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1.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24088, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the world rapidly spread. It is a serious global public health emergency. METHODS: In this study, we described the clinical characteristics of 11 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Meizhou People's Hospital, and viral genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from these patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 11 patients, six cases developed fever, 9 cases developed a cough, and two cases developed headache and chills. Four patients (36.4%) had underlying diseases. Pneumonia is the most common complication. The laboratory test results showed that there were no adult patients with increased lymphocyte/lymphocyte percentage (LYM/LYM%). Most patients had normal total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), but only two patients had decreased. Most patients had increased or normal levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB), creatine kinase isoenzymes (CK-MB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Neutrophil (NEU) (r = 0.664, p = 0.026), CK-MB (r = 0.655, p = 0.029) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (r = 0.682, p = 0.021) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 virus cycle threshold (Ct) value. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) shows that two different SNPs were identified at positions 8781 and 28144, and have a complete linkage genetic form of 8781C-28144T and 8781T-28144C. CONCLUSIONS: The reports of the 11 COVID-19 patients in our hospital will provide useful information for the diagnosis, treatment, and drug development of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Genome, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Viral Proteins/genetics
3.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 3440714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been observed that COVID-19 may cause myocardial damage, but there are few detailed reports on myocardial enzyme abnormalities. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from 157 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Wuhan. We collected information on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. The association between myocardial enzyme abnormalities and the mortality was also investigated. RESULTS: The mortality in abnormal myocardial enzyme group was obviously higher than the normal group (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (n = 72, 97.3%) with normal cardiac enzyme group were of the common novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) type, whereas half of the patients with cardiac enzyme abnormalities (n = 40, 48.2%) developed critical and severe NCP type. The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that COVID-19 patients with increasing age (P = 0.035), higher levels of CRP (P = 0.038), and TNI (P = 0.036) were associated with increased death than other patients. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial enzyme abnormality and myocardial injury were associated with the severity and fatal outcomes of COVID-19. Clinicians should pay attention to the markers of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients, especially those with older age, comorbidities, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzymes/blood , Myocardium/enzymology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , COVID-19/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I/blood
4.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 304-314, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), a biomarker of myocardial injury, in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, for studies published between January 2020 and January 2021 that reported CK-MB, COVID-19 severity and mortality (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021239657). RESULTS: Fifty-five studies in 11,791 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that CK-MB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with high disease severity or non-survivor status than patients with low severity or survivor status (standardized mean difference, SMD, 0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01, p<0.001). The rate of patients with CK-MB values above the normal range was also significantly higher in the former than the latter (60/350 vs 98/1,780; RR â€‹= â€‹2.84, 95%CI 1.89 to 4.27, p<0.001; I2 â€‹= â€‹19.9, p â€‹= â€‹0.254). Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 â€‹= â€‹93.4%, p<0.001). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and direction of the effect size was not modified (effect size range, 0.77 to 0.84). Begg's (p â€‹= â€‹0.50) and Egger's (p â€‹= â€‹0.86) t-tests did not show publication bias. In meta-regression analysis, the SMD was significantly and positively associated with the white blood count, aspartate aminotransferase, myoglobin, troponin, brain natriuretic peptide, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS: Higher CK-MB concentrations were significantly associated with severe disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients. This biomarker of myocardial injury might be useful for risk stratification in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 307-311, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Occasionally, children with COVID-19 may develop arrhythmia, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock involving multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to identify the laboratory parameters that may predict early cardiovascular involvement in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 320 pediatric patients, aged 0-18 years (average age, 10.46 ± 5.77 years; 156 female), with positive COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test and with cardiac biomarkers at the time of admission to the pediatric emergency department were retrospectively scanned. The age, sex, COVID-19-associated symptoms, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP), CK-MB, and troponin I levels of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: Fever was noted in 58.1% of the patients, cough in 29.7%, diarrhea in 7.8%, headache in 14.7%, sore throat in 17.8%, weakness in 17.8%, abdominal pain in 5%, loss of taste in 4.1%, loss of smell in 5.3%, nausea in 3.4%, vomiting in 3.8%, nasal discharge in 4.4%, muscle pain in 5%, and loss of appetite in 3.1%. The proBNP value ≥282 ng/L predicted the development of MIS-C with 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity [AUC: 0.985 (0.959-1), P < 0.001]; CK-MB value ≥2.95 with 80% sensitivity and 77.6% specificity [AUC: 0.792 (0.581-1), P = 0.026]; and troponin I value ≥0.03 with 60% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity [AUC: 0.794 (0.524-1)]. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac markers (proBNP and troponin I), especially proBNP, could be used to detect early diagnosis of cardiac involvement and/or MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and to predict related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Troponin I/blood , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
6.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1665-1667, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265654

