Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 86
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
2.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 37(1): 25-28, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483713

ABSTRACT

Lithium, a mood stabilizer used in the treatment of bipolar disorder is known for its anti-inflammatory properties with the discussion of its potential use in COVID-19 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 infection is known to enter the target cells through angiotensin converting enzyme-2 receptors present in abundance in the lung and renal tissue. Recent research supports the evidence for direct renal injury by viral proteins. Here we report two patients with bipolar disorder presenting with lithium toxicity in the presence of COVID-19 infection. Two patients with bipolar disorder, maintaining remission on lithium prophylaxis, presented to the psychiatric emergency with recent-onset fever and altered sensorium. Both the patient's investigations revealed lithium toxicity, elevated serum creatinine, urea and inflammatory markers. Hypernatremia, hyperkalaemia, and hyperchloremia were seen in one patient. Lithium and other psychotropic medications were stopped immediately, and COVID-19 treatment was initiated. Patient with clinical signs of lithium toxicity, hypernatremia, hyperkalaemia, and hyperchloremia developed ventricular tachycardia. He survived and regained consciousness after 2 weeks of aggressive conservative management. However, another patient died of acute respiratory failure on day 3. Possible direct infection of the kidney by SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins can manifest with acute kidney injury and lithium toxicity among patients on long-term lithium therapy. Health professionals treating COVID-19 infection among individuals on lithium therapy should be aware of the possibility of lithium toxicity in the background of renal injury.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Antimanic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Lithium Compounds/adverse effects , Antimanic Agents/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder/complications , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Creatinine/blood , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hyperkalemia/chemically induced , Hypernatremia/chemically induced , Lithium Compounds/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , Tachycardia, Ventricular/chemically induced , Urea/blood
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27422, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462561

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread, easy-to-use risk models that predict hospital mortality can assist in clinical decision making and triage. We aimed to develop a risk score model for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was robust across hospitals and used clinical factors that are readily available and measured standardly across hospitals.In this retrospective observational study, we developed a risk score model using data collected by trained abstractors for patients in 20 diverse hospitals across the state of Michigan (Mi-COVID19) who were discharged between March 5, 2020 and August 14, 2020. Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during hospitalization or were discharged with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 (U07.1) were included. We employed an iterative forward selection approach to consider the inclusion of 145 potential risk factors available at hospital presentation. Model performance was externally validated with patients from 19 hospitals in the Mi-COVID19 registry not used in model development. We shared the model in an easy-to-use online application that allows the user to predict in-hospital mortality risk for a patient if they have any subset of the variables in the final model.Two thousand one hundred and ninety-three patients in the Mi-COVID19 registry met our inclusion criteria. The derivation and validation sets ultimately included 1690 and 398 patients, respectively, with mortality rates of 19.6% and 18.6%, respectively. The average age of participants in the study after exclusions was 64 years old, and the participants were 48% female, 49% Black, and 87% non-Hispanic. Our final model includes the patient's age, first recorded respiratory rate, first recorded pulse oximetry, highest creatinine level on day of presentation, and hospital's COVID-19 mortality rate. No other factors showed sufficient incremental model improvement to warrant inclusion. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the derivation and validation sets were .796 (95% confidence interval, .767-.826) and .829 (95% confidence interval, .782-.876) respectively.We conclude that the risk of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients can be reliably estimated using a few factors, which are standardly measured and available to physicians very early in a hospital encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 297, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney disease and renal failure are associated with hospital deaths in patients with COVID - 19. We aimed to test if contrast enhancement affects short-term renal function in hospitalized COVID - 19 patients. METHODS: Plasma creatinine (P-creatinine) was measured on the day of computed tomography (CT) and 24 h, 48 h, and 4-10 days after CT. Contrast-enhanced (n = 142) and unenhanced (n = 24) groups were subdivided, based on estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), > 60 and ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Contrast-induced acute renal failure (CI-AKI) was defined as ≥27 µmol/L increase or a > 50% rise in P-creatinine from CT or initiation of renal replacement therapy during follow-up. Patients with renal replacement therapy were studied separately. We evaluated factors associated with a > 50% rise in P-creatinine at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. RESULTS: Median P-creatinine at 24-48 h and days 4-10 post-CT in patients with eGFR> 60 and eGFR≥30-60 in contrast-enhanced and unenhanced groups did not differ from basal values. CI-AKI was observed at 48 h and at 4-10 days post contrast administration in 24 and 36% (n = 5/14) of patients with eGFR≥30-60. Corresponding figures in the eGFR> 60 contrast-enhanced CT group were 5 and 5% respectively, (p < 0.037 and p < 0.001, Pearson χ2 test). In the former group, four of the five patients died within 30 days. Odds ratio analysis showed that an eGFR≥30-60 and 30-day mortality were associated with CK-AKI both at 48 h and 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID - 19 and eGFR≥30-60 had a high frequency of CK-AKI at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast administration, which was associated with increased 30-day mortality. For patients with eGFR≥30-60, we recommend strict indications are practiced for contrast-enhanced CT. Contrast-enhanced CT had a modest effect in patients with eGFR> 60.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Iodine/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Regression Analysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690653, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359187

ABSTRACT

Although vaccine resources are being distributed worldwide, insufficient vaccine production remains a major obstacle to herd immunity. In such an environment, the cases of re-positive occurred frequently, and there is a big controversy regarding the cause of re-positive episodes and the infectivity of re-positive cases. In this case-control study, we tracked 39 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from the Jiaodong Peninsula area of China, of which 7 patients tested re-positive. We compared the sex distribution, age, comorbidities, and clinical laboratory results between normal patients and re-positive patients, and analysed the correlation between the significantly different indicators and the re-positive. Re-positive patients displayed a lower level of serum creatinine (63.38 ± 4.94 U/L vs. 86.82 ± 16.98 U/L; P =0.014) and lower albumin (34.70 ± 5.46 g/L vs. 41.24 ± 5.44 g/L, P =0.039) at the time of initial diagnosis. In addition, two positive phases and the middle negative phase in re-positive patients with significantly different eosinophil counts (0.005 ± 0.005 × 109/L; 0.103 ± 0.033 × 109/L; 0.007 ± 0.115 × 109/L; Normal range: 0.02-0.52 × 109/L). The level of eosinophils in peripheral blood can be used as a marker to predict re-positive in patients who once had COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Eosinophils/cytology , Reinfection/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , China , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 278, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about patient diagnosis and follow-up of chronically ill patients. Patients suffering from chronic illnesses, concomitantly infected by SARS-CoV-2, globally tend to have a worse prognosis and poor outcomes. Renal tropism and acute kidney injury following SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been described in the literature, with elevated mortality rates. Furthermore, patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, infected by SARS-CoV-2, should be monitored carefully. Here, we report the case of a 69-year-old patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, suffering from longstanding chronic kidney disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old male patient previously diagnosed with pulmonary embolism and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (Splenomegaly, Matutes 2/5, CD5 negative and CD23 positive), was admitted to the hospital with shortness of breath, fever and asthenia. A nasopharyngeal swab test was performed in addition to a CT-scan, which confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood creatinine increased following SARS-CoV-2 infection at 130 µmol/l, with usual values at 95 µmol/l. The patient was discharged at home with rest and symptomatic medical treatment (paracetamol and hydration), then readmitted to the hospital in August 2020. A kidney biopsy was therefore conducted as blood creatinine levels were abnormally elevated. Immunodetection performed in a renal biopsy specimen confirmed co-localization of SARS-CoV2 nucleocapsid and protease 3C proteins with ACE2, Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens in proximal convoluted tubules and podocytes. Co-localization of structural and non-structural viral proteins clearly demonstrated viral replication in proximal convoluted tubules in this chronically ill patient. Additionally, we observed the co-localization of sialyl-Lewis x and ACE2 receptors in the same proximal convoluted tubules. Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction test performed on the kidney biopsy was negative, with very low Ct levels (above 40). The patient was finally readmitted to the haematology department for initiation of chemotherapy, including CHOP protocol and Rituximab. CONCLUSIONS: Our case emphasizes on the importance of monitoring kidney function in immunosuppressed patients and patients suffering from cancer following SARS-CoV-2 infection, through histological screening. Further studies will be required to decipher the mechanisms underlying chronic kidney disease and the putative role of sialyl-Lewis x and HBGA during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Tubules/virology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Biopsy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Creatinine/blood , Humans , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Tubules/chemistry , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Lewis X Antigen/analysis , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/complications , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Sialyl Lewis X Antigen/analysis , Splenic Neoplasms/complications
