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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063856, 2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108284

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hypercoagulation is one the main features of COVID-19. It is induced by the hyperinflammatory response that shifts the balance of haemostasis towards pro-coagulation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonist therapy has been recommended in certain subgroups of critically ill patients with COVID-19 to modulate inflammatory response. The interaction between immune response and haemostasis is well recognised. Therefore, our objective is to evaluate whether the modulation of the inflammatory response by IL-6 antagonist inflicts any changes in whole blood coagulation as assessed by viscoelastic methods in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this prospective observational study, we are going to collect data on inflammatory parameters and blood coagulation using the ClotPro® device. The primary outcome is the change of the fibrinolytic system measured by the Lysis Time and Lysis onset time before and after immunomodulation therapy. Data will be collected before the IL-6 antagonist administration at baseline (T0) then after 24, 48 hours, then on day 5 and 7 (T1-4, respectively). Secondary outcomes include changes in other parameters related to inflammation, blood coagulation and biomarkers of endothelial injury. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was given by the Medical Research Council of Hungary (1405-3/2022/EÜG). All participants provided written consent. The results of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05218369; Clinicaltrials.gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Interleukin-6 , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies
2.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(11): e530-e535, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the prevalence of pediatric critical illness from multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and to assess the influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain on outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Database evaluation using the Virtual Pediatric Systems Database. PATIENTS: All children with MIS-C admitted to the PICU in 115 contributing hospitals between January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2021. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 145,580 children admitted to the PICU during the study period, 1,338 children (0.9%) were admitted with MIS-C with the largest numbers of children admitted in quarter 1 (Q1) of 2021 ( n = 626). The original SARS-CoV-2 viral strain and the D614G Strain were the predominant strains through 2020, with Alpha B.1.1.7 predominating in Q1 and quarter 2 (Q2) of 2021. Overall, the median PICU length of stay (LOS) was 2.7 days (25-75% interquartile range [IQR], 1.6-4.7 d) with a median hospital LOS of 6.6 days (25-75% IQR, 4.7-9.3 d); 15.2% received mechanical ventilation with a median duration of mechanical ventilation of 3.1 days (25-75% IQR, 1.9-5.8 d), and there were 11 hospital deaths. During the study period, there was a significant decrease in the median PICU and hospital LOS and a decrease in the frequency of mechanical ventilation, with the most significant decrease occurring between quarter 3 and quarter 4 (Q4) of 2020. Children admitted to a PICU from the general care floor or from another ICU/step-down unit had longer PICU LOS than those admitted directly from an emergency department. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality from MIS-C was low, but the disease burden was high. There was a peak in MIS-C cases during Q1 of 2021, following a shift in viral strains in Q1 of 2021. However, an improvement in MIS-C outcomes starting in Q4 of 2020 suggests that viral strain was not the driving factor for outcomes in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
3.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 111, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098394

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic limited hospital resources and necessitated interhospital transport of ICU-patients in order to provide critical care to all patients in the Netherlands. However, not all hospitals have an approved landing site. The ICU-transport operation was executed under HEMS-license and landing on non-aerodrome terrain was permitted. This allowed the search for an ad-hoc landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. The following characteristics were judged: slope, obstacles, size, soil conditions and the presence of foreign objects.Before the start of this transport operation, in two days, all hospitals in the Netherlands were visited and presumed landing sites explored, described, photographed and recorded in the electronic flight bag. At 71 (87,6 %) of the hospitals it was possible to install a temporary approved landing site in the direct vicinity of the ICU. 110 landings were made on these landing sites and 114 landings on approved heliports. Only 11 patients required secondary transport to or from the helicopter landings site. This occurred only in two patients from a heliport to a receiving hospital.The construction of pre-explored approved landing sites in the vicinity of hospitals allows safe transportation of patients by helicopter to hospitals without a heliport.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aircraft , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(4): 777-789, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095437

ABSTRACT

Specific therapies for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have limited efficacy in the event a patient worsens clinically and requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, providing quality supportive care is essential to the overall management of patients with critical COVID-19. Patients with respiratory failure not requiring intubation should be supported with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, or high flow oxygenation. Use of these respiratory modalities may prevent patients from subsequently requiring intubation. Basic components of supportive care for the critically ill should be applied equally to patients with COVID-19 in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units
6.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(10): e223820, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094112