ABSTRACT

Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 to minimie the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its life-threatening complications. Myocarditis has been reported as a possible and rare adverse consequence of different vaccines, and its clinical presentation can range from influenza-like symptoms to acute heart failure. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented progressive dyspnea and constrictive retrosternal pain after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Cardiac magnetic resonance and laboratory data revealed typical findings of acute myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , /adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 551-559, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131382

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous observational studies have suggested that increased cardiac markers are commonly found in COVID-19. This study aimed to determine the relationship between several cardiac markers and the severity/mortality of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Several cardiac markers were analysed in this meta-analysis. RevMan 5.4 was used to provide pooled estimates for standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Twenty-nine clinical studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significantly higher CK-MB (0.64, 95% CI = 0.19-1.09), PCT (0.47, 95% CI = 0.26-0.68), NT-proBNP (1.90, 95% CI = 1.63-2.17), BNP (1.86, 95% CI = 1.63-2.09), and d-dimer (1.30, 95% CI = 0.91-1.69) were found in severe compared with non-severe COVID-19. Significantly higher CK-MB (3.84, 95% CI = 0.62-7.05), PCT (1.49, 95% CI = 0.86-2.13), NT-proBNP (4.66, 95% CI = 2.42-6.91), BNP (1.96, 95% CI = 0.78-3.14), troponin (1.64 (95% CI = 0.83-2.45), and d-dimer (2.72, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29) were found in those who died from compared with survivors of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: High CK-MB, PCT, NT-proBNP, BNP, and d-dimer could be predictive markers for severity of COVID-19, while high CK-MB, PCT, NT-proBNP, BNP, troponin, and d-dimer could be predictive markers for survival of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(2): 152-163, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to involve different organs, including the cardiovascular system. We systematically reviewed COVID-19 cardiac complications and calculated their pooled incidences. Secondarily, we compared the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level between the surviving and expired patients. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for manuscripts published from December 1, 2019 to April 16, 2020. Cardiovascular complications, along with the levels of cTnI, creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) in hospitalized PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were extracted. The pooled incidences of the extracted data were calculated, and the unadjusted cTnI level was compared between the surviving and expired patients. RESULTS: Out of 1094 obtained records, 22 studies on a total of 4,157 patients were included. The pooled incidence rate of arrhythmia was 10.11%. Furthermore, myocardial injury had a pooled incidence of 17.85%, and finally, the pooled incidence for heart failure was 22.34%. The pooled incidence rates of cTnI, CK-MB, and CK elevations were also reported at 15.16%, 10.92%, and 12.99%, respectively. Moreover, the pooled level of unadjusted cTnI was significantly higher in expired cases compared with the surviving (mean difference = 31.818, 95% CI = 17.923-45.713, P value <0.001). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can affect different parts of the heart; however, the myocardium is more involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4432, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101681

ABSTRACT

Cardiac injury is a common complication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to reveal the association of cardiac injury with coagulation dysfunction. We enrolled 181 consecutive patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, and studied the clinical characteristics and outcome of these patients. Cardiac biomarkers high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI), myohemoglobin and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) were assessed in all patients. The clinical outcomes were defined as hospital discharge or death. The median age of the study cohort was 55 (IQR, 46-65) years, and 102 (56.4%) were males. Forty-two of the 181 patients (23.2%) had cardiac injury. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), D-dimer and serum ferritin were significantly associated with cardiac injury. Multivariate regression analysis revealed old age and elevated D-dimer levels as being strong risk predictors of in-hospital mortality. Interleukin 6 (IL6) levels were comparable in patients with or without cardiac injury. Serial observations of coagulation parameters demonstrated highly synchronous alterations of D-dimer along with progression to cardiac injury. Cardiac injury is a common complication of COVID-19 and is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of AST, D-dimer and serum ferritin are significantly associated with cardiac injury, whereas IL6 are not. Therefore, the pathogenesis of cardiac injury in COVID-19 may be primarily due to coagulation dysfunction along with microvascular injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , Heart Injuries/virology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Heart Injuries/blood , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/physiopathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin I/blood
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13065-13071, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000853

