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2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112757, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Muscle pain and muscle weakness, common symptoms among statin-treated patients, may worsen with COVID-19 infection. AIMS: The aim of the paper was to find out if concomitant COVID-19 infections increase the frequency of specific side effects of statins such as muscle pain and muscle weakness. METHOD: A total of 66 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 without comorbidities participated in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: statin-users who had not experienced adverse effects of statins in the past (statin group (SG)) and patients who had not used any drugs in the past six months (control group (CG)). The severity of muscle pain and creatinine kinase (CK) activity was evaluated in each patient, and muscle weakness was confirmed by a dynamometer test (grip strength on both hands). RESULTS: In SG, muscle pain was more common and it was characterized by a high level of intensity. Muscle weakness occurred more frequently in the SG and it was more frequent compared to CG. The CK parameter was observed to be higher in the SG compared to the CG and was often associated with the severity of muscle pain in the range of moderate to severe. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that COVID-19 is associated with the higher risk of occurrence of typical statin-related side effects, especially with more advanced age, which should be considered in future trials and treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Muscle Weakness/chemically induced , Myalgia/chemically induced , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(3): e24216, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, has reached all the corners of the world and was declared by the WHO as a global pandemic and public health emergency of international concern on the January 31, 2020. Allocating quick and specific biomarkers to predict the disease severity upon admission to hospital became a crucial need. This study, therefore, aimed at exploring the relationship between laboratory results in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital and the final outcome in these patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 310 COVID-19-positive patients admitted to Uhod Hospital, the referral hospital in the area of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between the April 13 and the July 29, 2020. The association of laboratory results with the survival/mortality outcomes was studied. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that lymphopenia, prolonged aPTT, high INR, high D. dimer and high CK are valuable prognostic predictors of the severity of the disease at early stages that can determine the outcome. Based on the results of the multiple logistic regression, the variables that are associated with death outcome are aPTT, HR, RR, ALT and CK level CONCLUSION: It is proposed to perform these tests on admission to hospital for moderate to severe COVID-19 patients to improve the management of those cases and reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
4.
Int Heart J ; 62(6): 1230-1234, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542216

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) should be treated as possibly infected individuals. Therefore, more time is considered necessary to conduct primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on primary PCI for STEMI. Between March 2019 and March 2021, 259 patients with STEMI underwent primary PCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the pre-pandemic group (March 2019-February 2020) and the pandemic group (March 2020-February 2021). The patient demographics, reperfusion time including onset-to-door time, door-to-balloon time (DTBT), computed tomography (CT), peak creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), and 30-day mortality rate were investigated. The mean age of the patients was 70.4 ± 12.9 years, and 71.6% were male. There were 117 patients before the pandemic and 142 during the pandemic. The median DTBT was 29 (21.25-41.25) minutes before the pandemic and 48 minutes (31-73 minutes) during the pandemic (P < 0.001). The median door-to-catheter-laboratory time was 13.5 (10-18.75) minutes before the pandemic and 29.5 (18-47.25) minutes during the pandemic (P < 0.001). CT evaluation was performed before PCI in 39 (33.3%) patients and 63 (44.4%) patients (P = 0.08); their peak CPK levels were 1480 (358-2737.5) IU and 1363 (621-2722.75) IU (P = 0.56), and the 30-day mortality rates were 4.3% and 2.1% (P = 0.48), respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic changed the diagnostic procedure in the emergency department and affected the DTBT in patients with STEMI. Nonetheless, no adverse effects on the 30-day mortality rate were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Creatine Kinase/blood , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Impact Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends
7.
