS-CoV-2 in doctors of Peru. Methodology: We present a series of six cases of doctors infected by SARS-CoV-2, with confirmed positivity for COVID-19, showing the daily evolution from the diagnosis of the disease, its main signs and symptoms, evolution, and until the outcome in each case. Results: Five were men. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 27 to 33). In three cases the physician worked more than 12 hours a day in emergency and hospitalization services and not wear a mask at all times. The most frequent symptoms were axillary temperature above 38°C, malaise, dry cough, and odynophagia (the latter in three of the cases). The diagnosis was made at a median of 3 days (interquartile range: 3 to 4 days). The symptoms that persisted the most were dry cough (present during ten days in four doctors). Dysgeusia was the only symptom with the most extended duration (15 days in only one doctor). In the six cases, the course was favorable. However, these doctors found it difficult to return to functions in their hospital centers adequately. Discussion: Despite a small number of cases, it is the first report detailing the evolution of symptoms day by day, which can help for occupational health and even for case surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Physicians , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Peru , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
3.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7994, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721619

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Health personnel, including physicians, are a fundamental part of the first line of defense against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To characterize the clinical manifestations and course of the first cases of contagion by SARS-CoV-2 in doctors of Peru. Methodology: We present a series of six cases of doctors infected by SARS-CoV-2, with confirmed positivity for COVID-19, showing the daily evolution from the diagnosis of the disease, its main signs and symptoms, evolution, and until the outcome in each case. Results: Five were men. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range: 27 to 33). In three cases the physician worked more than 12 hours a day in emergency and hospitalization services and not wear a mask at all times. The most frequent symptoms were axillary temperature above 38°C, malaise, dry cough, and odynophagia (the latter in three of the cases). The diagnosis was made at a median of 3 days (interquartile range: 3 to 4 days). The symptoms that persisted the most were dry cough (present during ten days in four doctors). Dysgeusia was the only symptom with the most extended duration (15 days in only one doctor). In the six cases, the course was favorable. However, these doctors found it difficult to return to functions in their hospital centers adequately. Discussion: Despite a small number of cases, it is the first report detailing the evolution of symptoms day by day, which can help for occupational health and even for case surveillance and monitoring.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Physicians , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Peru , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 706-712, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the clinical characteristics of imported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Jiangsu Province. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with World Health Organization interim guidance in 3 grade IIIA hospitals of Jiangsu from 22 January to 14 February 2020. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the new coronavirus in respiratory samples. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients infected with COVID-19, 41 were female, with a median age of 46.1 years. Except for 3 severe patients, the rest of the 77 patients exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. Nine patients were unconfirmed until a third nucleic acid test; 38 cases had a history of chronic diseases. The main clinical manifestations of the patients were fever and cough, which accounted for 63 (78.75%) and 51 (63.75%) cases, respectively. Only 3 patients (3.75%) showed liver dysfunction. Imaging examination showed that 55 patients (68.75%) showed abnormal density shadow and 25 cases (31.25%) had no abnormal density shadow in the parenchyma of both lungs. Currently, 21 cases have been discharged from the hospital, and no patient died. The average length of stay for discharged patients was 8 days. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the cases in Wuhan, the cases in Jiangsu exhibited mild or moderate symptoms and no obvious gender susceptibility. The proportion of patients having liver dysfunction and abnormal CT imaging was relatively lower than that in Wuhan. Notably, infected patients may be falsely excluded based on 2 consecutively negative respiratory pathogenic nucleic acid test results.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 564, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread throughout the world. In this study, we systematically reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched from January 1, 2020, to April 16, 2020. Case reports and case series of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were included. Two reviewers screened 366 studies and 14 studies were included. Four reviewers independently extracted the features from the studies. We used a random-effects model to analyse the incidence (P) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 236 pregnant women with COVID-19. The results were as follows: positive CT findings (71%; 95% CI, 0.49-0.93), caesarean section (65%; 95% CI, 0.42-0.87), fever (51%; 95% CI, 0.35-0.67), lymphopenia (49%; 95% CI, 0.29-0.70), coexisting disorders (33%; 95% CI, 0.21-0.44), cough (31%; 95% CI, 0.23-0.39), fetal distress (29%; 95% CI, 0.08-0.49), preterm labor (23%; 95% CI, 0.14-0.32), and severe case or death (12%; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20). The subgroup analysis showed that compared with non-pregnant patients, pregnant women with COVID-19 had significantly lower incidences of fever (pregnant women, 51%; non-pregnant patients, 91%; P < 0.00001) and cough (pregnant women, 31%; non-pregnant patients, 67%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of fever, cough and positive CT findings in pregnant women with COVID-19 are less than those in the normal population with COVID-19, but the rate of preterm labor is higher among pregnant with COVID-19 than among normal pregnant women. There is currently no evidence that COVID-19 can spread through vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Obstetric Labor, Premature/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 335-340, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699403

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is rarely reported in children and they are mildly affected in most cases. The most common clinical presentation of COVID-19 is cough, fever and sore throat; severe cases show tachypnea. The course of the disease is from one to two weeks. Laboratory findings are nonspecific; lymphopenia, elevation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have been described. Early chest X-ray is usually normal, and the most common tomographic findings are consolidations with halo, ground-glass opacities and tiny nodules which mainly affects subpleural areas. Management of the disease is supportive; in severe cases, it should be focused on respiratory support. It is recommended to limit the handling of respiratory secretions and to follow the same preventive measures provided to adults.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Child , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 567, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the dynamic changes in clinical and CT characteristics of COVID-19 patients with different epidemiology histories. METHODS: Fifty-three discharged COVID-19 patients were enrolled at Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, between January 21 and March 10, 2020. Spearman correlation analysis was performed between CT scores and laboratory indicators. Patients were divided into the Wuhan group (lived in or with travel to Wuhan, numbering 30 cases) and non-Wuhan group (close contacts or unknown exposure, totaling 23 cases). The CT and laboratory findings were compared between and within groups during the clinical process. RESULTS: Fever (88.7%), cough (64.2%), fatigue (34%), and abnormal laboratory indicators, including lymphopenia, reduced albumin, albumin/globulin (A/G), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), were mainly observed. Subpleural ground-glass opacities (86.8%) were usually detected at admission. The CT scores were highly correlated with lymphocytes, CRP, albumin, and A/G at initial and follow-ups (all p < 0.05). Four days after admission, most patients (66.7% Wuhan, 47.8% non-Wuhan) showed progression, and the CT scores of Wuhan significantly increased (p = 0.015). Eight days after admission, the vast majority of patients (69.2% Wuhan, 100% non-Wuhan, p = 0.006) presented improvement, and the CT scores of non-Wuhan were significantly lower than Wuhan (p = 0.006). Pneumonia was completely absorbed in most patients 2-4 weeks after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: CT plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis and monitoring of changes in COVID-19. Lymphocytes, CRP, albumin, and A/G are expected to predict disease severity and prognosis. Viral pathogenicity in non-endemic areas may be weaker than core-infected areas. In most patients, lung lesions can disappear around 4 weeks after discharge.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Serum Globulins/analysis , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel
9.
Invest Radiol ; 55(5): 257-261, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684015

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate its relationship with clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 80 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 from January to February 2020. The chest CT images and clinical data were reviewed, and the relationship between them was analyzed. RESULTS: Totally, 80 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. With regards to the clinical manifestations, 58 (73%) of the 80 patients had cough, and 61 (76%) of the 80 patients had high temperature levels. The most frequent CT abnormalities observed were ground glass opacity (73/80 cases, 91%), consolidation (50/80 cases, 63%), and interlobular septal thickening (47/80, 59%). Most of the lesions were multiple, with an average of 12 ± 6 lung segments involved. The most common involved lung segments were the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe (69/80, 86%), the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe (68/80, 85%), the lateral basal segment of the right lower lobe (64/80, 80%), the dorsal segment of the left lower lobe (61/80, 76%), and the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe (65/80, 81%). The average pulmonary inflammation index value was (34% ± 20%) for all the patients. Correlation analysis showed that the pulmonary inflammation index value was significantly correlated with the values of lymphocyte count, monocyte count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, days from illness onset, and body temperature (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The common chest CT findings of COVID-19 are multiple ground glass opacity, consolidation, and interlobular septal thickening in both lungs, which are mostly distributed under the pleura. There are significant correlations between the degree of pulmonary inflammation and the main clinical symptoms and laboratory results. Computed tomography plays an important role in the diagnosis and evaluation of this emerging global health emergency.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2013807, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680218

