Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 157
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6671291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518179

ABSTRACT

Background: With the COVID-19 epidemic breakout in China, up to 25% of diagnosed cases are considered to be severe. To effectively predict the progression of COVID-19 via patients' clinical features at an early stage, the prevalence of these clinical factors and their relationships with severe illness were assessed. Methods: In this study, electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese database) were searched to obtain relevant studies, including information on severe patients. Publication bias analysis, sensitivity analysis, prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, diagnosis odds ratio calculation, and visualization graphics were achieved through software Review Manager 5.3, Stata 15, Meta-DiSc 1.4, and R. Results: Data of 3.547 patients from 24 studies were included in this study. The results revealed that patients with chronic respiratory system diseases (pooled positive likelihood 6.07, 95% CI: 3.12-11.82), chronic renal disease (4.79, 2.04-11.25), cardiovascular disease (3.45, 2.19-5.44), and symptoms of the onset of chest tightness (3.8, 1.44-10.05), shortness of breath (3.18, 2.24-4.51), and diarrhea (2.04, 1.38-3.04) exhibited increased probability of progressing to severe illness. C-reactive protein, ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased a lot in severe patients compared to nonsevere. Yet, it was found that clinical features including fever, cough, and headache, as well as some comorbidities, have little warning value. Conclusions: The clinical features and laboratory examination could be used to estimate the process of infection in COVID-19 patients. The findings contribute to the more efficient prediction of serious illness for patients with COVID-19 to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fever/virology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(7): e277-e281, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497428

ABSTRACT

The article reviews and analyzes the different ear, nose, and throat (ENT)-related manifestations reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive pediatric patients (age <18 years) in peer-reviewed and published literature. We searched the PubMed database using medical subject headings and associated key words, focusing on ENT symptoms in children with COVID-19. We included relevant published and peer-reviewed articles in English and excluded case reports and articles in press. There were 1,140 children positive for COVID-19 (56% boys) in the 23 studies included in this review. Although 11% of patients were asymptomatic, the most common symptoms reported were fever (48%) and cough (37%). Nasal symptoms (stuffy nose, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea) and sore throat occurred in about 22% of all patients. Otitis, dizziness, anosmia, and ageusia are hardly reported in children with COVID-19. Although fever and cough are the most common symptoms, ENT manifestations are frequently observed in pediatric patients with COVID-19. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(7):e277-e281.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Pharyngitis/virology , Child , Humans , Rhinorrhea/virology
4.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(3): 401-404, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441450

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 was found in a recovered patient's stool specimen by combining quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and genome sequencing. The patient was virus positive in stool specimens for at least an additional 15 days after he was recovered, whereas respiratory tract specimens were negative. The discovery of the complete genome of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool sample of the recovered patient demonstrates a cautionary warning that the potential mode of the virus transmission cannot be excluded through the fecal-oral route after viral clearance in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Feces/virology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/transmission , China , Cough/virology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Models, Biological , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , Appetite , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Chills/diagnosis , Chills/etiology , Chills/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/virology , England , False Positive Reactions , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/virology , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , State Medicine
6.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 33-38, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436192

ABSTRACT

The study examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infections among hospitalized patients. Design: Study design was a retrospective single-center review of hospital data. Setting: The study was conducted at the COVID-19 Treatment Center of the Department of Medicine and Therapeutics of the Korle-Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana. Participants and study tools: A total of fifty patients with laboratory (rRT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 infection were involved in the study. A chart review of the medical records of the patients was conducted and the data obtained was documented using a data extraction form. Results: The median age was 53 years and most (36% (18/50)) of the patients were at least 60 years of age. Eighty percent (40/50) of the patients were symptomatic, with cough and difficulty in breathing being the commonest presenting symptoms. The mean duration of hospitalization was 12.3 ± 7.3 days. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus were the commonest co-morbidities occurring in 52% (26/50) and 42% (21/50) of patients respectively. Fifty percent of patients developed COVID-19 pneumonia as a complication. The mortality rate was 12% (6/50). Conclusion: In this study, SARS-CoV2 infection affected older adults with hypertension and diabetes mellitus being the common comorbidities. Patients with these comorbid conditions should be counselled by their clinicians to strictly observe the COVID-19 prevention protocols to reduce their risk of acquiring the infection. There is a need to pay critical and prompt attention to the management of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia particularly among people with diabetes to improve outcomes. Funding: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
7.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 23-32, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436191