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Whether patients with COVID-19 require invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is not yet clear. This article summarizes the clinical treatment process and clinical data of patients with COVID-19 and analyzes the predictive factors for mechanical ventilation for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out from January 5, 2020, to March 23, 2020, including 98 patients with COVID-19 treated at three designated hospitals in Huangshi City, Hubei Province. Data collection included demographics, previous underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, imaging examination results, diagnosis, and prognosis. This study presents a summary of the patients' overall clinical characteristics and clarifies the predictive factors for MV in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: There were 56 males and 42 females included in this study. The mortality rate was 26.53% (26/98). Fever, cough, and chest tightness were the most common symptoms (64.3%, 37.8%, and 12.2%, respectively). Thirty cases required MV, 30.61% of the total cases, and the mortality rate was 73.33%. The univariate comparison showed that dyspnea, acute physiologic assessment, chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score, and the ratio between arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and oxygen concentration (FiO2) (P/F) were statistically different between the MV group and the non-MV group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Results showed the following: dyspnea; increased white blood cell count; decreased platelets; lowered albumin levels; increased urea nitrogen; increased levels of myocardial enzymes Creatine Kinase (CK), Creatine Kinase, MB Form (CKMB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased lactate, and lowered blood calcium tests. These findings may indicate that the patients have an increased probability of needing MV support. A cutoff value for the initial APACHE II score of >11.5 and the initial PaO2/FiO2 ratio of <122.17 mmHg should be considered for MV support for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , APACHE , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/blood , Hypocalcemia/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Leukocytosis/blood , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/blood
12.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1104-1112, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992137