ABSTRACT

Importance: Individuals with asymptomatic or mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported to frequently transmit the disease even without direct contact. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been found at very high concentrations in swab and sputum samples from such individuals. Objective: To estimate the virus levels released from individuals with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 into different aerosol sizes by normal breathing and coughing, and to determine what exposure could result from this in a room shared with such individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mathematical modeling study combined the size-distribution of exhaled breath microdroplets for coughing and normal breathing with viral swab and sputum concentrations as approximation for lung lining liquid to obtain an estimate of emitted virus levels. Viral data were obtained from studies published as of May 20, 2020. The resulting emission data fed a single-compartment model of airborne concentrations in a room of 50 m3, the size of a small office or medical examination room. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeling was used to estimate the viral load emitted by individuals breathing normally or coughing, and the concentrations expected in the simulated room at different ventilation rates. Results: The mean estimated viral load in microdroplets emitted by simulated individuals while breathing regularly was 0.0000049 copies/cm3, with a range of 0.0000000049 to 0.637 copies/cm3. The corresponding estimates for simulated coughing individuals were a mean of 0.277 copies/cm3 per cough, with a range of 0.000277 to 36 030 copies/cm3 per cough. The estimated concentrations in a room with an individual who was coughing frequently were very high, with a maximum of 7.44 million copies/m3 from an individual who was a high emitter. However, regular breathing from an individual who was a high emitter was modeled to result in lower room concentrations of up to 1248 copies/m3. Conclusions and Relevance: In this modeling study, breathing and coughing were estimated to release large numbers of viruses, ranging from thousands to millions of virus copies per cubic meter in a room with an individual with COVID-19 with a high viral load, depending on ventilation and microdroplet formation process. The estimated infectious risk posed by a person with typical viral load who breathes normally was low. The results suggest that only few people with very high viral load pose an infection risk in poorly ventilated closed environments. These findings suggest that strict respiratory protection may be needed when there is a chance to be in the same small room with an individual, whether symptomatic or not, especially for a prolonged period.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Exhalation/physiology , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Load , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ventilation
11.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 497-506, 2020 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS: All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. FINDINGS: By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0-58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0-13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. INTERPRETATION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. FUNDING: Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/virology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
12.
Am Surg ; 86(6): 572-576, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656493

ABSTRACT

A surgeon failed to heed his own misgivings on taking a family vacation cruise. Despite scrupulous hand-washing and antiseptic precautions with anything within reach, he contracts COVID-19. His anxiety increased as his condition became increasingly serious: uncontrollable dry coughing spells, spiking fevers, and his worst symptom, progressive dyspnea and chest pain. From what he knew about the disease, he feared admission to the intensive care unit, a step that portended a significantly worse prognosis. After a week-and-a-half of illness, misery, and fear, he began to improve: first, his fevers diminished, breathing came more easily, and coughing spells occurred less frequently, if still unpredictably. Now with his strength slowly returning, he contemplated returning to work but was frustrated when tests showed he was still shedding active virions. Under quarantine and with time to reflect, he cautions against complacency with regard to the infectiousness of COVID-19. His own denial led to the loss of his health and livelihood. At home but still separated from his wife and children in a basement bedroom, the bittersweet circumstances of his reunion with them is a reminder of the preciousness of life and love of family.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Denial, Psychological , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Surgeons/psychology , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , Chest Pain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Family , Fear , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(14)2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646402

