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Eur Neurol ; 85(2): 136-139, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435127


INTRODUCTION: A number of neurological complications of COVID-19 have been identified, including cranial nerve paralyses. We present a series of 10 patients with lower cranial nerve involvement after severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization in an intensive care unit. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of patients admitted to the post-intensive care unit (p-ICU) of Besançon University Hospital (France) between March 16 and May 22, 2020. We included patients with confirmed COVID-19 and cranial neuropathy at admission to the p-ICU. All these patients were treated by orotracheal intubation, and all but one underwent prone-position ventilation therapy. RESULTS: Of the 88 patients admitted to the p-ICU, 10 patients (11%) presented at least 1 cranial nerve palsy. Of these 10 patients, 9 had a hypoglossal nerve palsy and 8 of these also had a deficit in another cranial nerve. The most frequent association was between hypoglossal and vagal palsies (5 patients). None of the patients developed neurological signs related to a global neuropathy. We found no correlation between the intensity of the motor limb weakness and the occurrence of lower cranial nerve palsies. All but 2 of the patients recovered within less than a month. CONCLUSION: The mechanical compressive hypothesis, linked to the prone-position ventilation therapy, appears to be the major factor. The direct toxicity of SARS-CoV-2 and the context of immune dysfunction induced by the virus may be involved in a multifactorial etiology.

COVID-19 , Cranial Nerve Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 102999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157101


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 disease emerged in Wuhan province of China in November 2019 and spread across the world in a short time, resulting in a pandemic. The first case in Turkey was detected on March 11, 2020. The aim of the current study was to reveal the effects of COVID-19 on cranial nerves by monitoring people infected with the disease based on repeated examinations and surveys. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The data of 356 patients with a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test who received treatment between June 2020 and August 2020 in our hospital were prospectively evaluated after the study was approved by the relevant ethics committee. RESULTS: Of the 356 patients included in the study, 47 under the age of 18 years were excluded due to their unreliable examination and anamnesis findings. In addition, seven patients that died while in hospital were excluded from the study due to the lack of examination and survey records during their hospitalization. The data of the remaining 302 patients were statistically analyzed. Symptoms of cranial nerve involvement were observed in 135 patients. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus commonly results in cranial nerve symptoms. The fact that these findings are more common and severe in COVID-19 than previous SARS and MERS outbreaks suggests that it has a more neurotrophic and more aggressive neuroinvasion. While the negative effects of the virus on sensory functions resulting from cranial nerve involvement are evident, motor functions are rarely affected.

COVID-19/complications , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cranial Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Turkey , Young Adult
Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513


OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.

COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology