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1.
World Neurosurg ; 156: 133-146.e6, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intracranial surgery can be complex and high risk. Safety, ethical and financial factors make training in the area challenging. Head model 3-dimensional (3D) printing is a realistic training alternative to patient and traditional means of cadaver and animal model simulation. OBJECTIVE: To describe important factors relating to the 3D printing of human head models and how such models perform as simulators. METHODS: Searches were performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science. Articles were screened independently by 3 reviewers using Covidence software. Data items were collected under 5 categories: study information; printers and processes; head model specifics; simulation and evaluations; and costs and production times. RESULTS: Forty articles published over the last 10 years were included in the review. A range of printers, printing methods, and substrates were used to create head models and tissue types. Complexity of the models ranged from sections of single tissue type (e.g., bone) to high-fidelity integration of multiple tissue types. Some models incorporated disease (e.g., tumors and aneurysms) and artificial physiology (e.g., pulsatile circulation). Aneurysm clipping, bone drilling, craniotomy, endonasal surgery, and tumor resection were the most commonly practiced procedures. Evaluations completed by those using the models were generally favorable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review indicate that those who practice surgery and surgical techniques on 3D-printed head models deem them to be valuable assets in cranial surgery training. Understanding how surgical simulation on such models affects surgical performance and patient outcomes, and considering cost-effectiveness, are important future research endeavors.


Subject(s)
Head/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Craniotomy/methods , Humans
2.
World Neurosurg ; 156: 133-146.e6, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intracranial surgery can be complex and high risk. Safety, ethical and financial factors make training in the area challenging. Head model 3-dimensional (3D) printing is a realistic training alternative to patient and traditional means of cadaver and animal model simulation. OBJECTIVE: To describe important factors relating to the 3D printing of human head models and how such models perform as simulators. METHODS: Searches were performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science. Articles were screened independently by 3 reviewers using Covidence software. Data items were collected under 5 categories: study information; printers and processes; head model specifics; simulation and evaluations; and costs and production times. RESULTS: Forty articles published over the last 10 years were included in the review. A range of printers, printing methods, and substrates were used to create head models and tissue types. Complexity of the models ranged from sections of single tissue type (e.g., bone) to high-fidelity integration of multiple tissue types. Some models incorporated disease (e.g., tumors and aneurysms) and artificial physiology (e.g., pulsatile circulation). Aneurysm clipping, bone drilling, craniotomy, endonasal surgery, and tumor resection were the most commonly practiced procedures. Evaluations completed by those using the models were generally favorable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review indicate that those who practice surgery and surgical techniques on 3D-printed head models deem them to be valuable assets in cranial surgery training. Understanding how surgical simulation on such models affects surgical performance and patient outcomes, and considering cost-effectiveness, are important future research endeavors.


Subject(s)
Head/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Craniotomy/methods , Humans
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254958, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced a reconsideration of surgical patient management in the setting of scarce resources and risk of viral transmission. Herein we assess the impact of implementing a protocol of more rigorous patient education, recovery room assessment for non-ICU admission, earlier mobilization and post-discharge communication for patients undergoing brain tumor surgery. METHODS: A case-control retrospective review was undertaken at a community hospital with a dedicated neurosurgery and otolaryngology team using minimally invasive surgical techniques, total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and early post-operative imaging protocols. All patients undergoing craniotomy or endoscopic endonasal removal of a brain, skull base or pituitary tumor were included during two non-overlapping periods: March 2019-January 2020 (pre-pandemic epoch) versus March 2020-January 2021 (pandemic epoch with streamlined care protocol implemented). Data collection included demographics, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, tumor pathology, and tumor resection and remission rates. Primary outcomes were ICU utilization and hospital length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes were complications, readmissions and reoperations. FINDINGS: Of 295 patients, 163 patients were treated pre-pandemic (58% women, mean age 53.2±16 years) and 132 were treated during the pandemic (52% women, mean age 52.3±17 years). From pre-pandemic to pandemic, ICU utilization decreased from 92(54%) to 43(29%) of operations (p<0.001) and hospital LOS≤1 day increased from 21(12.2%) to 60(41.4%), p<0.001, respectively. For craniotomy cohort, median LOS was 2 days for both epochs; median ICU LOS decreased from 1 to 0 days (p<0.001), ICU use decreased from 73(80%) to 29(33%),(p<0.001). For endonasal cohort, median LOS decreased from 2 to 1 days; median ICU LOS was 0 days for both epochs; (p<0.001). There were no differences pre-pandemic versus pandemic in ASA scores, resection/remission rates, readmissions or reoperations. CONCLUSION: This experience suggests the COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity for implementing a brain tumor care protocol to facilitate safely decreasing ICU utilization and accelerating discharge home without an increase in complications, readmission or reoperations. More rigorous patient education, recovery room assessment for non-ICU admission, earlier mobilization and post-discharge communication, layered upon a foundation of minimally invasive surgery, TIVA anesthesia and early post-operative imaging are possible contributors to these favorable trends.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Craniotomy/methods , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Reoperation/methods , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 82(Pt A): 49-51, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023664

ABSTRACT

There has been a growing anxiety in carrying out awake craniotomy surgeries during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, not only due to airway management but also close proximity to the team in theatre. We set out to safely perform the first documented awake craniotomy in the UK since the beginning of lockdown. We performed a thorough workup of the patient with minimal hospital visits, using remote communication wherever possible. We modified our existing awake craniotomy protocol/technique guided by local/national policies. An asleep-awake-asleep craniotomy for tumour resection was performed successfully without compromising patient and staff safety with excellent post-operative outcome. With appropriate pre- and peri-operative modifications to established protocols, awake craniotomies with functional mapping can be safely carried out. By incorporating novel aspects to our technique, we believe that this service can safely resume in carefully selected patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Craniotomy/methods , Glioma/surgery , Adult , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Wakefulness
6.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e955-e960, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of health care personnel on the front line of caring for patients with COVID-19. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that all nonessential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. Neurologic surgeries and procedures should not be delayed under the circumstance in which it is essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system. METHODS: With the intent to advise the neurosurgery team on how to adequately prepare and safely perform neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19, we discuss considerations and recommendations based on the lessons and experience shared by neurosurgeons in China. RESULTS: Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed. In addition, a case of a ruptured aneurysm in a suspected patient with COVID-19 is reported. It is advised that all health care personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical surgeries and procedures for confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Air Filters , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Craniotomy/methods , Drainage , Emergencies , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure , Intraoperative Care , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Monitoring, Physiologic , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
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