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The global threat of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues. The diversity of clinical characteristics and progress are reported in many countries as the duration of the pandemic is prolonged. We aimed to perform a novel systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on findings about correlations between clinical characteristics and laboratory features of patients with COVID-19. (2) Methods: We analyzed cases of COVID-19 in different countries by searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science databases and Google Scholar, from the early stage of the outbreak to late March. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and treatment strategies were retrospectively reviewed for the analysis. (3) Results: Thirty-seven (n = 5196 participants) COVID-19-related studies were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. Fever, cough and fatigue/myalgia were the most common symptoms of COVID-19, followed by some gastrointestinal symptoms which are also reported frequently. Laboratory markers of inflammation and infection including C-reactive protein (CRP) (65% (95% confidence interval (CI) 56-81%)) were elevated, while lymphocyte counts were decreased (63% (95% CI 47-78%)). Meta-analysis of treatment approaches indicated that three modalities of treatment were predominantly used in the majority of patients with a similar prevalence, including antiviral agents (79%), antibiotics (78%), and oxygen therapy (77%). Age was negatively correlated with number of lymphocytes, but positively correlated with dyspnea, number of white blood cells, neutrophils, and D-dimer. Chills had been proved to be positively correlated with chest tightness, lung abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) scans, neutrophil/lymphocyte/platelets count, D-dimer and CRP, cough was positively correlated with sputum production, and pulmonary abnormalities were positively correlated with CRP. White blood cell (WBC) count was also positively correlated with platelet counts, dyspnea, and neutrophil counts with the respective correlations of 0.668, 0.728, and 0.696. (4) Conclusions: This paper is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to reveal the relationship between various variables of clinical characteristics, symptoms and laboratory results with the largest number of papers and patients until now. In elderly patients, laboratory and clinical characteristics indicate a more severe disease course. Moreover, treatments such as antiviral agents, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy which are used in over three quarters of patients are also analyzed. The results will provide "evidence-based hope" on how to manage this unanticipated and overwhelming pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Chills/virology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Pandemics , Platelet Count
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 625-638, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632018

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its clinical manifestations, and treatment options continues to evolve at an unparalleled pace. This review sought to summarize the key literature regarding transmission, case definitions, clinical management, and the burden of COVID-19. Our review of the literature showed that SARS-CoV-2 was mainly transmitted via inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the virus and had a mean incubation period of 4-6 days. The commonly reported symptoms were fever (75.3% ± 18.7%) and cough (62.6% ± 17.7%) across the spectrum of clinical disease-mild, moderate, severe, and critical, but with the disease phenotype varying with severity. Categorization of these cases for home care or hospital management needs to be defined, with risk stratification accounting for the age of the patient and the presence of underlying comorbidities. The case definitions varied among countries, which could have contributed to the differences in the case fatality rates among affected countries. The severity and risk of death due to COVID-19 was associated with age and underlying comorbidities. Asymptomatic cases, which constitute 40-80% of COVID-19 cases are a considerable threat to control efforts. The presence of fever and cough may be sufficient to warrant COVID-19 testing, but using these symptoms in isolation will miss a proportion of cases. A clear definition of a COVID-19 case is essential for the management, treatment, and tracking of clinical illness, and to inform the quarantine measures and social distancing that can help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cost of Illness , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Pandemics
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 756-761, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has raised world concern since it emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The infection may result in severe pneumonia with clusters of illness onsets. Its impacts on public health make it paramount to clarify the clinical features with other pneumonias. METHODS: Nineteen COVID-19 and 15 other patients with pneumonia (non-COVID-19) in areas outside of Hubei were involved in this study. Both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients were confirmed to be infected using throat swabs and/or sputa with/without COVID-2019 by real-time RT-PCR. We analyzed the demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features from those patients, and compared the differences between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19. RESULTS: All patients had a history of exposure to confirmed cases of COVID-19 or travel to Hubei before illness. The median (IQR) duration was 8 (6-11) and 5 (4-11) days from exposure to onset in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases, respectively. The clinical symptoms were similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19. The most common symptoms were fever and cough. Fifteen (78.95%) COVID-19 but 4 (26.67%) non-COVID-19 patients had bilateral involvement while 17 COVID-19 patients (89.47%) but 1 non-COVID-19 patient (6.67%) had multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity on chest CT images. Compared with non-COVID-19, COVID-19 presents remarkably more abnormal laboratory tests, including AST, ALT, γ-GT, LDH, and α-HBDH. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 infection has onsets similar to other pneumonias. CT scan may be a reliable test for screening COVID-19 cases. Liver function damage is more frequent in COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 patients. LDH and α-HBDH may be considerable markers for evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Travel
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 100, 2020 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606785
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): e91-e94, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Little is known about the risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was taken in children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronary virus-2 infection in Wuhan Children's Hospital. Risk factors associated with the development of COVID-19 and progression were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Eight of 260 children diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. Thirty-five children with COVID-19 infection matched for age, sex and date of admission, and who classified as non-severe type, were randomly selected from the hospital admissions. For cases with severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19, the most common symptoms were dyspnea (87.5%), fever (62.5%) and cough (62.5%). In laboratory, white blood cells count was significantly higher in severe children than non-severe children. Levels of inflammation bio-makers such as hsCRP, IL-6, IL-10 and D-dimer elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. The level of total bilirubin and uric acid clearly elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. All of severe children displayed the lesions on chest CT, more lung segments were involved in severe children than in non-severe children, which was only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: More than 3 lung segments involved were associated with greater risk of development of severe COVID-19 in children. Moreover, the possible risk of the elevation of IL-6, high total bilirubin and D-dimer with univariable analysis could identify patients to be severe earlier.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): e100-e103, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To describe the characteristics of clinical manifestations of children with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Chongqing. METHODS: All 25 children with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RNA-PCR) were admitted from the 4 designated treatment hospitals of 2019-nCoV in Chongqing from January 19 to March 12, 2020. Clinical data and epidemiologic history of these patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The diagnosis was confirmed through RNA-PCR testing. Among the 25 cases, 14 were males and 11 were females. The median age was 11.0 (6.3-14.5) years (range 0.6-17.0 years). All children were related to a family cluster outbreak, and 7 children (28%) with a travel or residence history in Hubei Province. These patients could be categorized into different clinical types, including 8 (32%) asymptomatic, 4 (16%) very mild cases and 13 (52%) common cases. No severe or critical cases were identified. The most common symptoms were cough (13 cases, 52%) and fever (6 cases, 24%). The duration time of clinical symptoms was 13.0 (8.0-25.0) days. In the 25 cases, on admission, 21 cases (84%) had normal white blood cell counts, while only 2 cases (8%) more than 10 × 10/L and 2 cases (8%) less than 4 × 10/L, respectively; 22 cases(88%) had normal CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 3 cases(8%) this increased mildly; 23 cases had normal CD8+ T lymphocyte counts, while in the remaining 2 cases (8%) CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were mildly increased as well. All Lymphocyte counts were normal. There were no statistical differences of lab results between the groups of asymptomatic cases, mild cases and common cases. There were only 13 cases with abnormal CT imaging, most of which were located in the subpleural area of the bottom of the lung. All patients were treated with interferon, 6 cases combined with Ribavirin, and 12 cases combined with lopinavir or ritonavir. The days from onset to RNA turning negative was 15.20 ± 6.54 days. There was no significant difference of RNA turning negative between the groups of interferon, interferon plus ribavirin and interferon plus lopinavir or ritonavir treatment. All the cases recovered and were discharged from hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity of 2019-nCoV infection in children is lower than in adults and the clinical manifestations and inflammatory biomarkers in children are nonspecific and milder than that in adults. RNA-PCR test is still the most reliable diagnostic method, especially for asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(4): 1285-1290, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-544132

ABSTRACT

Forensic investigations generally contain extensive morphological examinations to accurately diagnose the cause of death. Thus, the appearance of a new disease often creates emerging challenges in morphological examinations due to the lack of available data from autopsy- or biopsy-based research. Since late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel seventh coronavirus disease has been reported in China caused by "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2). On March 11, 2020, the new clinical condition COVID-19 (Corona-Virus-Disease-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Patients with COVID-19 mainly have a mild disease course, but severe disease onset might result in death due to proceeded lung injury with massive alveolar damage and progressive respiratory failure. However, the detailed mechanisms that cause organ injury still remain unclear. We investigated the morphological findings of a COVID-19 patient who died during self-isolation. Pathologic examination revealed massive bilateral alveolar damage, indicating early-phase "acute respiratory distress syndrome" (ARDS). This case emphasizes the possibility of a rapid severe disease onset in previously mild clinical condition and highlights the necessity of a complete autopsy to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiological changes in SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Autopsy , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fever/virology , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Hypertension , Lung/metabolism , Lymphocytes/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Megakaryocytes/pathology , Metaplasia/pathology , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Tachycardia/virology , Thrombosis/pathology
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