J Surg Res ; 266: 35-43, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bedside experience and studies of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicate COVID-19 to be a devastating multisystem disease. We aim to describe the incidence, associated variables, and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for all critically ill adult patients (≥18 years old) admitted to the ICU at a large academic medical center with confirmed COVID-19 between March 13, 2020 and April 18, 2020 were prospectively collected. Patients with serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations greater than 1000 U/L were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis. Patients were further stratified as having moderate (serum CK concentration 1000-4999 U/L) or severe (serum CK concentration ≥5000 U/L) rhabdomyolysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify outcomes and variables associated with the development of rhabdomyolysis. RESULTS: Of 235 critically ill COVID-19 patients, 114 (48.5%) met diagnostic criteria for rhabdomyolysis. Patients with rhabdomyolysis more often required mechanical ventilation (P < 0.001), prone positioning (P < 0.001), pharmacological paralysis (P < 0.001), renal replacement therapy (P = 0.010), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (P = 0.025). They also had longer median ICU length of stay (LOS) (P < 0.001) and hospital LOS (P < 0.001). No difference in mortality was observed. Male sex, patients with morbid obesity, SOFA score, and prone positioning were independently associated with rhabdomyolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of critically ill COVID-19 patients in our cohort met diagnostic criteria for rhabdomyolysis. Male sex, morbid obesity, SOFA score, and prone position were independently associated with rhabdomyolysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Rhabdomyolysis/epidemiology , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Creatine Kinase/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/diagnosis , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Rhabdomyolysis/blood , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors
8.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(4): 282-289, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early identification of patients with COVID-19 who may develop critical illness is of great importance. METHODS: In this study a retrospective cohort of 264 COVID-19 cases admitted at Macarena University was used for development and internal validation of a risk score to predict the occurrence of critical illness in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to derive the model, including clinical and laboratory variables predictive of critical illness. Internal validation of the final model used bootstrapped samples and the model scoring derived from the coefficients. External validation was performed in a cohort of 154 cases admitted at Valme and Virgen del Rocio University Hospital. RESULTS: A total of 62 (23.5%) patients developed a critical illness during their hospitalization stay, 21 (8.0%) patients needed invasive ventilation, 34 (12.9%) were admitted at the ICU and the overall mortality was of 14.8% (39 cases). 5 variables were included in the final model: age >59.5 years (OR: 3.11;95%CI 1.39-6.97), abnormal CRP results (OR: 5.76;95%CI 2.32-14.30), abnormal lymphocytes count (OR: 3.252;95%CI 1.56-6.77), abnormal CK results (OR: 3.38;95%CI 1.59-7.20) and abnormal creatinine (OR: 3.30;95%CI 1.42-7.68). The AUC of this model was 0.850 with sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 87% and the IDI and NRI were 0.1744 and 0.2785, respectively. The validation indicated a good discrimination for the external population. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers add prognostic information in COVID-19 patients. Our risk-score provides an easy to use tool to identify patients who are likely to develop critical illness during their hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Laboratories , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5452-5457, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220448

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is generally detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA can be found in other samples including blood. Recently, associations between SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia and disease severity and mortality have been reported in adults, while no reports are available in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality, severity, clinical, and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in blood in 96 pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19. Among all patients, 6 (6%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Out of the six patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, four (67%) had a severe form of the disease, and two out of the 6 patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away (33%). Our results show that the symptoms more commonly found in the cases of COVID-19 in the study (fever, cough, tachypnea, and vomiting), were found at a higher percentage in the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Creatine phosphokinase and magnesium tests showed significant differences between the positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia groups. Among all laboratory tests, magnesium and creatine phosphokinase could better predict SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with area under the curve  levels of 0.808 and 0.748, respectively. In conclusion, 67% of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia showed a severe COVID-19 and one-third of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away. Our findings suggest that magnesium and creatine phosphokinase might be considered as markers to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Magnesium/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viremia/pathology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/pathology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tachypnea/diagnosis , Tachypnea/mortality , Tachypnea/pathology , Tachypnea/virology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/mortality , Viremia/virology
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(5): 880-890, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe characteristics, multisystem outcomes, and predictors of mortality of the critically ill COVID-19 patients in the largest hospital in Massachusetts. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 14, 2020, and April 28, 2020, were included; hospital and multisystem outcomes were evaluated. Data were collected from electronic records. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300 during admission and bilateral radiographic pulmonary opacities. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for available confounders were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 235 patients were included. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 (3-8), and the median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 was 208 (146-300) with 86.4% of patients meeting criteria for ARDS. The median (IQR) follow-up was 92 (86-99) days, and the median ICU length of stay was 16 (8-25) days; 62.1% of patients were proned, 49.8% required neuromuscular blockade, and 3.4% required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The most common complications were shock (88.9%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (69.8%), secondary bacterial pneumonia (70.6%), and pressure ulcers (51.1%). As of July 8, 2020, 175 patients (74.5%) were discharged alive (61.7% to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility), 58 (24.7%) died in the hospital, and only 2 patients were still hospitalized, but out of the ICU. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), higher median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), elevated creatine kinase of ≥1,000 U/L at hospital admission (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.51-29.17), and severe ARDS (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.18-23.29) independently predicted hospital mortality.Comorbidities, steroids, and hydroxychloroquine treatment did not predict mortality. CONCLUSION: We present here the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Age, acuity of disease, and severe ARDS predicted mortality rather than comorbidities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Patient Acuity , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Creatine Kinase/blood , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blockade , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/virology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Rate , Thromboembolism/virology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Skelet Muscle ; 11(1): 10, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2 virus could be potentially myopathic. Serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) is frequently found elevated in severe SARS-CoV2 infection, which indicates skeletal muscle damage precipitating limb weakness or even ventilatory failure. CASE PRESENTATION: We addressed such a patient in his forties presented with features of severe SARS-CoV2 pneumonia and high serum CPK. He developed severe sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and received intravenous high dose corticosteroid and tocilizumab to counter SARS-CoV2 associated cytokine surge. After 10 days of mechanical ventilation (MV), weaning was unsuccessful albeit apparently clear lung fields, having additionally severe and symmetric limb muscle weakness. Ancillary investigations in addition with serum CPK, including electromyogram, muscle biopsy, and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested acute myopathy possibly due to skeletal myositis. CONCLUSION: We wish to stress that myopathogenic medication in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia should be used with caution. Additionally, serum CPK could be a potential marker to predict respiratory failure in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia as skeletal myopathy affecting chest muscles may contribute ventilatory failure on top of oxygenation failure due to SARS-CoV2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Electromyography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/blood , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Neural Conduction , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Ventilator Weaning
12.
Acta Myol ; 40(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate both muscular manifestations and CK levels in a large cohort of patients with COVID-19 infection and to determine whether hyperckemia is associated with morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Data of 615 patients discharged from ASST Ovest Milanese (Milan, Lombardy, Italy) with final diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were retrospectively extracted from electronical medical records from 21 February to 1 May 2020. Patients were descriptively analyzed with respect to the following variables: sex, age, muscular manifestations (myalgia and/or arthralgia), fatigue, respiratory involvement (SARS pneumonia or respiratory failure) and history of falls. Association between patients' characteristics and CK levels was investigated. In addition, the proportion of patients who died following access to the ER was calculated. Finally, the effect of CK levels and other patients' features on mortality was estimated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: 176 (28.6%) patients had raised serum CK levels. CK levels were significantly associated with history of falls, male gender, SARS pneumonia, respiratory failure and in-hospital death. No correlation was found between hyperckemia and muscular manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides preliminary evidence that hyperckemia is associated with respiratory failure and fatal outcome in patients with COVID-19 infection.In these patients, among other testing, CK dosage is recommended.


Subject(s)
Arthralgia/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Creatine Kinase/blood , Hyperkalemia/blood , Hyperkalemia/mortality , Myalgia/blood , Aged , Arthralgia/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 672-680, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) has largely abated in China; however, sporadic or imported cases are still a concern, while in other countries, the COVID-19 pandemic persists as a major health crisis. METHODS: All patients enrolled in this study were diagnosed with COVID-19 from February 21, 2020 to April 14, 2020 in Wuhan. We retrospectively analyzed the patients admitted to the ICU (137 patients) and general wards (114 patients) of Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital in China. The population characteristics, symptoms, and laboratory examination results between the patients in the ICU and those in the general wards were compared. Furthermore, the differences between the deceased patients in the ICU and those discharged from the ICU were compared. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of symptoms, including fever, shortness of breath, no presence of complications, presence of 1 complication, and presence of 3 or more complications (P<0.05). There were also significant differences between the patients in terms of the laboratory examination results including elevated urea nitrogen, creatinine, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cells, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, troponin I, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets, lymphocyte absolute value, and eosinophil absolute value (<0.05). There were 45 patients who died in ICU and 57 improved and discharged patients. There were significant differences between the two groups in the number of patients that had 1 complication and 3 or more complications (P<0.05). There were also significant differences in the laboratory examination results between the patients including elevated urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, procalcitonin, white blood cells, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets and eosinophil absolute value (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight that the identified determinants may help to improve treatment of COVID-19 patients, to predict the risk of developing severe illness and to optimizing arrangement of health resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Proteins/analysis , Blood Sedimentation , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(2): 529-534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Creatine kinase (CK), a marker of muscle damage, is potentially associated with a more severe COVID-19. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aim to evaluate the association between the elevated CK and severity and mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed, Scopus, and Embase up until January 26, 2020. The main outcome was poor outcome, a composite of mortality and severe COVID-19. RESULTS: There are 2471 patients from 14 studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The incidence of elevated CK in this pooled analysis was 17% (11%, 22%) and the incidence of poor outcome in this pooled analysis was 27% (19%, 34%). Elevated CK was associated with poor outcome in patients with COVID-19 (OR 3.01 [2.21, 4.10], p < 0.001; I2: 10.2%). The effect estimate did not vary with age (p = 0.610), male (p = 0.449), hypertension (p = 0.490), and diabetes (p = 0.457). Elevated CK has a sensitivity of 0.24 (0.17, 0.32), specificity of 0.91 (0.86, 0.94), PLR of 2.6 (1.9, 3.7), NLR of 0.84 (0.78, 0.90), DOR of 3 (2, 5), and AUC of 0.62 (0.57, 0.66) for predicting poor outcome in patients with COVID-19. In this pooled analysis, elevated CK confers to a 49% probability for poor outcome and a non-elevated CK confers to a 24% probability. Subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression indicates that the sensitivity and specificity does not vary with age, male, hypertension, and diabetes. CONCLUSION: Elevated CK was associated with increased mortality and severity in patients with COVID-19. PROSPERO: CRD42021233435.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Creatine Kinase/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(6): 1000-1009, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104704

ABSTRACT

Autopsies represent medical procedures through which the causes of patients' deaths are determined or, through tissue sampling and microscopic examination of slides in usual stains or special tests, one can offer the basis for understanding the physiopathological mechanisms that contribute to the patients' death Histological findings of tissue samples from patients who have died of COVID-19 have been mainly orientated to lung, heart, liver, kidney damage with a small percent of them following other organs, but none has, to our knowledge, studied skeletal muscle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscle, Skeletal/virology , Necrosis , Autopsy , Creatine Kinase/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Inflammation , Ischemia/pathology , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/immunology , Tissue Distribution
16.
Clin Lab ; 67(2)2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has recently been declared an epidemic by the WHO, and there is an urgent need for affected countries and laboratories to assess and treat people at risk of COVID-19. A heat procedure has been suggested for specimen inactivation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of serum heating on biochemical indexes, and providing a basis for accurate detection results of the COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected 29 normal cases of two tubes of 5 mL whole blood. One tube was analyzed directly, and the other was analyzed after heating at 56°C 30 minutes. RESULTS: A total of 34 serum biochemical index quantitative results were obtained, 28/34 indexes were not significantly affected by the heat inactivation and remained clinically interpretable. As the thermal inactivation for these indexes showed good correlation, ALB (p = 0.04, Pearson R = 0.91, 2.6% mean increase), CysC (p = 0.03, Pearson R = 0.98, 9.9% mean increase), CO2CP (p < 0.001, Pearson R = 0.96, 13% mean decrease), they were still inter-pretable. Four biochemical indexes ALP, CK, CK-MB, and insulin were inactivated and showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed CK, CK-MB, ALP, and insulin were sensitive to heat and will be inhibited or degrade after heating, indicating that the rapid decrease of this indexes in the COVID-19 patients may be caused by sample heat inactivation. For safety and diagnostic accuracy, we recommend the use of a point-of-care device for blood gases, electrolytes, troponin, and liver and renal function tests within a ISL 2 or above biosafety cabinet with level 3 or above biosafety laboratory practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/standards , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(3): 1598-1601, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081584