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint describes how the systems for delivering emergency care for Indigenous and rural communities were strained during the COVID-19 pandemic and proposes policy solutions to advance health care equity.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Health Services, Indigenous , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Health Inequities
7.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276509, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE(S): To use machine learning (ML) to predict short-term requirements for invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19 admitted to Australian intensive care units (ICUs). DESIGN: A machine learning study within a national ICU COVID-19 registry in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients who were spontaneously breathing and admitted to participating ICUs with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 20 February 2020 to 7 March 2021. Patients intubated on day one of their ICU admission were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six machine learning models predicted the requirement for invasive ventilation by day three of ICU admission from variables recorded on the first calendar day of ICU admission; (1) random forest classifier (RF), (2) decision tree classifier (DT), (3) logistic regression (LR), (4) K neighbours classifier (KNN), (5) support vector machine (SVM), and (6) gradient boosted machine (GBM). Cross-validation was used to assess the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of machine learning models. RESULTS: 300 ICU admissions collected from 53 ICUs across Australia were included. The median [IQR] age of patients was 59 [50-69] years, 109 (36%) were female and 60 (20%) required invasive ventilation on day two or three. Random forest and Gradient boosted machine were the best performing algorithms, achieving mean (SD) AUCs of 0.69 (0.06) and 0.68 (0.07), and mean sensitivities of 77 (19%) and 81 (17%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Machine learning can be used to predict subsequent ventilation in patients with COVID-19 who were spontaneously breathing and admitted to Australian ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Australia/epidemiology , Machine Learning
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2238871, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084948

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the association of COVID-19 vaccination with intensive care unit (ICU) admission and outcomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia are scarce. Objective: To evaluate whether COVID-19 vaccination is associated with preventing ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia and to compare baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study on regional data sets reports: (1) daily number of administered vaccines and (2) data of all consecutive patients admitted to an ICU in Lombardy, Italy, from August 1 to December 15, 2021 (Delta variant predominant). Vaccinated patients received either mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) or adenoviral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1-S or Ad26.COV2). Incident rate ratios (IRRs) were computed from August 1, 2021, to January 31, 2022; ICU and baseline characteristics and outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to an ICU were analyzed from August 1 to December 15, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination status (no vaccination, mRNA vaccine, adenoviral vector vaccine). Main Outcomes and Measures: The incidence IRR of ICU admission was evaluated, comparing vaccinated people with unvaccinated, adjusted for age and sex. The baseline characteristics at ICU admission of vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were investigated. The association between vaccination status at ICU admission and mortality at ICU and hospital discharge were also studied, adjusting for possible confounders. Results: Among the 10 107 674 inhabitants of Lombardy, Italy, at the time of this study, the median [IQR] age was 48 [28-64] years and 5 154 914 (51.0%) were female. Of the 7 863 417 individuals who were vaccinated (median [IQR] age: 53 [33-68] years; 4 010 343 [51.4%] female), 6 251 417 (79.5%) received an mRNA vaccine, 550 439 (7.0%) received an adenoviral vector vaccine, and 1 061 561 (13.5%) received a mix of vaccines and 4 497 875 (57.2%) were boosted. Compared with unvaccinated people, IRR of individuals who received an mRNA vaccine within 120 days from the last dose was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.03-0.04; P < .001), whereas IRR of individuals who received an adenoviral vector vaccine after 120 days was 0.21 (95% CI, 0.19-0.24; P < .001). There were 553 patients admitted to an ICU for COVID-19 pneumonia during the study period: 139 patients (25.1%) were vaccinated and 414 (74.9%) were unvaccinated. Compared with unvaccinated patients, vaccinated patients were older (median [IQR]: 72 [66-76] vs 60 [51-69] years; P < .001), primarily male individuals (110 patients [79.1%] vs 252 patients [60.9%]; P < .001), with more comorbidities (median [IQR]: 2 [1-3] vs 0 [0-1] comorbidities; P < .001) and had higher ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) and fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) at ICU admission (median [IQR]: 138 [100-180] vs 120 [90-158] mm Hg; P = .007). Factors associated with ICU and hospital mortality were higher age, premorbid heart disease, lower Pao2/FiO2 at ICU admission, and female sex (this factor only for ICU mortality). ICU and hospital mortality were similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, mRNA and adenoviral vector vaccines were associated with significantly lower risk of ICU admission for COVID-19 pneumonia. ICU and hospital mortality were not associated with vaccinated status. These findings suggest a substantial reduction of the risk of developing COVID-19-related severe acute respiratory failure requiring ICU admission among vaccinated people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Oxygen
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17423, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077097

