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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306857

ABSTRACT

A substantial number of survivors of disasters, pandemics, and other severe stressors develop persistent distress that impairs mental health and well-being. However, only a few brief psychological interventions target distress or subclinical symptoms. This systematic review aimed to identify and describe brief psychological interventions to reduce distress or subclinical symptoms in survivors of disasters, pandemics, and other severe stressors. Based on a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PTSDpubs, and Web of Science), we reviewed published studies and study protocols on self-help, psychosocial support, or brief psychotherapeutic interventions to reduce distress and/or subclinical symptoms following natural hazards and man-made disasters, pandemics, or other traumatic events. We included 27 published studies or study protocols (n = 15 RCTs, n = 3 controlled pre-post studies, and n = 9 uncontrolled pre-post studies) describing 22 interventions. We found evidence for reducing psychological distress and/or subclinical symptoms in 9 out of 15 RCTs, 2 out of 3 controlled pre-post studies, and 9 out of 9 uncontrolled pre-post studies. One RCT provided evidence of increasing well-being. Innovative brief interventions have been developed to reduce distress and/or subclinical symptoms that have an emerging evidence base.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Child , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Crisis Intervention , Psychosocial Intervention , Pandemics
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e070105, 2023 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276584

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Effective, brief, low-cost interventions for suicide attempt survivors are essential to saving lives and achieving the goals of the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention and Zero Suicide. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP) in averting suicide reattempts in the United States healthcare system, its psychological mechanisms as predicted by the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, and the potential implementation costs, barriers and facilitators for delivering it. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation randomised controlled trial (RCT). ASSIP is delivered at three outpatient mental healthcare clinics in New York State. Participant referral sites include three local hospitals with inpatient and comprehensive psychiatric emergency services, and outpatient mental health clinics. Participants include 400 adults who have had a recent suicide attempt. All are randomised to 'Zero Suicide-Usual Care plus ASSIP' or 'Zero Suicide-Usual Care'. Randomisation is stratified by sex and whether the index attempt is a first suicide attempt or not. Participants complete assessments at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 and, 18 months. The primary outcome is the time from randomisation to the first suicide reattempt. Prior to the RCT, a 23-person open trial took place, in which 13 participants received 'Zero Suicide-Usual Care plus ASSIP' and 14 completed the first follow-up time point. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is overseen by the University of Rochester, with single Institutional Review Board (#3353) reliance agreements from Nathan Kline Institute (#1561697) and SUNY Upstate Medical University (#1647538). It has an established Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals, presented at scientific conferences, and communicated to referral organisations. Clinics considering ASSIP may use a stakeholder report generated by this study, including incremental cost-effectiveness data from the provider point of view. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03894462.