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: This mini-review aims at summarising and discussing previous and recent findings concerning the clinical manifestations, therapeutic management, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 associated rhabdomyolysis. Materials and methods: Literature search in the PubMed database by applying appropriate search terms. Results: A total of 26 articles reporting SARS-CoV-2 associated rhabdomyolysis in 32 patients were identified. Age ranged from 16 to 80 years. Four patients were female and 25 were male. Onset of rhabdomyolysis was prior to onset of COVID-19 in 7 patients, and after onset of COVID-19 in the remaining patients. Exposure to myotoxic medication was identified in 18 patients. Myotoxic drugs these patients were taking at the time rhabdomyolysis included azithromycin, hydroxy-chloroquine, placitaxel, propofol, imastinib, piperacillin and meropenem, hydrochlorothiazide, and acetaminophen. Peak creatine-kinase values ranged from 328 to >427656 U/l. The outcome was unreported in 8 cases, favourable in 15 partial, incomplete in 3 cases, and lethal in 6 cases. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 associated rhabdomyolysis is rare, may be most frequently due to the side effects of myotoxic anti-COVID-19 drugs, and only rarely due to virus myositis, and may have a favourable outcome in most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Acta Trop ; 214: 105782, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064690

ABSTRACT

Originated in Wuhan, China, the coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) has quickly spread worldwide, reaching countries that already faced other endemics and epidemics. In Brazil, such a concerning situation includes arboviruses, among which the dengue virus stands out. Here, we determined the rate of SARS-CoV-2/dengue virus co-infection in a total of 178 patients with COVID-19 symtoms admitted into a large public hospital of the Federal District of Brazil. Furthermore, we evaluated whether prior or active dengue virus infection influenced hematological, biochemical, and clinical parameters of such patients. One hundred and twelve (63%) individuals tested positive for COVID-19, of which 43 (38.4%) were co-infected with dengue virus, and 50 (44.6%) had antibodies indicative of previous dengue infection. Co-infected patients showed lower numbers of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes, higher glucose rates, and a worse pulmonary condition. Of note, prior infections with dengue virus did not influence clinical parameters, but active dengue fever resulted in higher hospitalization rate. In conclusion, amid the current complex epidemiological scenario in Brazil, our data support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 and dengue co-infection affects an important percentage of COVID-19 patients and leads to worse clinical parameters, requiring greater attention from health authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/diagnosis , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Coinfection/diagnosis , Creatine Kinase/blood , Dengue/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Sampling Studies
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD013787, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific diagnostic tests to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and resulting COVID-19 disease are not always available and take time to obtain results. Routine laboratory markers such as white blood cell count, measures of anticoagulation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin, are used to assess the clinical status of a patient. These laboratory tests may be useful for the triage of people with potential COVID-19 to prioritize them for different levels of treatment, especially in situations where time and resources are limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of routine laboratory testing as a triage test to determine if a person has COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: On 4 May 2020 we undertook electronic searches in the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the COVID-19 Living Evidence Database from the University of Bern, which is updated daily with published articles from PubMed and Embase and with preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv. In addition, we checked repositories of COVID-19 publications. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included both case-control designs and consecutive series of patients that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of routine laboratory testing as a triage test to determine if a person has COVID-19. The reference standard could be reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) alone; RT-PCR plus clinical expertise or and imaging; repeated RT-PCR several days apart or from different samples; WHO and other case definitions; and any other reference standard used by the study authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each included study. They also assessed the methodological quality of the studies, using QUADAS-2. We used the 'NLMIXED' procedure in SAS 9.4 for the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) meta-analyses of tests for which we included four or more studies. To facilitate interpretation of results, for each meta-analysis we estimated summary sensitivity at the points on the SROC curve that corresponded to the median and interquartile range boundaries of specificities in the included studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 studies in this review, including 14,126 COVID-19 patients and 56,585 non-COVID-19 patients in total. Studies evaluated a total of 67 different laboratory tests. Although we were interested in the diagnotic accuracy of routine tests for COVID-19, the included studies used detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection through RT-PCR as reference standard. There was considerable heterogeneity between tests, threshold values and the settings in which they were applied. For some tests a positive result was defined as a decrease compared to normal vaues, for other tests a positive result was defined as an increase, and for some tests both increase and decrease may have indicated test positivity. None of the studies had either low risk of bias on all domains or low concerns for applicability for all domains. Only three of the tests evaluated had a summary sensitivity and specificity over 50%. These were: increase in interleukin-6, increase in C-reactive protein and lymphocyte count decrease. Blood count Eleven studies evaluated a decrease in white blood cell count, with a median specificity of 93% and a summary sensitivity of 25% (95% CI 8.0% to 27%; very low-certainty evidence). The 15 studies that evaluated an increase in white blood cell count had a lower median specificity and a lower corresponding sensitivity. Four studies evaluated a decrease in neutrophil count. Their median specificity was 93%, corresponding to a summary sensitivity of 10% (95% CI 1.0% to 56%; low-certainty evidence). The 11 studies that evaluated an increase in neutrophil count had a lower median specificity and a lower corresponding sensitivity. The summary sensitivity of an increase in neutrophil percentage (4 studies) was 59% (95% CI 1.0% to 100%) at median specificity (38%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in monocyte count (4 studies) was 13% (95% CI 6.0% to 26%) at median specificity (73%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of a decrease in lymphocyte count (13 studies) was 64% (95% CI 28% to 89%) at median specificity (53%; low-certainty evidence). Four studies that evaluated a decrease in lymphocyte percentage showed a lower median specificity and lower corresponding sensitivity. The summary sensitivity of a decrease in platelets (4 studies) was 19% (95% CI 10% to 32%) at median specificity (88%; low-certainty evidence). Liver function tests The summary sensitivity of an increase in alanine aminotransferase (9 studies) was 12% (95% CI 3% to 34%) at median specificity (92%; low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (7 studies) was 29% (95% CI 17% to 45%) at median specificity (81%) (low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of a decrease in albumin (4 studies) was 21% (95% CI 3% to 67%) at median specificity (66%; low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in total bilirubin (4 studies) was 12% (95% CI 3.0% to 34%) at median specificity (92%; very low-certainty evidence). Markers of inflammation The summary sensitivity of an increase in CRP (14 studies) was 66% (95% CI 55% to 75%) at median specificity (44%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in procalcitonin (6 studies) was 3% (95% CI 1% to 19%) at median specificity (86%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in IL-6 (four studies) was 73% (95% CI 36% to 93%) at median specificity (58%) (very low-certainty evidence). Other biomarkers The summary sensitivity of an increase in creatine kinase (5 studies) was 11% (95% CI 6% to 19%) at median specificity (94%) (low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in serum creatinine (four studies) was 7% (95% CI 1% to 37%) at median specificity (91%; low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (4 studies) was 25% (95% CI 15% to 38%) at median specificity (72%; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although these tests give an indication about the general health status of patients and some tests may be specific indicators for inflammatory processes, none of the tests we investigated are useful for accurately ruling in or ruling out COVID-19 on their own. Studies were done in specific hospitalized populations, and future studies should consider non-hospital settings to evaluate how these tests would perform in people with milder symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Bias , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Liver Function Tests , Lymphocyte Count , Pandemics , Platelet Count , ROC Curve , Reference Values , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triage
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 113, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the clinical characteristics and identify independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia at the Central Hospital of Wuhan from January 29, 2020, to March 20, 2020, and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled in this single-centered retrospective study. The epidemiological parameters, clinical presentations, underlying diseases, laboratory test results, and disease outcomes were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of all enrolled patients was 66 years. At least one underlying disease was identified in 101 COVID-19 patients, with hypertension being the most common one, followed by cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The most common symptoms identified upon admission were fever, cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. Compared to survival cases, patients who died during hospitalization had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, and lower percentage of lymphocytes (LYM [%]), platelet count and albumin levels. Most enrolled patients received antibiotics and anti-viral treatment. In addition, 60 patients received corticosteroids, and 51 received intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Forty-four patients received noninvasive ventilation and 19 received invasive ventilation. Respiratory failure was the most frequently observed complication (106 [67.9%]), followed by sepsis (103 [66.0%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (67 [42.9%]), and septic shock (50 [32.1%]). Multivariable regression suggested that advanced age (OR [odds ratio] = 1.098, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.006-1.199, P = 0.037), shorter duration from onset to admission (OR = 0.853, 95% CI: 0.750-0.969, P = 0.015) and elevated lactate level upon admission (OR = 2.689, 95% CI: 1.044-6.926, P = 0.040) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, increased LYM (%) at admission (OR = 0.787, 95% CI: 0.686-0.903, P = 0.001) indicated a better prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we discovered that age, duration from onset to admission, LYM (%), and lactate level upon admission were independent factors that affecting the in-hospital mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fever , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Shock, Septic/etiology , Young Adult
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