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1.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(11): 1900-1906, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140773

ABSTRACT

Rationale: There are limited data on the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on intensive care unit (ICU) recovery clinic care delivery practices. Objectives: We sought to better understand the patient-level factors affecting ICU recovery clinic care and changing clinical thinking during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also sought to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic sparked innovation within ICU recovery clinics. Methods: A multicenter qualitative study was conducted with ICU recovery clinic interprofessional clinicians involved with the Critical and Acute Illness Recovery Organization (CAIRO) between February and March 2021. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Key themes were organized in a working analytical framework. Results: Twenty-nine participants from 15 international sites participated in the study. Participants identified three patient-level key themes that influenced care delivery in ICU recovery programs: 1) social isolation, 2) decreased emotional reserve in patients and families, and 3) substantial social care needs. Changes in ICU recovery clinic care delivery occurred at both the clinician level (e.g., growing awareness of healthcare disparities and inequities, recognition of financial effects of illness, refinement of communication skills, increased focus on reconstructing the illness narrative) and the practice level (e.g., expansion of care delivery modes, efforts to integrate social care) in response to each of the patient-level themes. Identified gaps in ICU recovery clinic care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic included a need for multidisciplinary team members, access to care issues (e.g., digital poverty, health insurance coverage, language barriers), and altered family engagement. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that addressing patient-level factors such as efforts to integrate social care, address financial needs, refine provider communication skills (e.g., empathic listening), and enhance focus on reconstructing the illness narrative became important priorities during the ICU recovery clinic visit during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also identified several ongoing gaps in ICU recovery clinic care delivery that highlight the need for interventions focused on the integration of social and clinic services for critical care survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Qualitative Research , Critical Care/psychology
2.
Am J Crit Care ; 31(4): 324-328, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924393

ABSTRACT

Intensive care unit follow-up clinics are becoming an increasingly widespread intervention to facilitate the physical, cognitive, psychiatric, and social rehabilitation of survivors of critical illness who have post-intensive care syndrome. Developing and sustaining intensive care unit follow-up clinics can pose significant challenges, and clinics need to be tailored to the physical, personnel, and financial resources available at a given institution. Although no standard recipe guarantees a successful intensive care unit aftercare program, emerging clinics will need to address a common set of hurdles, including securing an adequate space; assembling an invested, multidisciplinary staff; procuring the necessary financial, information technology, and physical stuff; using the proper screening tools to identify patients most likely to benefit and to accurately identify disabilities during the visit; and selling it to colleagues, hospital administrators, and the community at large.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Aftercare , Critical Care/psychology , Critical Illness/psychology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Survivors/psychology
3.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 105, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus brought Intensive Care Units (ICUs) back to their past when they were closed to family members. The difficulties of family caregivers encountered after the ICU discharge might have been increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, no traces of their experience have been documented to date. The objective of this study is to explore the everyday life experience of relatives in the first three months after a non-COVID-19 ICU discharge. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted in 2020-2021. Two Italian general non-COVID-19 ICUs were approached. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted three months after the ICU discharge. The study has been conducted according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research principles. RESULTS: A total of 14 family members were interviewed. Participants were mostly females (n = 11; 78.6%), with an average age of 53.9 years. After three months of care of their beloved at home, relatives' experience is summarised in three themes: "Being shaken following the ICU discharge", as experiencing negative and positive feelings; "Returning to our life that is no longer the same", as realising that nothing can be as before; and "Feeling powerless due to the COVID-19 pandemic", given the missed care from community services and the restrictions imposed. CONCLUSIONS: Relatives seem to have experienced a bilateral restriction of opportunities - at the hospital without any engagement in care activities and their limited possibility to visit the ICU, and at home in terms of formal and informal care.


Subject(s)
Family , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/psychology , Family/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research
4.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 72: 103264, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gain perspectives from family members about barriers and facilitators to virtual visit set up and conduct across intensive care unit settings in the United Kingdom to inform understanding of best practices. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study recruiting a purposive sample of family members of adult intensive care unit patients experiencing virtual visiting during Jan to May 2021 of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used semi-structured qualitative interviews and a standard Thematic Analysis approach. RESULTS: We recruited 41 family-member participants from 16 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Facilitators to successful virtual visit set-up were preparation of the family, negotiating a preferred time, and easy-to-use technology. Facilitators to successful conduct were intensive care unit team member presence; enabling family involvement in care; inclusivity, accessibility, and flexibility; and having a sense of control. Barriers that created distress or conflict included restrictive virtual visiting practices; raising expectations then failing to meet them; lack of virtual visit pre-planning; and failing to prepare the patient. Barriers to visit conduct were incorrect camera positioning, insufficient technical and staff resources, issues with three-way connectivity, and lack of call closure. Recommendations included emotional self-preparation, increased technology availability, and preparing conversation topics. CONCLUSION: These data may guide virtual visiting practices during the ongoing pandemic but also to continue virtual visiting outside of pandemic conditions. This will benefit family members suffering from ill health, living at a distance, unable to afford travel, and those with work and care commitments, thereby reducing inequities of access and promoting family-centered care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Critical Care/psychology , Family/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e055679, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the experiences and perceived benefits of virtual visiting from the perspectives of intensive care unit (ICU)-experienced clinicians and non-ICU-experienced family liaison team members. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. SETTING: Adult intensive care setting across 14 hospitals within the UK National Health Service. PARTICIPANTS: ICU-experienced clinicians and non-ICU-experienced family liaison team members deployed during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Semistructured telephone/video interviews were conducted with ICU clinicians. Analytical themes were developed inductively following a standard thematic approach, using 'family-centred care' and 'sensemaking' as sensitising concepts. RESULTS: We completed 36 interviews, with 17 ICU-experienced clinicians and 19 non-ICU-experienced family liaison team members. In the context of inperson visiting restrictions, virtual visiting offered an alternative conduit to (1) restoring the family unit, (2) facilitating family involvement, and (3) enabling sensemaking for the family. Virtual visits with multiple family members concurrently and with those living in distant geographical locations restored a sense of family unit. Family involvement in rehabilitation, communication and orientation activities, as well as presence at the end of life, highlighted how virtual visiting could contribute to family-centred care. Virtual visits were emotionally challenging for many family members, but also cathartic in helping make sense of their own emotions and experience by visualising their relatives in the ICU. Being able to see and interact with loved ones and their immediate care providers afforded important cues to enable family sensemaking of the ICU experience. CONCLUSIONS: In this UK qualitative study of clinicians using virtual ICU visiting, in the absence of inperson visiting, virtual visiting was perceived positively as an alternative that promoted family-centred care through virtual presence. We anticipate the perceived benefits of virtual visiting may extend to non-pandemic conditions through improved equity and timeliness of family access to the ICU by offering an alternative option alongside inperson visiting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Critical Care/psychology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , State Medicine
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263441, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Returning to work is a serious issue that affects patients who are discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to clarify the employment status and the perceived household financial status of ICU patients 12 months following ICU discharge. Additionally, we evaluated whether there exists an association between depressive symptoms and subsequent unemployment status. METHODS: This study was a subgroup analysis of the published Survey of Multicenter Assessment with Postal questionnaire for Post-Intensive Care Syndrome for Home Living Patients (the SMAP-HoPe study) in Japan. Eligible patients were those who were employed before ICU admission, stayed in the ICU for at least three nights between October 2019 and July 2020, and lived at home for 12 months after discharge. We assessed the employment status, subjective cognitive functions, household financial status, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and EuroQOL-5 dimensions of physical function at 12 months following intensive care. RESULTS: This study included 328 patients, with a median age of 64 (interquartile range [IQR], 52-72) years. Of these, 79 (24%) were unemployed 12 months after ICU discharge. The number of patients who reported worsened financial status was significantly higher in the unemployed group (p<0.01) than in the employed group. Multivariable analysis showed that higher age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.08]) and greater severity of depressive symptoms (OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.05-1.23]) were independent factors for unemployment status at 12 months after ICU discharge. CONCLUSIONS: We found that 24.1% of our patients who had been employed prior to ICU admission were subsequently unemployed following ICU discharge and that depressive symptoms were associated with unemployment status. The government and the local municipalities should provide medical and financial support to such patients. Additionally, community and workplace support for such patients are warranted.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Quality of Life , Aged , Critical Care/psychology , Employment , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge
10.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 33(8): 691-698, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585501

ABSTRACT

The intensive care unit (ICU) within a hospital is typically thought of as a place for the provision of patient care for a life-threatening emergency. Less frequently do we consider it an integral part of disaster response. The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health disaster that has caused surges of critically ill patients requiring treatment in intensive care units (ICUs). However, it is important to bear in mind that survival of a critical illness can come at a cost, including to mental health. Being critically ill and requiring life-saving treatments is extremely stressful, and survivors frequently have substantial decrements in physical functioning, cognition, and emotional health. Remarkably, one in five critical illness survivors has clinically significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Risk factors, or markers of risk, include prior anxiety and depression, high doses of sedative medications in the intensive care unit (ICU), memories of nightmare-like experiences in the ICU, and emotional distress in early recovery. As with PTSD in other contexts, social support is a protective factor. ICU follow-up clinics, in-ICU psychological interventions, ICU diaries, post-ICU telephonic and computer-based cognitive-behavioral interventions, and virtual reality interventions all show promise in preventing long-term PTSD in critical illness survivors, perhaps particularly in those with substantial emotional distress in early recovery. However, awareness regarding this problem is still growing, as are changes to post-ICU care delivery. Hopefully, improved awareness on the part of the psychiatric community will help with recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic disaster.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Critical Care/psychology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/psychology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Survivors/psychology
11.
J Christ Nurs ; 38(3): E28-E31, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532593

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Nurses who provided care to patients with coronavirus (COVID-19) and supported patients in their transition from life to death in the absence of patients' families have been especially needful of spiritual self-care. A spiritual first aid kit can help nurses cope with these difficult times. Spiritual self-care is vital for all nurses to renew and preserve the psychological, spiritual, and physical self.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Nurse-Patient Relations , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Self Care/psychology , Self Efficacy , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/nursing , Critical Care/psychology , First Aid , Humans , Spirituality
12.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200336, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the most frequent words in interviews given by nurses during the coronavirus pandemic. METHOD: This is a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study, carried out with 45 interviews granted by nurses to newspapers of great circulation in Brazil and Portugal. The data were processed using the ATLAS.ti® software and analyzed using the word cloud tool. RESULTS: The seven most frequent words were: "home" (respect for isolation), "nurses" (valuing of the profession and structural problems), "patients/diseased" and "care" (referring to the severity of the disease), "family" (missing her own family/emotional stress) and "fear" (fear of contamination of oneself and others). FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The word cloud revealed how straining nurses' experiences have been and reinforced the urgent need to rethink nursing work and the risks faced. Reflections like this contribute to the construction of more valued nursing and public policies for the protection of nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Critical Care/psychology , Emotions , Nurses/psychology , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Portugal/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Stress, Physiological
14.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(1-2): 72-79, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498263

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 175 million persons infected and 3.8 million deaths so far and is having a devastating impact on both low and high-income countries, in particular on hospitals and Intensive Care Units (ICU). The ICU mortality during the first pandemic wave ranged from 40% to 85% during the busiest ICU period for admissions around the peak of the surge, and those surviving are frequently faced with impairments affecting physical, cognitive, and mental health status, complicating the postacute phase of COVID-19, which in the pre-COVID period, were defined collectively as postintensive care syndrome (PICS). Long COVID is defined as four weeks of persisting symptoms after the acute illness, and post-COVID syndrome and chronic COVID-19 are the proposed terms to describe continued symptomatology for more than 12 weeks. Overall, 50% of ICU survivors suffer from new physical, mental, and/or cognitive problems at 1 year after ICU discharge. The prevalence, severity, and duration of the various impairments in ICU survivors are poorly defined, with substantial variations among published series, and may reflect differences in the timing of assessment, the outcome measured, the instruments utilized, and thresholds adopted to establish the diagnosis, the qualification of personnel delivering the tests, the resource availability as well diversity in patients' case-mix. Future longitudinal studies of adequate sample size with repeated assessments of validated outcomes and comparison with non-COVID-19 ICU patients are needed to fully explore the long-term outcome of ICU patients with COVID-19. In this article, we focus on chronic COVID-19 in ICU survivors and present state-of-the-art data regarding long-term complications related to critical illness and the treatments and organ support received.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/psychology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors/psychology
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