Subject(s)
Crisis Intervention , Suicide, Attempted , Adult , Humans , Suicide Prevention , Academies and Institutes , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Addiction ; 118(7): 1258-1269, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The increasing trend in alcohol consumption among women, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, is of growing concern. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment in primary care is an efficacious and cost-effective treatment approach for unhealthy alcohol use. However, disparities exist in delivery of brief interventions by sex, age and race/ethnicity. This study measures brief intervention rates among eligible patients by sex, age and race/ethnicity and their intersectionality, in the context of a program of systematic alcohol screening and brief intervention program in adult primary care in a large, integrated health-care delivery system. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a population-based observational study among primary care clinics in an integrated health-care delivery system in Northern California, USA. The participants comprised adult (18+) patients (n = 287 551) screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use between January 2014 and December 2017. MEASUREMENTS: Receipt of brief intervention, patient and provider characteristics from electronic health records. FINDINGS: Multi-level logistic regression showed that women had lower odds of receiving brief intervention than men among all age, racial/ethnic groups and drinking levels. Sex differences were greater among those aged 35-49 years [odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64, 0.69]) and 50-65 years (OR = 0.69, 95% CI =0.66, 0.72) than among other age groups. Sex differences in odds of receiving brief intervention were greater for the Latino/Hispanic group for women versus men (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.66, 0.72) and smaller for the Asian/Pacific Islander group (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.72, 0.81). CONCLUSION: In the United States, compared with men, women appear to have lower odds of receiving brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use across all age groups, particularly during middle age. Black women and Latina/Hispanic women appear to be less likely to receive brief intervention than women in other race/ethnicity groups. Receipt of brief intervention does not appear to differ by drinking levels between men and women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Female , Male , United States , Crisis Intervention , Intersectional Framework , Pandemics , White
5.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(1): 92-105, 2023 Jan 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Shelter hospital was an alternative way to provide large-scale medical isolation and treatment for people with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Due to various reasons, patients admitted to the large shelter hospital was reported high level of psychological distress, so did the healthcare workers. This study aims to introduce a comprehensive and multifaceted psychosocial crisis intervention model. METHODS: The psychosocial crisis intervention model was provided to 200 patients and 240 healthcare workers in Wuhan Wuchang shelter hospital. Patient volunteers and organized peer support, client-centered culturally sensitive supportive care, timely delivery of scientific information about COVID-19 and its complications, mental health knowledge acquisition of non-psychiatric healthcare workers, group activities, counseling and education, virtualization of psychological intervention, consultation and liaison were exhibited respectively in the model. Pre-service survey was done in 38 patients and 49 healthcare workers using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire 2-item (PHQ-2) scale, and the Primary Care PTSD screen for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (PC-PTSD-5). Forty-eight healthcare workers gave feedback after the intervention. RESULTS: The psychosocial crisis intervention model was successfully implemented by 10 mental health professionals and was well-accepted by both patients and healthcare workers in the shelter hospital. In pre-service survey, 15.8% of 38 patients were with anxiety, 55.3% were with stress, and 15.8% were with depression; 16.3% of 49 healthcare workers were with anxiety, 26.5% were with stress, and 22.4% were with depression. In post-service survey, 62.5% of 48 healthcare workers thought it was very practical, 37.5% thought more practical; 37.5% of them thought it was very helpful to relief anxiety and insomnia, and 27.1% thought much helpful; 37.5% of them thought it was very helpful to recognize patients with anxiety and insomnia, and 29.2% thought much helpful; 35.4% of them thought it was very helpful to deal with patients' anxiety and insomnia, and 37.5% thought much helpful. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological crisis intervention is feasible, acceptable, and associated with positive outcomes. Future tastings of this model in larger population and different settings are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Crisis Intervention , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2 , Mental Health , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety/etiology
6.
Rehabil Psychol ; 68(2): 135-145, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are common among Veterans. Although the majority of neurobehavioral symptoms resolve following mTBI, studies with Veteran samples demonstrate a high frequency and chronicity of neurobehavioral complaints (e.g., difficulties with attention, frustration tolerance) often attributed to mTBI. Recent opinions suggest the primacy of mental health treatment, and existing mTBI practice guidelines promote patient-centered intervention beginning in primary care (PC). However, trial evidence regarding effective clinical management in PC is lacking. This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a brief, PC-based problem-solving intervention to reduce psychological distress and neurobehavioral complaints. RESEARCH METHOD/DESIGN: Mixed method open clinical trial of 12 combat Veterans with a history of mTBI, chronic neurobehavioral complaints, and psychological distress. Measures included qualitative and quantitative indicators of feasibility (recruitment and retention metrics, interview feedback), patient acceptability (treatment satisfaction, perceived effectiveness), and change in psychological distress as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. RESULTS: The protocol was successfully delivered via in-person and telehealth treatment modalities (4.3 sessions attended on average; 58% completed the full protocol). Patient interview data suggested that treatment content was personally relevant, and patients were satisfied with their experience. Treatment completers described the intervention as helpful and reported corresponding reductions in psychological distress (ES = 1.8). Dropout was influenced by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Further study with a more diverse, randomized sample is warranted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Brain Concussion , COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , Brain Concussion/epidemiology , Crisis Intervention , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Veterans/psychology
7.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 32(1): 115-126, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228499

ABSTRACT

Adolescent cannabis use is a modifiable health behavior with potential adverse developmental, cognitive, psychological, and health effects. Over the last 2 decades, work to promote implementation of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment has improved screening, use of validated screening tools, and preventive messaging. Current intervention strategies for cannabis use are associated with modest, short-term effects, and referral to treatment is limited by availability of resources for adolescent substance use. This article provides an update on the evidence base for screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment, and the current state of implementation focused on management of cannabis use disorder.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Hallucinogens , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Crisis Intervention , Mental Health , Referral and Consultation , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Primary Health Care
8.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 616-623, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165460

ABSTRACT

Academic stress is linked to adolescent distress and perfectionism during the final years at school, with girls being at greater risk. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic was an additional stressor that impacted student learning on a global scale. The present study examines the effectiveness of an intervention targeting Psychological Capital (PsyCap), comprising hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism (HERO) to increase these HERO resources and assess its impact on mental health symptoms and subjective wellbeing outcomes among a cohort of Year 12 students (n = 82, Mage = 17.09, SD = 0.28, 99% identifying as female) from a girls school during the first year of the pandemic. Primary outcomes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and flourishing and secondary outcomes of HERO variables and perfectionism were examined. There were no significant changes in primary outcomes. Significant changes in efficacy, optimism, omnibus PsyCap (HERO combined) and perfectionism were found at post-intervention. Findings indicate the intervention targeting HERO constructs may be promising for developing HERO capabilities in youth and reducing common areas of concern for students (e.g., perfectionism). Future research directions addressing limitations are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crisis Intervention , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Students/psychology , Schools
10.
J Adolesc Health ; 71(4S): S57-S64, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015519

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine rates, patterns, and predictors of follow-up care for adolescents screened as being at risk for substance use disorder (SUD) in a school-based health center (SBHC) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program. METHODS: Electronic health records were extracted of adolescents who received health care services from one of three high school-based health centers implementing SBIRT. Patterns and predictors of engagement in follow-up care within 8 weeks following the week of a positive SUD risk screen were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) modeling. RESULTS: Out of 1,327 adolescents receiving SBHC services, 81.2% completed a health screening questionnaire. Of screened adolescents, 17.7% were positive for SUD risk. Across the 8-week follow-up period, 65.4% of adolescents at risk for SUD received at least one follow-up visit. IRT modeling indicated that high levels of engagement in follow-up care were characterized by contact with a behavioral health care (BHC) provider. The percentage of adolescents having follow-up contact with a BHC provider increased significantly after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement in follow-up care was predicted by risk for depression, history of suicidal behavior, being female, and previous sexual activity. DISCUSSION: SBHCs provide a favorable setting for screening and detecting adolescents at risk for SUD. Adolescents at risk for SUD should receive follow-up contact with a BHC provider. Enhanced follow-up engagement efforts may be warranted for adolescents at risk for SUD without risk for depression or suicidal history, as well as for females and those with previous sexual activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Aftercare , Crisis Intervention , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
11.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269635, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy alcohol use (UAU) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, contributing to 95,000 deaths annually. When offered in primary care, screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT), and medication-assisted treatment for alcohol use disorder (MAUD) can effectively address UAU. However, these interventions are not yet routine in primary care clinics. Therefore, our study evaluates tailored implementation support to increase SBIRT and MAUD in primary care. METHODS: ANTECEDENT is a pragmatic implementation study designed to support 150 primary care clinics in Oregon adopting and optimizing SBIRT and MAUD workflows to address UAU. The study is a partnership between the Oregon Health Authority Transformation Center-state leaders in Medicaid health system transformation-SBIRT Oregon and the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network. We recruited clinics providing primary care in Oregon and prioritized reaching clinics that were small to medium in size (<10 providers). All participating clinics receive foundational support (i.e., a baseline assessment, exit assessment, and access to the online SBIRT Oregon materials) and may opt to receive tailored implementation support delivered by a practice facilitator over 12 months. Tailored implementation support is designed to address identified needs and may include health information technology support, peer-to-peer learning, workflow mapping, or expert consultation via academic detailing. The study aims are to 1) engage, recruit, and conduct needs assessments with 150 primary care clinics and their regional Medicaid health plans called Coordinated Care Organizations within the state of Oregon, 2) implement and evaluate the impact of foundational and supplemental implementation support on clinic change in SBIRT and MAUD, and 3) describe how practice facilitators tailor implementation support based on context and personal expertise. Our convergent parallel mixed-methods analysis uses RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). It is informed by a hybrid of the i-PARIHS (integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) and the Dynamic Sustainability Framework. DISCUSSION: This study will explore how primary care clinics implement SBIRT and MAUD in routine practice and how practice facilitators vary implementation support across diverse clinic settings. Findings will inform how to effectively align implementation support to context, advance our understanding of practice facilitator skill development over time, and ultimately improve detection and treatment of UAU across diverse primary care clinics.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Crisis Intervention , Health Planning , Primary Health Care , United States
12.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 56(7): 872-873, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927954
13.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 33(8): 718-727, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895675

ABSTRACT

A disaster is commonly thought of as an occurrence that results in property damage and physical injuries that exceed the response capabilities of local resources. History teaches that disasters also result in a surge in demand for psychological support amongst survivors and disaster responders. This surge quickly exceeds local response capacities and has the potential to exceed even the mental health resources that may be imported from neighbouring jurisdictions and disaster relief agencies. Efficient and effective acute mental health intervention is, therefore, needed. However, the effectiveness of traditional multi-session counselling during and shortly after disasters has been questioned. Instead, the utilization of efficient and effective crisis-focussed psychological interventions has been suggested as acute phase alternatives. This paper asserts psychological first aid (PFA) may be considered a specific crisis-focussed disaster mental health intervention for use during and after disasters. PFA is designed for use in assessing and mitigating acute distress, while serving as a platform for psychological triage complementing more traditional psychological and psychiatric interventions. PFA may be employed by mental health clinicians as well as 'peer responders'.


Subject(s)
Disasters , First Aid , Crisis Intervention/education , Crisis Intervention/methods , First Aid/methods , Humans , Mental Health , Psychological First Aid
14.
Lancet ; 399(10337): 1761-1763, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829703
15.
Community Ment Health J ; 58(8): 1487-1494, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772946

ABSTRACT

Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment Teams (CRHTTs) provide 24-hour, seven day per week support for people in crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed significant demand on urgent care and increased the need for brief interventions in CRHTT settings with flexible methods of delivery. This evaluation aimed to examine client satisfaction with the 'Crisis Toolbox' (CTB), a brief, skills-based intervention delivered in one CRHTT during COVID-19. All participants who received the CTB completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated to quantify acceptability and qualitative themes were generated using thematic analysis. Fifty-eight people participated, all of whom reported high levels of satisfaction with the CTB. Four qualitative themes also emerged relating to 'Active ingredients of the CTB', 'The therapeutic relationship', 'Service-user preferences' and 'Expectations and continuity of care'. The CTB appears to be a valued intervention. Further research is now needed to assess its clinical impact and effect on operational indicators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Crisis Intervention/methods , Patient Satisfaction
16.
J Nurs Adm ; 52(3): E9-E11, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769460

ABSTRACT

Because of the pandemic's impact on morbidity and mortality, nursing leaders have witnessed a marked increase in the number of staff who experience crisis and extreme stress during their shift. This hospital's Engagement and Resilience Council aimed to mediate this stress by implementing resilience-building interventions during moments of peaked stress. Preliminary data show these interventions may markedly improve stress levels in frontline caregivers by up to 52% in some clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Crisis Intervention/methods , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Occupational Stress/therapy , Humans , Shared Governance, Nursing
17.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 60(8): 46-51, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709620