ABSTRACT

Acute brain injuries such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic stroke have been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients as well as in patients treated with veno-venous (VV)-ECMO independently of their COVID-19 status. The purpose of this study was to compare critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without VV-ECMO treatment with regard to acute neurological symptoms, pathological neuroimaging findings (PNIF) and long-term deficits. The single center study was conducted in critically ill COVID-19 patients between February 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were extracted from the hospital's databases. Retrospective imaging modalities included head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Follow-up MRI and neurological examinations were performed on survivors > 6 months after the primary occurrence. Of the 440 patients, 67 patients received VV-ECMO treatment (15%). Sixty-four patients (24 with VV-ECMO) developed acute neurological symptoms (pathological levels of arousal/brain stem function/motor responses) during their ICU stay and underwent neuroimaging with brain CT as the primary modality. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who received VV-ECMO treatment had a significantly lower survival during their hospital stay compared to those without (p < 0.001). Among patients treated with VV-ECMO, 10% showed acute PNIF in one of the imaging modalities during their ICU stay (vs. 4% of patients in the overall COVID-19 ICU cohort). Furthermore, 9% showed primary or secondary ICH of any severity (vs. 3% overall), 6% exhibited severe ICH (vs. 1% overall) and 1.5% were found to have non-hemorrhagic cerebral infarctions (vs. < 1% overall). There was a weak, positive correlation between patients treated with VV-ECMO and the development of acute neurological symptoms. However, the association between the VV-ECMO treatment and acute PNIF was negligible. Two survivors (one with VV-ECMO-treatment/one without) showed innumerable microhemorrhages, predominantly involving the juxtacortical white matter. None of the survivors exhibited diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Every seventh COVID-19 patient developed acute neurological symptoms during their ICU stay, but only every twenty-fifth patient had PNIF which were mostly ICH. VV-ECMO was found to be a weak risk factor for neurological complications (resulting in a higher imaging rate), but not for PNIF. Although logistically complex, repeated neuroimaging should, thus, be considered in all critically ill COVID-19 patients since ICH may have an impact on the treatment decisions and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Neuroimaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology
10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 308, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064835

ABSTRACT

The 40-year-old experience with glucocorticosteroids (GCs) in the context of severe infections is complex and troublesome. Recently, however, a clear indication for GCs in severe COVID-19 has been established. This may constitute a harbinger of a wider use of GCs in critical illnesses. A fundamental prerequisite of such an action is a better understanding of the heterogeneity of critical illness and GCs operationalization within the precision medicine approach. In this perspective, we formulate ten major questions regarding the use of GCs in critical illness. Answering them will likely facilitate a new era of effective and personalized GCs use in modern critical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans
11.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 667-673, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063070