ABSTRACT

Objective: This analysis described the clinical features of COVID-19 in the early phase of the pandemic in Ghana. Methods: Data were extracted from two national COVID-19 treatment centers in Ghana for over 11 weeks(from March to May 2020). Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Modified Ordered Logistic and Negative Binomial Regression analysis were applied to establish factors associated with illness severity and Non-communicable Disease (NCDs) counts respectively. All analysis was conducted at the 95% confidence level (p-value ≤ 0.05) using Stata 16. Results: Among the 275 patients, the average age was 40.7±16.4, with a preponderance of males (54.5%). The three commonest symptoms presented were cough (21.3%), headache (15.7%), and sore throat (11.7%). Only 7.6% of the patients had a history of fever. Most patients were asymptomatic (51.65). Approximately 38.9% have an underlying co-morbid NCDs, with Hypertension (32.1%), Diabetes (9.9%), and Asthma (5.2%) being the three commonest. The odds of Moderate/severe (MoS) was significantly higher for those with unknown exposures to similar illness [aOR(95%CI) = 4.27(1.12-10.2)] compared with non-exposure to similar illness. An increased unit of NCD's count significantly increased the odds of COVID-19 MoS illness by 26%[cOR(95%CI) =1.26(1.09-1.84)] and 67% (adjusting for age) [aOR(95%CI)=1.67(1.13-2.49)]. Conclusion: The presence of cardiovascular co-morbidities dictated the frequency of reported symptoms and severity of COVID-19 infection in this sample of Ghanaians. Physicians should be aware of the presence of co-morbid NCDs and prepare to manage effectively among COVID-19 patients. Funding: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Regression Analysis
8.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 16-22, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436190

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is a new disease, knowledge on the mode of transmission and clinical features are still evolving, new tests are being developed with inherent challenges regarding interpretation of tests results. There is generally, a gap in knowledge on the virus globally as the pandemic evolves and in Ghana, there is dearth of information and documentation on the clinical characteristics of the virus. With these in mind, we set out to profile the initial cohort of COVID-19 patients who recovered in Ghana. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 who had recovered from the two main treatment centres in Accra, Ghana. Descriptive data analysis was employed and presented in simple and relational tables. Independent t-test and ANOVA were used to determine differences in the mean age of the sexes and the number of days taken for the first and second retesting to be done per selected patient characteristics. Results: Of the 146 records reviewed, 54% were male; mean age of patients was 41.9 ± 17.5 years, nearly half were asymptomatic, with 9% being severely ill. The commonest presenting symptoms were cough (22.6%), headache (13%) and sore throat (11%) while the commonest co-morbidities were hypertension (25.3%), diabetes mellitus (14%) and heart disease (3.4%). Conclusion: COVID-19 affected more males than females; nearly half of those infected were asymptomatic. Cough, headache and sore throat were the commonest symptoms and mean duration from case confirmation to full recovery was 19 days. Further research is required as pandemic evolves. Funding: None declared.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Distribution , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Sex Distribution
10.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 790-794, 2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383995

ABSTRACT

Emergency physicians are on the front lines of treating patients with highly infectious respiratory diseases. Personal protective equipment is one defense against contamination from droplet and aerosol secretions. Intubation is a procedure that greatly can increase provider's risk of exposure. Utilization of an intubation box has been discussed and recommended on social media platforms. There has been scant literature demonstrating the effectiveness of such devices. This study aimed to determine degree of droplet contamination to the intubator utilizing a novel barrier enclosure with a fluorescent simulated respiratory contagion. This model confirmed both added protection to the providers preforming intubation, and reduction of spread of the droplets when such a device is applied to patient care.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biofouling/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cough/virology , Humans , Simulation Training
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, China. It is an urgent task to prevent and treat COVID-19 effectively early. In China's experience combating the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has played an indispensable role. A large number of epidemiological investigations have shown that mild to moderate COVID-19 accounts for the largest proportion of cases. It is of great importance to treat such COVID-19 cases, which can help control epidemic progression. Many trials have shown that CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 was superior to conventional therapy alone. This review was designed to evaluate the add-on effect of CHM in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Eight electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Clinical Trials.gov website, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and China Biology Medicine (CBM) were searched from December 2019 to March 2021 without language restrictions. Two reviewers searched and selected studies, and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria independently. Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included RCTs. Review Manager 5.3.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twelve eligible RCTs including 1393 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analyses found that lung CT parameters [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.15, 1.38), P<0.00001] and the clinical cure rate [RR = 1.26, 95%CI (1.16, 1.38), P<0.00001] of CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 were better than those of conventional therapy. The rate of conversion to severe cases [RR = 0.48, 95%CI (0.32, 0.73), P = 0.0005], TCM symptom score of fever [MD = -0.62, 95%CI (-0.79, -0.45), P<0.00001], cough cases [RR = 1.43, 95%CI (1.16, 1.75), P = 0.0006], TCM symptom score of cough[MD = -1.07, 95%CI (-1.29, -0.85), P<0.00001], TCM symptom score of fatigue[MD = -0.66, 95%CI (-1.05, -0.28), P = 0.0007], and CRP[MD = -5.46, 95%CI (-8.19, -2.72), P<0.0001] of combination therapy was significantly lower than that of conventional therapy. The WBC count was significantly higher than that of conventional therapy[MD = 0.38, 95%CI (0.31, 0.44), P<0.00001]. Our meta-analysis results were robust through sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional therapy may be effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/etiology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Nausea/chemically induced , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/chemically induced
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15404, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331396

ABSTRACT

This work develops a robust classifier for a COVID-19 pre-screening model from crowdsourced cough sound data. The crowdsourced cough recordings contain a variable number of coughs, with some input sound files more informative than the others. Accurate detection of COVID-19 from the sound datasets requires overcoming two main challenges (i) the variable number of coughs in each recording and (ii) the low number of COVID-positive cases compared to healthy coughs in the data. We use two open datasets of crowdsourced cough recordings and segment each cough recording into non-overlapping coughs. The segmentation enriches the original data without oversampling by splitting the original cough sound files into non-overlapping segments. Splitting the sound files enables us to increase the samples of the minority class (COVID-19) without changing the feature distribution of the COVID-19 samples resulted from applying oversampling techniques. Each cough sound segment is transformed into six image representations for further analyses. We conduct extensive experiments with shallow machine learning, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and pre-trained CNN models. The results of our models were compared to other recently published papers that apply machine learning to cough sound data for COVID-19 detection. Our method demonstrated a high performance using an ensemble model on the testing dataset with area under receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.77, precision = 0.80, recall = 0.71, F1 measure = 0.75, and Kappa = 0.53. The results show an improvement in the prediction accuracy of our COVID-19 pre-screening model compared to the other models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Deep Learning , Humans , Machine Learning , Mass Screening/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sound , Sound Spectrography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8231, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320619