7.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1302-1308, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288297

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to identify the associations between the lymphocytes (LYM) absolute count on admission and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 224 COVID-19 patients who were admitted to General Hospital of Central Theater Command of the PLA from January 22 to April 4, 2020, were consecutively included. These patients were divided into the lymphopenia group and the nonlymphopenia group according to whether the LYM count on admission was below the normal range. RESULTS: During hospitalization, patients in the lymphopenia group have a much higher all-cause mortality (14.5% vs 0.0%; P < .001) and an evidently longer length of hospital stay (24.0 vs 17.5 days; P < .001) than patients in the nonlymphopenia group. The correlation analysis results indicated that the LYM count was negatively correlated with the values of NEU (R = -.2886, P < .001), PT (R = -.2312, P < .001), FIB (R = -.2954, P < .001), D-D (R = -.3554, P < .001), CRP (R = -.4899, P < .001), IL-6 (R = -.5459, P < .001), AST (R = -.2044, P < .01), Cr (R = -.1350, P < .05), CPK (R = -.2119, P < .01), CK-Mb (R = -.1760, P < .01), and LDH (R = -.4330, P < .001), and was positively correlated with the count of PLT (R = .2679, P < .001). In addition, LYM as a continuous variable was associated with 97% decreased risk of in-hospital mortality in the fully adjusted models (OR = 0.03, 95%CI, 0.00-0.37, P < .001). DISCUSSION: LYM screening on admission is a critical predictor for assessment of disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19, and lymphopenia substantially correlates with poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Virol J ; 18(1): 117, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically described. We determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19 and their relationships with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 94 COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS were analyzed. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 following admission. Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Correlations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines with clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed, furthermore, we also explored the relationships of different cytokines with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. RESULTS: The ARDS group had higher serum levels of all 4 inflammatory cytokines than the controls, and these levels steadily increased after admission. The ARDS group also had higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than the non-ARDS group, and the levels of these cytokines correlated significantly with coagulation parameters and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α correlated with the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen, and were also higher in ARDS patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). All 4 inflammatory cytokines had negative correlations with PaO2/FiO2. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α had positive correlations with the APACHE-II score. Relative to survivors, non-survivors had higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 at admission, and increasing levels over time. CONCLUSIONS: The cytokine storm apparently contributed to the development of ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD in COVID-19 patients. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 correlated with DIC, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with AKI. Relative to survivors, patients who died within 28 days had increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
9.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1291-1301, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258939

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The clinical and laboratory features of severe COVID-19 infection overlap with those of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyperinflammatory disorder often associated with several viral infections. The clinical syndrome of HLH encompasses fever, organomegaly, cytopenias, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, raised transaminases, hypofibrinogenemia, absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, increased soluble CD25 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. METHODS: We analyzed clinicopathological and laboratory features of thirteen patients with severe COVID-19 infection suspected to have HLH and found to have hemophagocytic histiocytosis on bone marrow examination (BME). RESULTS: Five of thirteen (38.46%) patients fulfilled five of eight HLH 2004 criteria and/or had a H-score ≥169. Three (23.08%) satisfied four of eight and remainder five (38.46%) satisfied three of eight HLH 2004 criteria. Fever, raised serum ferritin (13/13, 100%), transaminases (9/13, 69.23%), triglycerides (4/13, 30.76%), cytopenias (5/13, 38.46%), hypofibrinogenemia (2/13, 15.38%), and organomegaly (1/13, 7.69%) were observed in our patients. BME showed hemophagocytic histiocytosis without lymphocytosis in all. Contrary to HLH, lymphocytopenia (11/13, 84.61%), leukocytosis (7/13, 53.84%), neutrophilia (7/13, 53.84%), and hyperfibrinogenemia (7/13, 53.84%) were observed. Serum CRP, LDH, and plasma D-dimer were elevated in all, while serum albumin was decreased in 12 of 13 (92.3%) patients. Five patients recovered with high-dose pulsed corticosteroid therapy. CONCLUSION: The immune response associated with severe COVID-19 infection is similar to HLH with few differences. HLH should be suspected in severe COVID-19 infection although all patients may not fulfill required HLH diagnostic criteria. BME should be done in suspected cases so that appropriate therapy may be initiated early.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/analysis , Bone Marrow Examination , COVID-19/immunology , Creatinine/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment , Triglycerides/blood
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 202, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The reported incidence of AKI, however, varies among studies. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of AKI and its association with mortality and morbidity in children infected with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who required hospital admission. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study from three tertiary centers, which included children with confirmed COVID-19. All children were evaluated for AKI using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition and staging. RESULTS: Of 89 children included, 19 (21 %) developed AKI (52.6 % stage I). A high renal angina index score was correlated with severity of AKI. Also, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) was increased in children with AKI compared to those with normal kidney function (15 % vs. 1.5 %). Patients with AKI had significantly more pediatric intensive care admissions (PICU) (32 % vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.001) and mortality (42 % vs. 0 %, p < 0.001). However, AKI was not associated with prolonged hospitalization (58 % vs. 40 %, p = 0.163) or development of MIS-C (10.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.051). No patient in the AKI group required renal replacement therapy. Residual renal impairment at discharge occurred in 9 % of patients. This was significantly influenced by the presence of comorbidities, hypotension, hypoxia, heart failure, acute respiratory distress, hypernatremia, abnormal liver profile, high C-reactive protein, and positive blood culture. CONCLUSIONS: AKI occurred in one-fifth of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission, with one-third of those requiring PICU. AKI was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and residual renal impairment at time of discharge.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Creatinine/blood , Critical Care , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
11.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251048, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a multisystemic disorder that frequently causes acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the precise clinical and biochemical variables associated with AKI progression in patients with severe COVID-19 remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on 278 hospitalized patients who were admitted to the ward and intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 between March 2020 and June 2020, at the University Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with COVID-19 confirmed on RT-PCR were included. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We evaluated the incidence of AKI, several clinical variables, medicines used, and outcomes in two sub-groups: COVID-19 patients with AKI (Cov-AKI), and COVID-19 patients without AKI (non-AKI). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: First, an elevated incidence of AKI (71.2%) was identified, distributed across different stages of the KDIGO criteria. We further observed higher levels of creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the Cov-AKI group than in the non-AKI group, at hospital admission. On univariate analysis, Cov-AKI was associated with older age (>62 years), hypertension, CRP, MCV, leucocytes, neutrophils, NLR, combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment, use of mechanical ventilation, and vasoactive drugs. Multivariate analysis showed that hypertension and the use of vasoactive drugs were independently associated with a risk of higher AKI in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we preferentially found an altered erythrocyte and leukocyte cellular profile in the Cov-AKI group compared to the non-AKI group, at hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the development of AKI in patients with severe COVID-19 was related to inflammatory blood markers and therapy with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin, with vasopressor requirement and hypertension considered potential risk factors. Thus, attention to the protocol, hypertension, and some blood markers may help assist doctors with decision-making for the management of COVID-19 patients with AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8864, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242039

ABSTRACT

Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) is found in the endothelial glycocalyx and shed into the blood during systemic inflammatory conditions. We investigated organ dysfunction associated with changing serum SDC-1 levels for early detection of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. To evaluate the effect of SDC-1 on laboratory parameters measured the day after SDC-1 measurement with consideration for repeated measures, linear mixed effects models were constructed with each parameter as an outcome variable. A total of 94 patients were enrolled, and 831 samples were obtained. Analysis using mixed effects models for repeated measures with adjustment for age and sex showed that serum SDC-1 levels measured the day before significantly affected several outcomes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), antithrombin III, fibrin degradation products, and D-dimer. Moreover, serum SDC-1 levels of the prior day significantly modified the effect between time and several outcomes, including AST, ALT, CRE, and BUN. Additionally, increasing serum SDC-1 level was a significant risk factor for mortality. Serum SDC-1 may be a useful biomarker for daily monitoring to detect early signs of kidney, liver and coagulation system dysfunction, and may be an important risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Syndecan-1/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Cytokine ; 146: 155589, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is common in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Urinary biomarkers are a non-invasive way of assaying renal damage, and so far, urinary cytokines are not fully investigated. The current study aimed to assess urinary cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Urine was collected from COVID-19 patients (n = 29) in intensive care and compared to a preoperative group of patients (n = 9) with no critical illness. 92 urinary cytokines were analyzed in multiplex using the Olink Target 96 inflammation panel and compared to clinical characteristics, and urinary markers of kidney injury. RESULTS: There were strong correlations between proinflammatory cytokines and between urinary cytokines and urinary kidney injury markers in 29 COVID-19 patients. Several cytokines were correlated to kidney injury, 31 cytokines to AKI stage and 19 cytokines correlated to maximal creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary inflammatory cytokines from a wide range of immune cell lineages were significantly upregulated during COVID-19 and the upregulation correlated with acute kidney injury as well as urinary markers of kidney tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/urine , Critical Illness , Cytokines/urine , Aged , Albuminuria/urine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/urine , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(11): 3771-3776, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rising number of infections due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (popularly known as COVID-19) has brought to the fore new antiviral drugs as possible treatments, including favipiravir. However, there is currently no data regarding the safety of this drug in patients with kidney impairment. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to share our experience of the use of favipiravir in pediatric patients affected by COVID-19 with any degree of kidney impairment. METHODS: The study enrolled pediatric patients aged under 18 years and confirmed as suffering from COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with any degree of kidney injury, who were treated with favipiravir at the time of admission. RESULTS: Out of a total of 11 patients, 7 were diagnosed with MIS-C and 4 with severe COVID-19. The median age of the cases was 15.45 (9-17.8) years and the male/female ratio was 7/4. At the time of admission, the median serum creatinine level was 1.1 mg/dl. Nine patients were treated with favipiravir for 5 days, and 2 patients for 5 days followed by remdesivir for 5-10 days despite kidney injury at the time of admission. Seven patients underwent plasma exchange for MIS-C while 2 severely affected cases underwent continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) as well. One severe COVID-19 patient received plasma exchange as well as CKRT. Serum creatinine values returned to normal in mean 3.07 days. CONCLUSIONS: Favipiravir seems a suitable therapeutic option in patients affected by COVID-19 with kidney injury without a need for dose adjustment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Amides/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Renal Elimination , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adolescent , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Amides/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Creatinine/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107794, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233464

ABSTRACT

To explore the characteristics of COVID-19 infection related kidney injury, we retrospectively collected cases of COVID-19 patients with definite clinical outcomes (discharge or death) and relevant laboratory results from Jan 3 to Mar 30, 2020 in Tongji hospital, Wuhan, China. 1509 patients were included, 1393 cases with normal baseline serum creatinine, and 116 cases with elevated baseline serum creatinine (EBSC). On admission, the prevalence of elevated serum creatinine, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were 7.7%, 6.6% and 7.2%, respectively. The incidence of in-hospital death in the patients with EBSC was 7.8%, which was significantly higher than those with normal serum creatinine (1.2%). Inflammatory, immunological, and organ damage indices were relatively higher in the EBSC group, in which lymphocytes, albumin, and hemoglobin were significantly lower. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed age above 65 years, males, comorbidities (especially for cardiovascular disease and tumor patients), lymphocyte count < 1.5 × 109/L, leukocyte count > 10 × 109/L, EBSC, eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were associated with in-hospital death. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression confirmed that EBSC (HR: 2.643, 95% CI: 1.111-6.285, P = 0.028), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR: 3.889, 95% CI: 1.634-9.257, P = 0.002), were independent risk factors after adjusting for age, sex, any comorbidity, leukocyte and lymphocyte count. Therefore, the prevalence of kidney injury in patients with COVID-19 was high and associated with in-hospital mortality. Early detection and effective intervention of kidney injury may reduce COVID-19 deaths.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , China , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Creatinine/metabolism , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Leukocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 148, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has been linked to thrombotic complications and endothelial dysfunction. We assessed the prognostic implications of endothelial activation through measurement of endothelin-I precursor peptide (proET-1), the stable precursor protein of Endothelin-1, in a well-defined cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We measured proET-1 in 74 consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 and compared its prognostic accuracy to that of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 876) and viral bronchitis (n = 371) from a previous study by means of logistic regression analysis. The primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Overall, median admission proET-1 levels were lower in COVID-19 patients compared to those with pneumonia and exacerbated bronchitis, respectively (57.0 pmol/l vs. 113.0 pmol/l vs. 96.0 pmol/l, p < 0.01). Although COVID-19 non-survivors had 1.5-fold higher admission proET-1 levels compared to survivors (81.8 pmol/l [IQR: 76 to 118] vs. 53.6 [IQR: 37 to 69]), no significant association of proET-1 levels and mortality was found in a regression model adjusted for age, gender, creatinine level, diastolic blood pressure as well as cancer and coronary artery disease (adjusted OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0009 to 14.7). In patients with pneumonia (adjusted OR 25.4, 95% CI 5.1 to 127.4) and exacerbated bronchitis (adjusted OR 120.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 7499) we found significant associations of proET-1 and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other types of pulmonary infection, COVID-19 shows only a mild activation of the endothelium as assessed through measurement of proET-1. Therefore, the high mortality associated with COVID-19 may not be attributed to endothelial dysfunction by the surrogate marker proET-1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelin-1/analysis , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Protein Precursors/analysis , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Pressure , Cohort Studies , Creatinine/blood , Endpoint Determination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0249760, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for mortality, which affects about 5% of hospitalized coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients and up to 25-29% of severely ill COVID-19 patients. Lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine show in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and have been used for the treatment of COVID-19. Both, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The impact of a triple therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine (triple therapy) on kidney function in COVID-19 is currently not known. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed both non-ICU and ICU patients with COVID-19 receiving triple therapy for the incidence of AKI. Patients receiving standard therapy served as a control group. All patients were hospitalized at the University Hospital of Freiburg, Germany, between March and April 2020. A matched-pair analysis for the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2 was performed to control for the severity of illness among non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients. RESULTS: In non-ICU patients, the incidence of AKI was markedly increased following triple therapy (78.6% vs. 21.4% in controls, p = 0.002), while a high incidence of AKI was observed in both groups of ICU patients (triple therapy: 80.0%, control group: 90.5%). ICU patients treated with triple therapy showed a trend towards more oliguric or anuric kidney injury. We also observed a linear correlation between the duration of the triple therapy and the maximum serum creatinine level (p = 0.004, R2 = 0.276, R = 0.597). CONCLUSION: Triple therapy is associated with an increase in the incidence of AKI in non-ICU COVID-19 patients. The underlying mechanisms may comprise a CYP3A4 enzyme interaction, and may be relevant for any future therapy combining hydroxychloroquine with antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Creatinine/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(4): 282-289, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early identification of patients with COVID-19 who may develop critical illness is of great importance. METHODS: In this study a retrospective cohort of 264 COVID-19 cases admitted at Macarena University was used for development and internal validation of a risk score to predict the occurrence of critical illness in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to derive the model, including clinical and laboratory variables predictive of critical illness. Internal validation of the final model used bootstrapped samples and the model scoring derived from the coefficients. External validation was performed in a cohort of 154 cases admitted at Valme and Virgen del Rocio University Hospital. RESULTS: A total of 62 (23.5%) patients developed a critical illness during their hospitalization stay, 21 (8.0%) patients needed invasive ventilation, 34 (12.9%) were admitted at the ICU and the overall mortality was of 14.8% (39 cases). 