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute surge events result in health capacity strain, which can result in deviations from normal care, activation of contingencies and decisions related to resource allocation. This review discusses the impact of health capacity strain on patient centered outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: This manuscript discusses the lack of validated metrics for ICU strain capacity and a need for understanding the complex interrelationships of strain with patient outcomes. Recent work through the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has shown that acute surge events are associated with significant increase in hospital mortality. Though causal data on the differential impact of surge actions and resource availability on patient outcomes remains limited the overall signal consistently highlights the link between ICU strain and critical care outcomes in both normal and surge conditions. SUMMARY: An understanding of ICU strain is fundamental to the appropriate clinical care for critically ill patients. Accounting for stain on outcomes in critically ill patients allows for minimization of variation in care and an ability of a given healthcare system to provide equitable, and quality care even in surge scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality
12.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(5): 566-571, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize improvements and innovations in healthcare delivery which could be implemented to improve the recovery experience after critical illness for adult survivors and their families. RECENT FINDINGS: For survivors of critical illness, the transitions in care during their recovery journey are points of heightened vulnerability associated with adverse events. Survivors of critical illness often have errors in the management of their medications during the recovery period. A multicomponent intervention delivered for 30 days that focused on four key principles of improved recovery care after sepsis care was associated with a durable effect on 12-month rehospitalization and mortality compared with usual care. A recent multicentre study which piloted integrating health and social care for critical care survivors demonstrated improvements in health-related quality of life and self-efficacy at 12 months. Multiple qualitative studies provide insights into how peer support programmes could potentially benefit survivors of critical illness by providing them mechanism to share their experiences, to give back to other patients, and to set more realistic expectations for recovery. SUMMARY: Future research could focus on exploring safety outcomes as primary endpoints and finding ways to develop and test implementation strategies to improve the recovery after critical illness.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Quality of Life , Adult , Critical Illness/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Survivors
13.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 159(7): 321-326, 2022 10 14.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061649

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Postintensive care syndrome (PICS) is the physical, cognitive or psychiatric deterioration that appears after a critical illness and persists beyond hospital admission. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of PICS in the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit of the Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia. PATIENTS: They benefited from a standardized assessment, addressing health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D-3L), a physical status (6 MWT, «test up and go¼ and hand dynamometer), a nutritional assessment (MUST and the Global Subjective Assessment), cognitive impairment (MoCA), mental health disorders (HADS and Davidson Trauma Scale) and pain (visual analogue scale and DN4). RESULTS: From March to June 2020, 59 patients with SARS-CoV-2 were admitted to our ICU. 29 of these were recruited for the study. The stay in the ICU and the mechanical ventilation time were long (24 days [IQR 12-36], and 18 days [IQR 7-31] respectively). The SOFA upon admission to the ICU was high (3 [IQR 3-5]). Tracheostomy was performed in 52% and pronation in 93%. 90% had some abnormal test. 20% had post-traumatic stress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: We found that 9 out of 10 survivors of SARS-CoV-2 admitted had at least one PICS alteration at 4-6 weeks from discharge from the Hospital. Six out of 19 patients presented with two or more affected evaluated areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Chest Med ; 43(3): 551-561, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060493

ABSTRACT

Improvements in critical care medicine have led to a marked increase in survivors of the intensive care unit (ICU). These survivors encounter many difficulties following ICU discharge. The term post -intensive care syndrome (PICS) provides a framework for identifying the most common symptoms which fall into three domains: cognitive, physical, and mental health. There are numerous risk factors for the development of PICS including premorbid conditions and specific elements of ICU hospitalizations. Management is complex and should take an individualized approach with interdisciplinary care. Future research should focus on prevention, identification, and treatment of this unique population.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Survivorship , Critical Care , Critical Illness/psychology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units
15.
Crit Care Clin ; 38(4): 639-656, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060489

