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Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(6): 853-857, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049277


BACKGROUND: According to literature, after COVID-19, patients may require rehabilitation care because of different degrees of physical impairments. Neurologic disorders are often described but no specific data about postacute cranial nerves involvement and possible correlation with dysphagia development are yet available. CASE REPORT: The patient is a 69-year-old man who presented acquired weakness and dysphagia with clinical cranial nerves impairment of lingual, IX, X and XII after SARS-CoV-2 infection, without electrophysiological alterations. He underwent rehabilitation program for two months, with slow recovery. However, at discharge residual hypoglossal nerve deficit sign was present. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: This single case expands knowledge about clinical picture after SARS-CoV-2 disease. Is important to notice that cranial, particularly bulbar nerves could be involved as late complications. Thus, we discuss about risk factors, the nature of the damage and the impact in dysphagia pathophysiology and recovery. If supported by further studies, this case may help to understand dysphagia features in these patients.

COVID-19/complications , Cranial Nerve Diseases/complications , Cranial Nerves/physiopathology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513


OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.

COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
Neurology ; 95(5): e601-e605, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71972


OBJECTIVE: To report 2 patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who presented acutely with Miller Fisher syndrome and polyneuritis cranialis, respectively. METHODS: Patient data were obtained from medical records from the University Hospital "Príncipe de Asturias," Alcalá de Henares, and the University Hospital "12 de Octubre," Madrid, Spain. RESULTS: A 50-year-old man presented with anosmia, ageusia, right internuclear ophthalmoparesis, right fascicular oculomotor palsy, ataxia, areflexia, albuminocytologic dissociation, and positive testing for anti-GD1b-immunoglobulin G antibody. Five days previously, he had developed a cough, malaise, headache, low back pain, and fever. A 39-year-old man presented with ageusia, bilateral abducens palsy, areflexia, and albuminocytologic dissociation. Three days previously, he had developed diarrhea, a low-grade fever, and poor general condition. Oropharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 by qualitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay was positive in both patients and negative in the CSF. The first patient was treated with IV immunoglobulin and the second with acetaminophen. Two weeks later, both patients made a complete neurologic recovery, except for residual anosmia and ageusia in the first case. CONCLUSIONS: Our 2 cases highlight the rare occurrence of Miller Fisher syndrome and polyneuritis cranialis during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These neurologic manifestations may occur because of an aberrant immune response to COVID-19. The full clinical spectrum of neurologic symptoms in patients with COVID-19 remains to be characterized.

Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/physiopathology , Neuritis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/immunology , Gangliosides/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Miller Fisher Syndrome/etiology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/immunology , Neuritis/etiology , Neuritis/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain