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Am J Bioeth ; 22(12): 3-6, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134453

Courage , Humans , Reward
BMJ ; 378: o2206, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064106
Nurs Ethics ; 29(6): 1441-1456, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896270


BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic has challenged nurse leaders in ways that one could not imagine. Along with ongoing priorities of providing high quality, cost-effective and safe care, nurse leaders are also committed to promote an ethical climate that support nurses' moral courage for sustaining excellence in patient and family care. AIM: This study is directed to develop a structure equation model of crisis, ethical leadership and nurses' moral courage: mediating effect of ethical climate during COVID-19. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION: Approval was obtained from Ethics Committee at Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study using validated scales to measure the study variables. It was conducted in all units of two isolated hospitals in Damanhur, Egypt. A convenient sample of 235 nurses was recruited to be involved in this study. RESULTS: This study revealed that nurses perceived a moderate mean percent (55.49 ± 3.46) of overall crisis leadership, high mean percent (74.69 ± 6.15) of overall ethical leadership, high mean percent (72.09 ± 7.73) of their moral courage, and moderate mean percent of overall ethical climate (65.67 ± 12.04). Additionally, this study declared a strong positive statistical significant correlation between all study variables and indicated that the independent variable (crisis and ethical leadership) can predict a 0.96, 0.6, respectively, increasing in the dependent variable (nurses' moral courage) through the mediating impact of ethical climate. CONCLUSION: Nursing administrators should be conscious of the importance of crisis, ethical leadership competencies and the role of ethical climate to enhance nurses' moral courage especially during pandemic. Therefore, these findings have significant contributions that support healthcare organizations to develop strategies that provide a supportive ethical climate. Develop ethical and crisis leadership competencies in order to improve nurses' moral courage by holding meetings, workshops, and allowing open dialogue with nurses to assess their moral courage.

COVID-19 , Courage , Ethics, Nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Leadership , Morals , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
Support Care Cancer ; 30(8): 7005-7014, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844386


PURPOSE: This study aims to understand the association between positive personal resources (i.e., optimism, hope, courage, trait mindfulness, and self-efficacy), resilience, and psychological distress (i.e., anxiety, depression, stress) in women with breast cancer and breast cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesized that personal positive resources can directly influence resilience, which in turn prevented psychological distress. METHODS: The research sample consisted of 409 Italian women (49% patients, 51% survivors) who were administered a questionnaire to assess positive resources, resiliency, and distress. structural equation model (SEM) analysis was carried out to confirm the hypothetical-theoretical model. RESULTS: Personal positive resources had a direct positive effect on resilience, which prevented from distress. These results were observed across cancer patients and survivors, and regardless the level of direct exposure to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In both patients and survivors, the relationships between positive personal resources, resilience, and psychological distress is strong enough to be not influenced by the level of exposure to COVID-19 and despite COVID-19 pandemic caused the disruption of active treatment plans and delays in routine check-ups. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Implications of this study suggest the urgency to screen positive resources and to identify women with lower resilience and a potentially higher susceptibility to develop psychological distress. For these women, our findings suggest the implementation of psychological interventions that build resilience.

Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Courage , Mindfulness , Psychological Distress , Resilience, Psychological , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Self Efficacy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Survivors
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; 18(2): 177-192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819738


The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated disparities in access to healthcare and mental health, often forcing healthcare social workers into ethical and moral dilemmas as they endeavor to provide equitable, humanistic care to their patients and caregivers. The purpose of this mixed method study was to explore how COVID-19-related personal and professional grief and losses impacted healthcare social worker's distress and resilience. Participants were recruited through healthcare social work professional organizations from September-November 2020. Participants (N = 246) completed an online survey capturing sociodemographic variables, as well as mental distress, pandemic-related meaning-making, and resilience. Data analysis included correlations and regressions pertaining to meaning-making, emotional distress, and resilience, as well as thematic analysis of participants' open-ended survey responses. Approximately one-third of participants reported emotional distress and difficulty in finding meaning from their pandemic-related losses. Participants reported a lower level of resilience when compared with the United States general population. Three themes emerged from social workers' qualitative responses: the hardest year of my career; the collective loss of our normal; and we were built for this. Pandemic-related grief permeates social workers' daily lives; yet their training and resilience foster hope to positively impact their clients, communities, and families.

COVID-19 , Courage , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Social Workers , United States
Perm J ; 252021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766161

COVID-19 , Courage , Humans
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 31(3): e13567, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731141
Evid Based Dent ; 22(2): 48, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705059

Courage , Humans
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1630-1633, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691790


Experts have an obligation to make difficult decisions rather than offloading these decisions onto others who may be less well equipped to make them. This commentary considers this obligation through the lens of drafting critical care rationing protocols to address COVID-19-induced scarcity. The author recalls her own experience as a member of multiple groups charged with the generation of protocols for how hospitals and states should ration critical care resources like ventilators and intensive care unit beds, in the event that there would not be enough to go around as the COVID-19 pandemic intensified. She identifies several obvious lessons learned through this process, including the need to combat the pervasive effects of racism, ableism, and other forms of discrimination; to enhance the diversity, equity, and inclusion built into the process of drafting rationing protocols; and to embrace transparency, including acknowledging failings and fallibility. She also comes to a more complicated conclusion: Individuals in a position of authority, such as medical ethicists, have a moral obligation to embrace assertion, even when such assertions may well turn out to be wrong. She notes that when the decision-making process is grounded in legitimacy, medical ethics must have the moral courage to embrace fallibility.

COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making/ethics , Courage/ethics , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Morals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Nurs Open ; 9(1): 785-800, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520268


AIM: During the Covid-19 pandemic, the risk for nurses' mental health has rapidly increased. The two main goals of this study were the examination of (1) the psychological burden and (2) of suicidal ideation and its associated risk factors one year after the Covid-19 pandemic begun. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional online survey. METHODS: N = 1311 nurses (96.9% female) aged 18-63 years (M = 30.96, SD = 8.48) were assessed for various symptoms of psychological burden, suicidal ideation and behaviour and its risk factors. RESULTS: Almost half of participants (41.5%) reported heightened levels of depressive symptoms, 691 (52.7%) reported a medium to high risk for burnout. One fifth of participants (21.7%) reported suicidal ideation in the past 4 weeks. The direct contact to people with Covid-19 was not related to the extent of the psychological burden. Depression, agitation, perceived burdensomeness and previous suicide attempt were associated with suicidal ideation.

COVID-19 , Courage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 510-513, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467730


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the media have repeatedly praised healthcare workers for their 'heroic' work. Although this gratitude is undoubtedly appreciated by many, we must be cautious about overuse of the term 'hero' in such discussions. The challenges currently faced by healthcare workers are substantially greater than those encountered in their normal work, and it is understandable that the language of heroism has been evoked to praise them for their actions. Yet such language can have potentially negative consequences. Here, I examine what heroism is and why it is being applied to the healthcare workers currently, before outlining some of the problems associated with the heroism narrative currently being employed by the media. Healthcare workers have a clear and limited duty to treat during the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be grounded in a broad social contract and is strongly associated with certain reciprocal duties that society has towards healthcare workers. I argue that the heroism narrative can be damaging, as it stifles meaningful discussion about what the limits of this duty to treat are. It fails to acknowledge the importance of reciprocity, and through its implication that all healthcare workers have to be heroic, it can have negative psychological effects on workers themselves. I conclude that rather than invoking the language of heroism to praise healthcare workers, we should examine, as a society, what duties healthcare workers have to work in this pandemic, and how we can support them in fulfilling these.

Coronavirus Infections , Courage , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Mass Media , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Opinion , Attitude to Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Moral Obligations , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Responsibility
JAMA ; 326(2): 127-128, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328582
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302323


Although the required personal protective equipment was not available during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, Spanish healthcare workers continued to work, being dubbed as 'healthcare kamikazes'. Two possible reasons are moral courage and purpose in life that, in turn, would modulate the appearance of psychopathology. Cross-sectional study was carried out in 90 Spanish and 59 Mexican healthcare professionals, and 56 medical and nursing students. Spanish professionals had suffered more work and overall exposure (M = 8.30; SD = 2.57 and M = 9.03; SD = 2.66) than Mexican (M = 5.10; SD = 1.87 and M = 5.55; SD = 2.35). Mexican professionals had fewer anxiety disorders (30.5%; n = 18) and a lower depression score (M = 4.45; SD = 5.63) than the Spanish (43.7%; n = 38; and M = 8.69; SD = 8.07). Spanish professionals more often experienced acute stress disorder (32.6%; n = 29). Purpose in life, in addition to having a direct protective effect on psychopathology, also modulated the relationship between personal and family exposure and psychopathology. In conclusion, purpose in life protects against the appearance of psychopathology in healthcare workers with personal and family exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Courage , Mental Disorders , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Morals , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Nurs Open ; 8(6): 3538-3546, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212772


AIM: Evaluation the moral courage, moral sensitivity and safe nursing care in nurses caring of infected patients by the COVID-19. DESIGN: This study employed cross-sectional research. METHODS: 520 nurses caring for COVID-19 patients in 5 hospitals were selected via convenience sampling. They completed questionnaires online. Data were analysed by SPSS software version 22. RESULTS: Findings showed that moral courage has a strong and direct correlation with moral sensitivity (p < .001, r = 0-.70) and safe nursing care (p < .001, r = 0-.74). Variables of moral sensitivity, safe nursing care, work experience, age and employment status can predict 64.76% of the variance in moral courage in these nurses. Nursing care of patients with COVID-19 have reported high moral courage in recent months, and in spite of the numerous tensions and stresses in terms of caring these patients during this relative long period, they are still diligent in providing safe and high sensitive care to these patients.

COVID-19 , Courage , Nurses , Nursing Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Morals , SARS-CoV-2
Invest Educ Enferm ; 38(2)2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204419

Courage , Humans , Pandemics
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(3): 1082-1083, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956526

Courage , Humans