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe and assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national referral hospital in Peru. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study that included hospitalized patients older than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis. Patients with a positive rapid serological test on admission but no respiratory symptoms nor compatible images were excluded. We collected the data from clinical records. Results: A total of 813 adults were included, 544 (66.9%) with confirmed COVID-19. The mean age was 61.2 years (standard deviation: 15.0), and 575 (70.5%) were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (34.1%) and obesity (25.9%). On admission, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (82.2%) and cough (53.9%). A total of 114 (14.0%) patients received mechanical ventilation, 38 (4.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 377 (46.4%) died. The requirement for ventilatory support, greater lung involvement, and inflammatory markers were associated with higher mortality. It was found that for every 10-year age increase, the risk of dying increased 32% (relative risk: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 1.38). Those who were admitted to the intensive care unit and and were placed on mechanical ventilation had 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 1.69) and 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 2.29) times the risk of dying compared to those who did not, respectively. Conclusion: We found a high mortality rate among hospitalized patients associated with older age, higher inflammatory markers, and greater lung involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 697-702, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295587

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, started in December 2019 and has spread across the world. Materials & methods: We analyzed real-time PCR results of 10,000 samples from 2 April to 30 May 2020 in three neighbor cities located in the East of Turkey. The final study population was 7853 cases, after excluding screening tests. Results: Real-time PCR was performed to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase gene fragment. The number of total positive samples out of 7853 were 487; however, the number of nonrepeating positive patient was 373 (4.8%). Cough and fever were the most common symptoms in positive cases. Conclusion: Epidemiologic studies should be performed about the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection to better understand the effect of the virus across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(8): 394-408, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280000

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and other microbes within aerosol particles can be partially shielded from UV radiation. The particles refract and absorb light, and thereby reduce the UV intensity at various locations within the particle. Previously, we demonstrated shielding in calculations of UV intensities within spherical approximations of SARS-CoV-2 virions within spherical particles approximating dried-to-equilibrium respiratory fluids. The purpose of this paper is to extend that work to survival fractions of virions (i.e., fractions of virions that can infect cells) within spherical particles approximating dried respiratory fluids, and to investigate the implications of these calculations for using UV light for disinfection. The particles may be on a surface or in air. Here, the survival fraction (S) of a set of individual virions illuminated with a UV fluence (F, in J/m2) is assumed described by S(kF) = exp(-kF), where k is the UV inactivation rate constant (m2/J). The average survival fraction (Sp) of the simulated virions in a group of particles is calculated using the energy absorbed by each virion in the particles. The results show that virions within particles of dried respiratory fluids can have larger Sp than do individual virions. For individual virions, and virions within 1-, 5-, and 9-µm particles illuminated (normal incidence) on a surface with 260-nm UV light, the Sp = 0.00005, 0.0155, 0.22, and 0.28, respectively, when kF = 10. The Sp decrease to <10-7, <10-7, 0.077, and 0.15, respectively, for kF = 100. Results also show that illuminating particles with UV beams from widely separated directions can strongly reduce the Sp. These results suggest that the size distributions and optical properties of the dried particles of virion-containing respiratory fluids are likely important to effectively designing and using UV germicidal irradiation systems for microbes in particles. The results suggest the use of reflective surfaces to increase the angles of illumination and decrease the Sp. The results suggest the need for measurements of the Sp of SARS-CoV-2 in particles having compositions and sizes relevant to the modes of disease transmission.


Subject(s)
Bodily Secretions/radiation effects , Bodily Secretions/virology , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Virion/radiation effects , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Cough/virology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Sneezing
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4063-4072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278261