5 variables were included in the final model: age >59.5 years (OR: 3.11;95%CI 1.39-6.97), abnormal CRP results (OR: 5.76;95%CI 2.32-14.30), abnormal lymphocytes count (OR: 3.252;95%CI 1.56-6.77), abnormal CK results (OR: 3.38;95%CI 1.59-7.20) and abnormal creatinine (OR: 3.30;95%CI 1.42-7.68). The AUC of this model was 0.850 with sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 87% and the IDI and NRI were 0.1744 and 0.2785, respectively. The validation indicated a good discrimination for the external population. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers add prognostic information in COVID-19 patients. Our risk-score provides an easy to use tool to identify patients who are likely to develop critical illness during their hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Laboratories , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
19.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 97, 2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219368

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Hyperuricemia has attracted increasing attention. However, limited concern has been paid to the potential dangers of lowering serum uric acid (SUA). We observed lower levels of SUA in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we aim to explore whether patients with COVID-19 had SUA lower than normal and the relationship of SUA and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a case-control study based on 91 cases with COVID-19 and 273 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. We first compared SUA levels and uric acid/creatinine (UA/Cr) ratio between patients with COVID-19 and the healthy controls. Then, we examined the association of SUA levels and UA/Cr ratios with COVID-19 severity in COVID-19 cases only, defined according to the fifth edition of China's Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines of COVID-19. RESULTS: SUA levels in patients with COVID-19 were 2.59% lower, UA/Cr ratios 6.06% lower at admission compared with healthy controls. In sex stratified analysis, levels of SUA and UA/Cr were lower in male patients with COVID-19 while only level of SUA was lower in female patients with COVID-19. Moreover, SUA and UA/Cr values were 4.27 and 8.23% lower in the severe group than that in the moderate group among male COVID-19 patients. Bivariate and partial correlations analysis showed negative correlations between SUA or UA/Cr ratio and COVID-19 after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and eGFR. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection and male sex were independent risk factors associated with lower SUA levels. Male patients with COVID-19 accompanied by low SUA levels had higher risk of developing severe symptoms than those with high SUA levels (incidence rate ratio: 4.05; 95% CI:1.11, 14.72) at admission. Comparing SUA and UA/Cr ratio at three time points (admission, discharge, and follow-up), we found that male patients experienced severe symptoms had lower SUA and UA/Cr ratio levels comparing to moderate patients, but no significant difference between three time points. On the contrary, female patients had lower SUA and UA/Cr ratio at discharge than those at admission, but no significant difference of SUA and UA/Cr ratio between moderate and severe group. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 had SUA and UA/Cr values lower than normal at admission. Male COVID-19 patients with low SUA levels had a significantly higher crude risk of developing severe symptoms than those with high SUA levels. During disease aggravation, the level of SUA gradually decreased until discharge. At the follow-up exam, the level of SUA was similar to the levels at admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Uric Acid/blood , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Creatinine/blood , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 397, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global health threat with a great number of deaths worldwide. Despite abundant data on that many COVID-19 patients also displayed kidney disease, there is limited information available about the recovery of kidney disease after discharge. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective cohort study to patients with new-onset kidney disease during the COVID-19 hospitalization, admitted between January 28 to February 26, 2020. The median follow-up was 4 months after discharge. The follow-up patients were divided into the recovery group and non-recovery group. Descriptive statistics and between-groups comparison were used. RESULTS: In total, 143 discharged patients with new-onset kidney disease during the COVID-19 hospitalization were included. Patients had a median age was 64 (IQR, 51-70) years, and 59.4% of patients were men. During 4-months median follow-up, 91% (130 of 143) patients recovered from kidney disease, and 9% (13 of 143) patients haven't recovered. The median age of patients in the non-recovery group was 72 years, which was significantly higher than the median age of 62 years in the recovery group. Discharge serum creatinine was significantly higher in the non-recovery group than in the recovery group. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the new-onset kidney diseases during hospitalization of COVID-19 patients recovered 4 months after discharge. We recommend that COVID-19 patients with new-onset kidney disease be followed after discharge to assess kidney recovery, especially elderly patients or patients with high discharge creatinine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Creatinine/blood , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Proteinuria/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...