ABSTRACT

The prognostic power of circulating cardiac biomarkers, their utility, and pattern of release in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have not been clearly defined. In this multicentered retrospective study, we enrolled 3219 patients with diagnosed COVID-19 admitted to 9 hospitals from December 31, 2019 to March 4, 2020, to estimate the associations and prognostic power of circulating cardiac injury markers with the poor outcomes of COVID-19. In the mixed-effects Cox model, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratio of 28-day mortality for hs-cTnI (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) was 7.12 ([95% CI, 4.60-11.03] P<0.001), (NT-pro)BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide) was 5.11 ([95% CI, 3.50-7.47] P<0.001), CK (creatine phosphokinase)-MB was 4.86 ([95% CI, 3.33-7.09] P<0.001), MYO (myoglobin) was 4.50 ([95% CI, 3.18-6.36] P<0.001), and CK was 3.56 ([95% CI, 2.53-5.02] P<0.001). The cutoffs of those cardiac biomarkers for effective prognosis of 28-day mortality of COVID-19 were found to be much lower than for regular heart disease at about 19%-50% of the currently recommended thresholds. Patients with elevated cardiac injury markers above the newly established cutoffs were associated with significantly increased risk of COVID-19 death. In conclusion, cardiac biomarker elevations are significantly associated with 28-day death in patients with COVID-19. The prognostic cutoff values of these biomarkers might be much lower than the current reference standards. These findings can assist in better management of COVID-19 patients to improve outcomes. Importantly, the newly established cutoff levels of COVID-19-associated cardiac biomarkers may serve as useful criteria for the future prospective studies and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Diseases , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Pneumonia, Viral , Troponin I/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Indian Heart J ; 73(1): 91-98, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to cause worse outcomes in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, especially in patients with acute cardiac injury, which is determined by elevated levels of high-sensitivity troponin. There is a paucity of data on the impact of congestive heart failure (CHF) on outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a literature search of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases from 11/1/2019 till 06/07/2020, and identified all relevant studies reporting cardiovascular comorbidities, cardiac biomarkers, disease severity, and survival. Pooled data from the selected studies was used for metanalysis to identify the impact of risk factors and cardiac biomarker elevation on disease severity and/or mortality. RESULTS: We collected pooled data on 5967 COVID-19 patients from 20 individual studies. We found that both non-survivors and those with severe disease had an increased risk of acute cardiac injury and cardiac arrhythmias, our pooled relative risk (RR) was - 8.52 (95% CI 3.63-19.98) (p < 0.001); and 3.61 (95% CI 2.03-6.43) (p = 0.001), respectively. Mean difference in the levels of Troponin-I, CK-MB, and NT-proBNP was higher in deceased and severely infected patients. The RR of in-hospital mortality was 2.35 (95% CI 1.18-4.70) (p = 0.022) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.05) (p = 0.008) among patients who had pre-existing CHF and hypertension, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 infection appears to significantly adversely impact patient prognosis and survival. Pre-existence of CHF, and high cardiac biomarkers like NT-pro BNP and CK-MB levels in COVID-19 patients correlates with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Failure/mortality , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Troponin/blood
14.
J Card Surg ; 36(1): 82-88, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effect of myocardial injury on the prognosis of patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Between February 10, 2020 and March 31, 2020, data of severe and critical COVID-19 patients were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Admission data included age, heart rates, mean arterial pressure, and myocardial injury markers including creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), myoglobin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and interleukin-6. The endpoints included mortality, the incidence of malignant arrhythmia, and mechanical ventilation time. Univariate regression analysis, multivariate linear regression analysis, and binary logistic analysis were performed to develop the risk predictors in myocardial injury to the prognosis of severe and critical COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Seventy-four COVID-19 patients were included (mean age of 67.2 ± 14.6 years, male of 66.2%), including 42 severe and 32 critical cases. The mortality was 62.2% (n = 46). CK-MB (odds ratio = 5.895, p < .001, 95% confidence interval: 3.097-8.692) and interleukin-6 (odds ratio = 0.379; p = .005; 95% confidence interval: 1.051-1.769) were independent risk factors of increased mechanical ventilation time; myoglobin (odds ratio = 7.710; p = .045; 95% confidence interval: 1.051-56.571) were the independent predictor of incidence of malignant arrhythmia; age (odds ratio = 1.077; p = .009; 95% confidence interval: 1.019-1.139), myoglobin (odds ratio = 9.480; p = .032; 95% confidence interval: 1.211-78.188), and NT-proBNP (odds ratio = 4.852; p = .047; 95% confidence interval: 0.956-24.627) were the independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In severe and critical COVID-19 patients, the obvious myocardial injury was observed. Increases of CK-MB, myoglobin, NT-proBNP, interleukin-6, and age were independently associated with poor prognosis including increased ventilation duration, the incidence of malignant arrhythmia, and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/blood , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Protein Precursors , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1501-1510, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734780

ABSTRACT

There is a current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a global spread. With the rapid increase in the number of infections, an increase is observed in the number of children with COVID-19. Most research findings are regarding adult cases, which are not always transferrable to children. Evidence-based studies are still expected to formulate clinical decisions for pediatric patients. In this review, we included 2597 pediatric patients that reported recently and evaluated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of children with COVID-19. We found that even lymphopenia was the most common lab finding in adults; it infrequently occurred in children (9.8%). Moreover, elevated creatine kinase MB isoenzyme was much more commonly observed in children (27.0%) than that in adults, suggesting that heart injury would be more likely to occur in pediatric patients. Our analysis may contribute to determine the spectrum of disease in children and to develop strategies to control the disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Child, Preschool , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatrics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
J Card Surg ; 35(8): 1988-2008, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the worst global pandemic of our generation, affecting 215 countries with nearly 5.5 million cases. The association between COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system has been well described. We sought to systematically review the current published literature on the different cardiac manifestations and the use of cardiac-specific biomarkers in terms of their prognostic value in determining clinical outcomes and correlation to disease severity. METHODS: A systematic literature review across PubMed, Cochrane database, Embase, Google Scholar, and Ovid was performed according to PRISMA guidelines to identify relevant articles that discussed risk factors for cardiovascular manifestations, cardiac manifestations in COVID-19 patients, and cardiac-specific biomarkers with their clinical implications on COVID-19. RESULTS: Sixty-one relevant articles were identified which described risk factors for cardiovascular manifestations, cardiac manifestations (including heart failure, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmia, and myocarditis among others) and cardiac-specific biomarkers (including CK-MB, CK, myoglobin, troponin, and NT-proBNP). Cardiovascular risk factors can play a crucial role in identifying patients vulnerable to developing cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 and thus help to save lives. A wide array of cardiac manifestations is associated with the interaction between COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Cardiac-specific biomarkers provide a useful prognostic tool in helping identify patients with the severe disease early and allowing for escalation of treatment in a timely fashion. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is an evolving pandemic with predominate respiratory manifestations, however, due to the interaction with the cardiovascular system; cardiac manifestations/complications feature heavily in this disease, with cardiac biomarkers providing important prognostic information.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Humans , Myoglobin/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Troponin/blood
18.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(6): 665-677, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610754

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic impacting 213 countries/territories and more than 5,934,936 patients worldwide. Cardiac injury has been reported to occur in severe and death cases. This meta-analysis was done to summarize available findings on the association between cardiac injury and severity of COVID-19 infection. Online databases including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched to detect relevant publications up to 20 May 2020, using relevant keywords. To pool data, a fixed- or random-effects model was used depending on the heterogeneity between studies. In total, 22 studies with 3684 COVID-19 infected patients (severe cases=1095 and death cases=365) were included in this study. Higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (weighted mean difference (WMD) =108.86 U/L, 95% confidence interval (CI)=75.93-141.79, p<0.001) and creatine kinase-MB (WMD=2.60 U/L, 95% CI=1.32-3.88, p<0.001) were associated with a significant increase in the severity of COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (WMD=213.44 U/L, 95% CI=129.97-296.92, p<0.001), cardiac troponin I (WMD=26.35 pg/mL, 95% CI=14.54-38.15, p<0.001), creatine kinase (WMD=48.10 U/L, 95% CI=0.27-95.94, p = 0.049) and myoglobin (WMD=159.77 ng/mL, 95% CI=99.54-220.01, p<0.001) were associated with a significant increase in the mortality of COVID-19 infection. Cardiac injury, as assessed by serum analysis (lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (-MB) and myoglobin), was associated with severe outcome and death from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Troponin I/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Biochem ; 81: 1-8, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382113

ABSTRACT

Limited data exists to-date on the laboratory findings in children with COVID-19, warranting the conduction of this study, in which we pool the currently available literature data on the laboratory findings seen in children with mild and severe COVID-19. Following an extensive literature search, we identified 24 eligible studies, including a total of 624 pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, which report data on 27 different biomarkers. We then performed a meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence estimates (PPE) for these laboratory abnormalities in mild COVID-19. As data was too limited for children with severe COVID-19 to allow pooling, results were presented descriptively in a summary of findings table. Our data show an inconsistent pattern of change in the leukocyte index of mild and severe cases of COVID-19 in children. Specifically, changes in leukocyte counts were only observed in 32% of the mild pediatric cases (PPE: 13% increase, 19% decrease). In mild disease, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was frequently elevated, with a PPE of 33%. In severe disease, c-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were frequently elevated. Based on data obtained from early COVID-19 studies, leukocyte indices in children appear inconsistent, differing from those reported in adults that highlight specific leukocyte trends. This brings into question the utility and reliability of such parameters in monitoring disease severity in the pediatric population. Instead, we suggest physicians to serially monitor CRP, PCT, and LDH to track the course of illness in hospitalized children. Finally, elevated CK-MB in mild pediatric COVID-19 cases is indicative of possible cardiac injury. This highlights the importance of monitoring cardiac biomarkers in hospitalized patients and the need for further investigation of markers such as cardiac troponin in future studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Chemistry, Clinical , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Leukocyte Count , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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