ABSTRACT

Background: Ivermectin is an FDA-approved broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that has been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Objective: We aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension intranasal spray in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19. Methods: This clinical trial included 114 patients diagnosed as mild COVID-19. Patients were divided randomly into two age and sex-matched groups; group A comprising 57 patients received ivermectin nanosuspension nasal spray twice daily plus the Egyptian protocol of treatment for mild COVID-19 and group B comprising 57 patients received the Egyptian protocol for mild COVID-19 only. Evaluation of the patients was performed depending on improvement of presenting manifestations, negativity of two consecutive pharyngeal swabs for the COVID-19 nucleic acid via rRT-PCR and assessments of hematological and biochemical parameters in the form of complete blood counts, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and d-dimer which were performed at presentation and 7 days later. Results: Of the included patients confirmed with mild COVID-19, 82 were males (71.9%) and 32 females (28.1%) with mean age 45.1 ± 18.9. In group A, 54 patients (94.7%) achieved 2 consecutive negative PCR nasopharyngeal swabs in comparison to 43 patients (75.4%) in group B with P = 0.004. The durations of fever, cough, dyspnea and anosmia were significantly shorter in group A than group B, without significant difference regarding the duration of gastrointestinal symptoms. Duration taken for nasopharyngeal swab to be negative was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (8.3± 2.8 days versus 12.9 ± 4.3 days; P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Local use of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension nasal spray is safe and effective in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19 with rapid viral clearance and shortening the anosmia duration. Clinicaltrialsgov Identifier: NCT04716569; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04716569.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Egypt , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nasal Sprays , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 49(9): 2481-2490, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270519

ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on an important issue of disease progression of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) through processing COVID-19 cough sounds by proposing a fully-automated method. The new method is based on time-domain exploiting only phase 1 data which is always available for any cough events. The proposed approach generates plausible click sequences consist of clicks for various cough samples from covid-19 patients. The click sequence, which is extracted from the phase slope function of an input signal, is used to calculate inter-click intervals (ICIs), and thereby a scoring index (SI) is derived based on coefficient of variation(CV) of the extracted ICIs. Moreover, probability density function (pdf) of the output click sequence is obtained. The method does not need to adjust any parameters. The experimental results achieved from real-recorded COVID-19 cough data using the medically annotated Novel Coronavirus Cough Database (NoCoCoDa) reveal that the proposed time-domain method can be a very useful tool for automatic cough sound processing to determine the disease progression of coronavirus patients.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 , Cough/physiopathology , Databases, Factual , Respiratory Sounds , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Female , Humans , Male
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11778, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258598

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated many concerns about cross-contamination risks, particularly in hospital settings and Intensive Care Units (ICU). Virus-laden aerosols produced by infected patients can propagate throughout ventilated rooms and put medical personnel entering them at risk. Experimental results found with a schlieren optical method have shown that the air flows generated by a cough and normal breathing were modified by the oxygenation technique used, especially when using High Flow Nasal Canulae, increasing the shedding of potentially infectious airborne particles. This study also uses a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics model based on a Lattice Boltzmann Method to simulate the air flows as well as the movement of numerous airborne particles produced by a patient's cough within an ICU room under negative pressure. The effects of different mitigation scenarii on the amount of aerosols potentially containing SARS-CoV-2 that are extracted through the ventilation system are investigated. Numerical results indicate that adequate bed orientation and additional air treatment unit positioning can increase by 40% the number of particles extracted and decrease by 25% the amount of particles deposited on surfaces 45s after shedding. This approach could help lay the grounds for a more comprehensive way to tackle contamination risks in hospitals, as the model can be seen as a proof of concept and be adapted to any room configuration.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cough/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aerosols , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Models, Theoretical , Optical Imaging , Ventilation/methods
20.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1230-1235, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254219

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Covid-19 is a contagious disease, and it is characterised by different symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Rising concerns about Covid-19 have severely affected the healthcare system in all countries as the Covid-19 outbreak has developed at a rapid rate all around the globe. Intriguing, a clinically used drug, acetazolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, CA, EC 4.2.1.1), is used to treat high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE), showing a high degree of clinical similarities with the pulmonary disease caused by Covid-19. In this context, this preliminary study aims to provide insights into some factors affecting the Covid-19 patients, such as hypoxaemia, hypoxia as well as the blood CA activity. We hypothesise that patients with Covid-19 problems could show a dysregulated acid-base status influenced by CA activity. These preliminary results suggest that the use of CA inhibitors as a pharmacological treatment for Covid-19 may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carbonic Anhydrases/blood , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Altitude Sickness/blood , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Bicarbonates/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Cough/blood , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Drug Repositioning , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/virology , Fever/blood , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/blood , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Oximetry , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...