ABSTRACT

Critical illness is a state of ill health with vital organ dysfunction, a high risk of imminent death if care is not provided, and the potential for reversibility. An estimated 45 million adults become critically ill each year. While some are treated in emergency departments or intensive care units, most are cared for in general hospital wards. We outline a priority for health systems globally: the first-tier care that all critically ill patients should receive in all parts of all hospitals: Essential Emergency and Critical Care. We describe its relation to other specialties and care and opportunities for implementation.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Critical Illness , Adult , Critical Illness/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Intensive Care Units
16.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(10): 1248-1259, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, restricted visitation policies were enacted at acute care facilities to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and conserve personal protective equipment. In this study, we aimed to describe the impact of restricted visitation policies on critically ill patients, families, critical care clinicians, and decision-makers; highlight the challenges faced in translating these policies into practice; and delineate strategies to mitigate their effects. METHOD: A qualitative description design was used. We conducted semistructured interviews with critically ill adult patients and their family members, critical care clinicians, and decision-makers (i.e., policy makers or enforcers) affected by restricted visitation policies. We transcribed semistructured interviews verbatim and analyzed the transcripts using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three patients, eight family members, 30 clinicians (13 physicians, 17 nurses from 23 Canadian intensive care units [ICUs]), and three decision-makers participated in interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify five themes: 1) acceptance of restricted visitation (e.g., accepting with concerns); 2) impact of restricted visitation (e.g., ethical challenges, moral distress, patients dying alone, intensified workload); 3) trust in the healthcare system during the pandemic (e.g., mistrust of clinical team); 4) modes of communication (e.g., communication using virtual platforms); and 5) impact of policy implementation on clinical practice (e.g., frequent changes and inconsistent implementation). CONCLUSIONS: Restricted visitation policies across ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected critically ill patients and their families, critical care clinicians, and decision-makers.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Au cours de la première vague de la pandémie de COVID-19, des politiques de visite restreintes ont été adoptées dans les établissements de soins aigus afin de réduire la propagation de la COVID-19 et d'économiser les équipements de protection individuelle. Dans cette étude, nous avons cherché à décrire l'impact des politiques de visite restreintes sur les patients gravement malades, les familles, les intensivistes et les décideurs, ainsi qu'à souligner les difficultés rencontrées dans la mise en pratique de ces politiques et à définir des stratégies pour en atténuer les effets. MéTHODE: Une méthodologie de description qualitative a été utilisée. Nous avons mené des entretiens semi-structurés avec des patients adultes gravement malades et les membres de leur famille, les intensivistes et les décideurs (c.-à-d. les stratèges ou les responsables de l'application de la loi) touchés par les politiques de visite restreintes. Nous avons transcrit textuellement les entretiens semi-structurés et analysé les transcriptions à l'aide d'une analyse thématique inductive. RéSULTATS: Trois patients, huit membres de leur famille, 30 cliniciens (13 médecins, 17 infirmières de 23 unités de soins intensifs canadiennes) et trois décideurs ont participé à ces entrevues. L'analyse thématique a été utilisée pour identifier cinq thèmes : 1) l'acceptation des visites restreintes (p. ex., accepter avec des préoccupations); 2) l'impact des visites restreintes (p. ex., défis éthiques, détresse morale, patients mourant seuls, charge de travail accrue); 3) la confiance dans le système de santé pendant la pandémie (p. ex., méfiance à l'égard de l'équipe clinique); 4) les modes de communication (p. ex., communication à l'aide de plateformes virtuelles); et 5) l'incidence de la mise en œuvre des politiques sur la pratique clinique (p. ex., changements fréquents et mise en œuvre incohérente). CONCLUSION: Les politiques de visite restreintes dans les unités de soins intensifs pendant la pandémie de COVID-19 ont eu un impact négatif sur les patients gravement malades et leurs familles, les intensivistes et les décideurs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Adult , Canada , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Decision Making , Family , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Qualitative Research
17.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 304, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is used as rescue therapy in patients with refractory hypoxemia due to severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) despite the recommendation against the use of this treatment. To date, the effect of iNO on the clinical outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS remains arguable. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the use of iNO in critically ill COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included critically ill adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 treated from March 01, 2020, until July 31, 2021. Eligible patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS were subsequently categorized into two groups based on inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) use throughout their ICU stay. The primary endpoint was the improvement in oxygenation parameters 24 h after iNO use. Other outcomes were considered secondary. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used based on the predefined criteria. RESULTS: A total of 1598 patients were screened, and 815 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Among them, 210 patients were matched based on predefined criteria. Oxygenation parameters (PaO2, FiO2 requirement, P/F ratio, oxygenation index) were significantly improved 24 h after iNO administration within a median of six days of ICU admission. However, the risk of 30-day and in-hospital mortality were found to be similar between the two groups (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.82; p = 0.45 and HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.11; p= 0.10, respectively). On the other hand, ventilator-free days (VFDs) were significantly fewer, and  ICU and hospital LOS were significantly longer in the iNO group. In addition, patients who received iNO had higher odds of acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR (95% CI): 2.35 (1.30, 4.26), p value = 0.005) and hospital/ventilator-acquired pneumonia (OR (95% CI): 3.2 (1.76, 5.83), p value = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS, iNO rescue therapy is associated with improved oxygenation parameters but no mortality benefits. Moreover, iNO use is associated with higher odds of AKI, pneumonia, longer LOS, and fewer VFDs.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063855, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of fibrinolytic therapy has been proposed in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). During the COVID-19 pandemic, anticoagulation has received special attention due to the frequent findings of microthrombi and fibrin deposits in the lungs and other organs. Therefore, the use of fibrinolysis has been regarded as a potential rescue therapy in these patients. In this prospective meta-analysis, we plan to synthesise evidence from ongoing clinical trials and thus assess whether fibrinolytic therapy can improve the ventilation/perfusion ratio in patients with severe COVID-19-caused ARDS as compared with standard of care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol was registered in PROSPERO. All randomised controlled trials and prospective observational trials that compare fibrinolytic therapy with standard of care in adult patients with COVID-19 and define their primary or secondary outcome as improvement in oxygenation and/or gas exchange, or mortality will be considered eligible. Safety outcomes will include bleeding event rate and requirement for transfusion. Our search on 25 January 2022 identified five eligible ongoing clinical trials. A formal search of MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, CENTRAL will be performed every month to identify published results and to search for further trials that meet our eligibility criteria. DISSEMINATION: This could be the first qualitative and quantitative synthesis summarising evidence of the efficacy and safety of fibrinolytic therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19. We plan to publish our results in peer-reviewed journals. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021285281.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Fibrin , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
19.
Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1799-1808, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze functional recovery groups of critically ill COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and to identify the associated factors. DESIGN: Prospective observational multicenter study. SETTING: Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables were collected, and physical and functional status were evaluated. The Barthel index was evaluated at three time points: 15 days before hospitalization, at ICU discharge, and at hospital discharge from the ward. PATIENTS: Patients with functional independence before COVID-19 diagnosis were recruited from four hospitals and followed up until hospital discharge. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three groups of functional recovery were described for 328 patients: functional independence ( n = 144; 44%), which included patients who preserved their functional status during hospitalization; recovered functionality ( n = 109; 33.2%), which included patients who showed dependence at ICU discharge but recovered their independence by hospital discharge; and functional dependency ( n = 75; 22.8%), which included patients who were dependent at ICU discharge and had not recovered their functional status at hospital discharge. The factors associated with becoming functionally dependent at ICU discharge were time to out-of-bed patient mobilization (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.29), age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), hyperglycemia (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.56-4.07), and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (OR, 1.022; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04). Recovery to baseline independence during ward stays was associated with ICU length of stay (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) and muscle strength (Medical Research Council test) at ICU discharge (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Age, hyperglycemia, and time for patient mobilization out of bed were independent factors associated with becoming physically dependent after their ICU stay. Recovery of physical function at hospital discharge was associated with muscle strength at ICU discharge and length of ICU stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Patient Discharge , Intensive Care Units , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Length of Stay , Hospitals
20.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 98(5): 504-512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment, and predictors of an unfavorable outcome of critically ill children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: This was a prospective observational study performed in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary care COVID referral hospital among critically ill children in the age group 1 month - 12 years admitted due to SARS-CoV-2 infection from June to December 2020. Demographic, clinical profile, pSOFA and PRISM III scores, laboratory parameters, treatment, and outcomes of the patients were recorded. Children who had a prolonged PICU stay (>14 days) or died were compared with those who were discharged from PICU within 14 days to assess predictors of unfavorable outcomes. RESULTS: PICU admission rate among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected children was 22.1% (92/416). Infants comprised the majority of the ICU population. Invasive mechanical ventilation and inotropic support were required for 28.3% and 37% of patients, respectively. Remdesivir, IVIg, and steroids were administered to 15.2%, 26.1%, and 54.3% of the subjects, respectively. The mortality rate was 7.6 %. MIS-C patients were older, less comorbid, and required less ventilator support but more inotrope support than acute severe COVID-19 patients. Predictors of unfavorable outcomes were age < 1 year, fever duration > 5 days, respiratory distress, shock, comorbidity, elevated CRP (> 50 mg/L), procalcitonin (> 6 ng/L), D-dimer (> 6 µg/L) and arterial lactate (> 2 mmol/L). CONCLUSION: Critically ill children with unfavorable outcomes were predominantly infants, comorbid, prolonged fever, respiratory distress, shock and elevated inflammatory markers, D-dimer and lactate. These factors may be useful for watchful monitoring and early intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lactates , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
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