ABSTRACT

Alcohol and drug misuse continue to result in negative outcomes in the United States. Training nurses in screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has been proposed as one approach to mitigating those harms. Such training can lead to improved attitudes and intention to use SBIRT in clinical practice, but whether those outcomes manifest similarly for distance or face-to-face learning has not been investigated. The current study is a quasi-experimental comparison of face-to-face and distance SBIRT education for undergraduate nursing students performed in Fall 2019. No differences in attitudes or intentions were observed between face-to-face and distance learning approaches. Self-reported competence meaningfully increased in both study arms, and there was some evidence of additional increases in perceived role legitimacy and intention to use SBIRT. To the degree that benefits are observed for SBIRT training, they may not vary between face-to-face and distance learning implementations of the same curriculum. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 60(8), 46-51.].


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Substance-Related Disorders , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Mass Screening , Referral and Consultation , Students, Nursing/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , United States
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use among adolescents in the U.S. is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes in the long-term. Universal youth-focused substance use prevention programs have demonstrated effectiveness but are often not sustainable due to the significant amount of time, effort, and resources required. We describe a trial protocol for a brief, low-participant-burden intervention to improve substance use-specific parent-child communication through the promotion of family meals and increased parental engagement. METHODS: This study is a parallel-group randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a 13-week intervention. A total of 500 dyads of parents and their 5th-7th grade children are recruited from across Massachusetts. Dyads are randomized to the intervention or attention-control condition using block urn randomization, based on child grade, gender, and school. Parents/guardians in the substance use preventive intervention arm receive a short handbook, attend two meetings with an interventionist, and receive two SMS messages per week. Parents/guardians in the control arm receive the same dose but with content focused on nutrition, physical activity, and weight stigma. Participant dyads submit videos of family meals, audio recordings of prompted conversations, and quantitative surveys over an 18-month period (baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18 months post-intervention). The primary outcomes measure the quantity and quality of parent-child substance use conversations and proximal child indicators (i.e., substance use attitudes and expectancies, affiliation with substance-using peers, and intentions and willingness to use substances). The secondary outcome is child substance use initiation. DISCUSSION: This is a novel, brief, communication-focused intervention for parents/guardians that was designed to reduce participant burden. The intervention has the potential to improve parent-child engagement and communication and conversations about substance use specifically and decrease child substance use risk factors and substance use initiation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03925220. Registered on 24 April 2019.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Promotion/methods , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Meals , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
19.
Int J Behav Med ; 29(5): 575-586, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective hand washing (for at least 20 s, with water and soap) is one of the health behaviors protecting against infection transmissions. Behavior change interventions supporting the initiation and maintenance of hand washing are crucial to prevent infection transmissions. Based on the Health Action Process Approach, the aim of this research was to conduct a pre-post analysis of hand washing and related cognitions (i.e., intention, self-efficacy, self-monitoring), measured up to 100 days following an intervention. METHODS: A convenience sample of N = 123 participants (age: M = 23.96 years; SD = 5.82; 80% women) received a brief intervention (key behavior change techniques: information about health consequences of hand washing; action planning) and responded to daily diaries and questionnaires up to a 100-day follow-up. Two-level models were used to analyze data of n = 89 participants who provided longitudinal data. RESULTS: Hand washing and self-monitoring increased, whereas intention and self-efficacy decreased over time. Only self-monitoring was a consistent positive correlate of hand washing on a between-person level. CONCLUSIONS: Hand washing and self-monitoring considerably increased over several weeks following the intervention. Future research testing the intervention against a control condition is needed to rule out that changes in behavior and cognitions might have been prompted by completing the daily diaries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register;  https://www.drks.de ; registration number: DRKS00022067.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition , Crisis Intervention , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Soaps , Water , Young Adult
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