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1.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 33(8): 691-698, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585501

ABSTRACT

The intensive care unit (ICU) within a hospital is typically thought of as a place for the provision of patient care for a life-threatening emergency. Less frequently do we consider it an integral part of disaster response. The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health disaster that has caused surges of critically ill patients requiring treatment in intensive care units (ICUs). However, it is important to bear in mind that survival of a critical illness can come at a cost, including to mental health. Being critically ill and requiring life-saving treatments is extremely stressful, and survivors frequently have substantial decrements in physical functioning, cognition, and emotional health. Remarkably, one in five critical illness survivors has clinically significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Risk factors, or markers of risk, include prior anxiety and depression, high doses of sedative medications in the intensive care unit (ICU), memories of nightmare-like experiences in the ICU, and emotional distress in early recovery. As with PTSD in other contexts, social support is a protective factor. ICU follow-up clinics, in-ICU psychological interventions, ICU diaries, post-ICU telephonic and computer-based cognitive-behavioral interventions, and virtual reality interventions all show promise in preventing long-term PTSD in critical illness survivors, perhaps particularly in those with substantial emotional distress in early recovery. However, awareness regarding this problem is still growing, as are changes to post-ICU care delivery. Hopefully, improved awareness on the part of the psychiatric community will help with recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic disaster.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Critical Care/psychology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/psychology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Survivors/psychology
4.
Nurs Outlook ; 70(1): 64-77, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284433

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Spiritual care has a positive influence when patients are subjected to serious illnesses, and critically ill situations such as the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of nurses working at critical care units and emergency services in Spain concerning the spiritual care providing to patients and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative investigation was carried out using in-depth interviews with 19 ICU nursing professionals. FINDINGS: During the pandemic, nurses provided spiritual care for their patients. Although they believed that spirituality was important to help patients to cope with the disease, they do not had a consensual definition of spirituality. Work overload, insufficient time and lack of training were perceived as barriers for providing spiritual healthcare. DISCUSSION: These results support the role of spirituality in moments of crisis and should be considered by health professionals working in critical care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Spirituality , Adult , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interviews as Topic , Male , Qualitative Research , Spain
6.
BMJ ; 373: n1007, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263910

ABSTRACT

Delirium, a form of acute brain dysfunction, is very common in the critically ill adult patient population. Although its pathophysiology is poorly understood, multiple factors associated with delirium have been identified, many of which are coincident with critical illness. To date, no drug or non-drug treatments have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with delirium. Clinical trials have provided a limited understanding of the contributions of multiple triggers and processes of intensive care unit (ICU) acquired delirium, making identification of therapies difficult. Delirium is independently associated with poor long term outcomes, including persistent cognitive impairment. A longer duration of delirium is associated with worse long term cognition after adjustment for age, education, pre-existing cognitive function, severity of illness, and exposure to sedatives. Interestingly, differences in prevalence are seen between ICU survivor populations, with survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome experiencing higher rates of cognitive impairment at early follow-up compared with mixed ICU survivor populations. Although cognitive performance improves over time for some ICU survivors, impairment is persistent in others. Studies have so far been unable to identify patients at higher risk of long term cognitive impairment; this is an active area of scientific investigation.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Critical Illness/psychology , Delirium , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Delirium/complications , Delirium/diagnosis , Humans , Long Term Adverse Effects , Prognosis
8.
Trials ; 21(1): 1019, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burnout is an occupational syndrome that leads to mental health problems, job turnover, and patient safety events. Those caring for critically ill patients are especially susceptible due to high patient mortality, long hours, and regular encounters with trauma and ethical issues. Interventions to prevent burnout in this population are needed. Preliminary studies suggest debriefing sessions may reduce burnout. This study aims to assess whether participation in regular debriefing can prevent burnout in intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial will be conducted in two large academic medical centers. Two hundred ICU clinicians will be recruited with target enrollment of 100 physicians and 100 non-physicians (nurses, pharmacists, therapists). Participants must have worked in the ICU for the equivalent of at least 1 full time work week in the preceding 4 weeks. Enrolled subjects will be randomized to virtually attend biweekly debriefing sessions facilitated by a psychotherapist for 3 months or to a control arm without sessions. Our debriefs are modeled after Death Cafés, which are informal discussions focusing on death, dying, loss, grief, and illness. These sessions allow for reflection on distressing events and offer community and collaboration among hospital employees outside of work. The primary outcome is clinician burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) Score. Secondary outcomes include depression and anxiety, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire 8 (PHQ-8) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), respectively. Questionnaires will be administered prior to the intervention, at 1 month, at 3 months, and at 6 months after enrollment. These values will be compared between groups temporally. Qualitative feedback will also be collected and analyzed. DISCUSSION: With ICU clinician burnout rates exceeding 50%, Death Café debriefing sessions may prove to be an effective tool to avert this debilitating syndrome. With COVID-19 limiting social interactions and overloading ICUs worldwide, the virtual administration of the Death Café for ICU clinicians provides an innovative strategy to potentially mitigate burnout in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04347811 . Registered on 15 April 2020.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Stress/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Terminal Care/psychology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Awareness/physiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Communication , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Turnover/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , User-Computer Interface
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 8, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067254

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The literature agrees on the impact of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of seriously ill children but there is less clarity about the real extent and gender differences of this psychopathological risk. The recent Covid-19 outbreak highlighted new burdens for researchers on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and clear evidence-based knowledge on this issue is timely needed. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we present a synthesis of the updated evidence on PTSD rates in parents of children with severe diseases. We also aim to try to understand if research in this field has been refined over time with the long-term intent to better face the new challenges of Covid-19 in the paediatric field. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed database was searched. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they assessed PTSD in parents of children diagnosed with physical illnesses. DATA EXTRACTION: Of 240 studies, 4 were included. RESULTS: Analysis of the 4 studies revealed 2 studies with PTSD rates around 20% and in line with previous best-evidence. All 4 studies tried to provide more data on fathers, however, all the studies present the lack of a control group. LIMITATIONS: The limited number of studies, which also differ widely in the methodology used. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological errors evidenced in all the 4 studies limit their reliability, making the understanding of the paediatric caregiver's concern regarding PTSD still difficult. More sound research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Child , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(2): 63-66, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066480

ABSTRACT

This article explores the experiences and learnings of 2 ambulatory care nurse leaders on the front lines of the Covid-19 pandemic using the theory "navigating through chaos" as a framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Critical Illness/nursing , Leadership , Nurse Administrators/psychology , Nurse's Role/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Critical Illness/psychology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Nurse-Patient Relations
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(3): 239-250, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, 750 000 patients with COVID-19 worldwide have required mechanical ventilation and thus are at high risk of acute brain dysfunction (coma and delirium). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of delirium and coma, and risk factors for delirium in critically ill patients with COVID-19, to aid the development of strategies to mitigate delirium and associated sequelae. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study included 69 adult intensive care units (ICUs), across 14 countries. We included all patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to participating ICUs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection before April 28, 2020. Patients who were moribund or had life-support measures withdrawn within 24 h of ICU admission, prisoners, patients with pre-existing mental illness, neurodegenerative disorders, congenital or acquired brain damage, hepatic coma, drug overdose, suicide attempt, or those who were blind or deaf were excluded. We collected de-identified data from electronic health records on patient demographics, delirium and coma assessments, and management strategies for a 21-day period. Additional data on ventilator support, ICU length of stay, and vital status was collected for a 28-day period. The primary outcome was to determine the prevalence of delirium and coma and to investigate any associated risk factors associated with development of delirium the next day. We also investigated predictors of number of days alive without delirium or coma. These outcomes were investigated using multivariable regression. FINDINGS: Between Jan 20 and April 28, 2020, 4530 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to 69 ICUs, of whom 2088 patients were included in the study cohort. The median age of patients was 64 years (IQR 54 to 71) with a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II of 40·0 (30·0 to 53·0). 1397 (66·9%) of 2088 patients were invasively mechanically ventilated on the day of ICU admission and 1827 (87·5%) were invasively mechanical ventilated at some point during hospitalisation. Infusion with sedatives while on mechanical ventilation was common: 1337 (64·0%) of 2088 patients were given benzodiazepines for a median of 7·0 days (4·0 to 12·0) and 1481 (70·9%) were given propofol for a median of 7·0 days (4·0 to 11·0). Median Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale score while on invasive mechanical ventilation was -4 (-5 to -3). 1704 (81·6%) of 2088 patients were comatose for a median of 10·0 days (6·0 to 15·0) and 1147 (54·9%) were delirious for a median of 3·0 days (2·0 to 6·0). Mechanical ventilation, use of restraints, and benzodiazepine, opioid, and vasopressor infusions, and antipsychotics were each associated with a higher risk of delirium the next day (all p≤0·04), whereas family visitation (in person or virtual) was associated with a lower risk of delirium (p<0·0001). During the 21-day study period, patients were alive without delirium or coma for a median of 5·0 days (0·0 to 14·0). At baseline, older age, higher SAPS II scores, male sex, smoking or alcohol abuse, use of vasopressors on day 1, and invasive mechanical ventilation on day 1 were independently associated with fewer days alive and free of delirium and coma (all p<0·01). 601 (28·8%) of 2088 patients died within 28 days of admission, with most of those deaths occurring in the ICU. INTERPRETATION: Acute brain dysfunction was highly prevalent and prolonged in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Benzodiazepine use and lack of family visitation were identified as modifiable risk factors for delirium, and thus these data present an opportunity to reduce acute brain dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATIONS: For the French and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Coma/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Coma/virology , Critical Illness/psychology , Delirium/virology , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/psychology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 8, 2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031078

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The literature agrees on the impact of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of seriously ill children but there is less clarity about the real extent and gender differences of this psychopathological risk. The recent Covid-19 outbreak highlighted new burdens for researchers on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and clear evidence-based knowledge on this issue is timely needed. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we present a synthesis of the updated evidence on PTSD rates in parents of children with severe diseases. We also aim to try to understand if research in this field has been refined over time with the long-term intent to better face the new challenges of Covid-19 in the paediatric field. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed database was searched. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they assessed PTSD in parents of children diagnosed with physical illnesses. DATA EXTRACTION: Of 240 studies, 4 were included. RESULTS: Analysis of the 4 studies revealed 2 studies with PTSD rates around 20% and in line with previous best-evidence. All 4 studies tried to provide more data on fathers, however, all the studies present the lack of a control group. LIMITATIONS: The limited number of studies, which also differ widely in the methodology used. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological errors evidenced in all the 4 studies limit their reliability, making the understanding of the paediatric caregiver's concern regarding PTSD still difficult. More sound research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Child , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Chest ; 159(2): 749-756, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809382

ABSTRACT

Dyspnea is an uncomfortable sensation with the potential to cause psychological trauma. Patients presenting with acute respiratory failure, particularly when tidal volume is restricted during mechanical ventilation, may experience the most distressing form of dyspnea known as air hunger. Air hunger activates brain pathways known to be involved in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. These conditions are considered part of the post-intensive care syndrome. These sequelae may be even more prevalent among patients with ARDS. Low tidal volume, a mainstay of modern therapy for ARDS, is difficult to avoid and is likely to cause air hunger despite sedation. Adjunctive neuromuscular blockade does not prevent or relieve air hunger, but it does prevent the patient from communicating discomfort to caregivers. Consequently, paralysis may also contribute to the development of PTSD. Although research has identified post-ARDS PTSD as a cause for concern, and investigators have taken steps to quantify the burden of disease, there is little information to guide mechanical ventilation strategies designed to reduce its occurrence. We suggest such efforts will be more successful if they are directed at the known mechanisms of air hunger. Investigation of the antidyspnea effects of sedative and analgesic drugs commonly used in the ICU and their impact on post-ARDS PTSD symptoms is a logical next step. Although in practice we often accept negative consequences of life-saving therapies as unavoidable, we must understand the negative sequelae of our therapies and work to minimize them under our primary directive to "first, do no harm" to patients.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness/psychology , Dyspnea/psychology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/psychology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/psychology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Tidal Volume
18.
Endocrinology ; 162(3)2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013170

ABSTRACT

Treatment for critical illness typically focuses on a patient's short-term physical recovery; however, recent work has broadened our understanding of the long-term implications of illness and treatment strategies. In particular, survivors of critical illness have significantly elevated risk of developing lasting cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorders. In this review, we examine the role of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids in neuropsychiatric outcomes following critical illness. Illness is marked by acute elevation of free cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone suppression, which typically normalize after recovery; however, prolonged dysregulation can sometimes occur. High glucocorticoid levels can cause lasting alterations to the plasticity and structural integrity of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and this mechanism may plausibly contribute to impaired memory and cognition in critical illness survivors, though specific evidence is lacking. Glucocorticoids may also exacerbate inflammation-associated neural damage. Conversely, current evidence indicates that glucocorticoids during illness may protect against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We propose future directions for research in this field, including determining the role of persistent glucocorticoid elevations after illness in neuropsychiatric outcomes, the role of systemic vs neuroinflammation, and probing unexplored lines of investigation on the role of mineralocorticoid receptors and the gut-brain axis. Progress toward personalized medicine in this area has the potential to produce tangible improvements to the lives patients after a critical illness, including Coronavirus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Illness/psychology , Glucocorticoids/blood , Mental Disorders/etiology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Delirium/blood , Delirium/etiology , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/blood
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 929, 2020 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-925459

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective: To determine the feasibility of delivering a protocolised, remote, online, Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) intervention, within 12-weeks of hospital discharge, for adult survivors of Covid-19 related critical illness. Secondary objectives: To investigate whether remotely delivered EMDR can improve psychological outcome following Covid-19 related critical illness, specifically Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single centre, randomised controlled cohort feasibility trial. PARTICIPANTS: Participants will be recruited following discharge from the Intensive Care Unit at University Hospital Southampton, United Kingdom. Eligible patients will have received mechanical ventilation for a minimum of 24 hours, tested Covid-19 positive by polymerase chain reaction, will be over the age of 18 years and have the capacity to provide informed consent. Patients will be excluded if they have pre-existing cognitive impairment, pre-existing psychotic diagnosis or are not expected to survive post-hospital discharge. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Group one: patients in the control arm will receive their standard package of prescribed care, following discharge home from hospital. If they experience any adverse physical or psychological health-conditions, they will access care through the usual available channels. Group two: patients randomly allocated to the intervention arm will receive their standard package of prescribed care, following discharge home from hospital. In addition, they will be referred to the Intensive Psychological Therapies Service in Poole, United Kingdom. They will receive an online appointment within 12-weeks of discharge home from hospital. They will receive a maximum of eight, weekly sessions of EMDR, delivered by a trained psychological therapist, following the Recent Traumatic Episode Protocol (R-TEP). Appendices 1 and 2 of the attached trial protocol contain a detailed description of the R-TEP intervention, written in accordance with the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome from this trial will be feasibility. Feasibility will be determined by recruitment rates, expressed as a percentage of eligible patients approached, completion of the EMDR intervention, completion of final assessment at 6-months, incidence of attributable adverse events and protocol adherence by the psychological therapists. Secondary, exploratory outcomes will be assessed by comparison between the control and intervention groups at 6-months post-hospital discharge. Psychometric evaluation will consist of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. In addition, we will assess health-related quality of life using the EQ5D-5L, physical activity using wrist worn activity monitors and nutritional state using the Council of Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire. RANDOMISATION: Consenting participants will be randomly allocated to intervention or usual care using an internet-based system (ALEATM). Participants will be randomly assigned, on a 1:1 ratio, to receive either standard care (control) or the standard care plus online EMDR R-TEP (Intervention) BLINDING (MASKING): Due to the nature of the intervention, participants cannot be blinded to group allocation. 6-month patient reported outcome measures will be completed using an online, electronic case report form. Group allocation will be masked during data analysis. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): This is a feasibility study, the results of which will be used to power a definitive study if appropriate. We anticipate a 25% mortality /loss to follow-up. A total of 26 patients will be recruited to this study, 13 patients in each arm. TRIAL STATUS: CovEMERALD opened to recruitment on 23rd September 2020 with an anticipated recruitment period of 6-months. We are using protocol version number 1.2 (1st June 2020) TRIAL REGISTRATION: CovEMERALD was registered on clinicaltrials.gov NCT04455360 on 2nd July 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quality of Life , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/psychology , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Depression/etiology , Depression/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Female , Home Care Services, Hospital-Based , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Psychological Techniques , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control
20.
Perspect Biol Med ; 63(3): 494-501, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886026

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the outcomes of COVID-19, from the perspective of surviving patients, health-care systems, and societies. It draws on first-person experience of what it is to go through and survive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure. It summarizes the research on the short- and long-term outcomes for critically ill patients. The physical, cognitive, and emotional sequalae are staggering. Health-care professionals and systems will have to step up to meet the challenge of caring for large numbers of COVID-19 patients after discharge. And societies will have to step up to the ethical questions that the pandemic has made so stark. What kind of societies do we want to be, in terms of guarding the welfare of our most vulnerable citizens?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Respiration, Artificial/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/psychology , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Health Personnel , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Survivors
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