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1.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6): 671-676, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724736

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 is the biggest challenge for national health systems for a century. While most medical resources are allocated to treat COVID-19 patients, several non-COVID-19 medical emergencies still need to be treated, including vertebral fractures and spinal cord compression. The aim of this paper is to report the early experience and an organizational protocol for emergency spinal surgery currently being used in a large metropolitan area by an integrated team of orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. METHODS: An organizational model is presented based on case centralization in hub hospitals and early management of surgical cases to reduce hospital stay. Data from all the patients admitted for emergency spinal surgery from the beginning of the outbreak were prospectively collected and compared to data from patients admitted for the same reason in the same time span in the previous year, and treated by the same integrated team. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients (11 males and eight females, with a mean age of 49.9 years (14 to 83)) were admitted either for vertebral fracture or spinal cord compression in a 19-day period, compared to the ten admitted in the previous year. No COVID-19 patients were treated. The mean time between admission and surgery was 1.7 days, significantly lower than 6.8 days the previous year (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The structural organization and the management protocol we describe allowed us to reduce the time to surgery and ultimately hospital stay, thereby maximizing the already stretched medical resources available. We hope that our early experience can be of value to the medical communities that will soon be in the same emergency situation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6):671-676.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Models, Organizational , Neurosurgical Procedures , Orthopedic Procedures , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral , Spinal Cord Compression/surgery , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Efficiency, Organizational , Emergencies , Female , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1419-1427, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527442

ABSTRACT

There is currently limited information on clinical severity phenotypes of symptoms and functional disability in post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) Syndrome (PCS). A purposive sample of 370 PCS patients from a dedicated community COVID-19 rehabilitation service was assessed using the COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale where each symptom or functional difficulty was scored on a 0-10 Likert scale and also compared with before infection. Phenotypes based on symptom severity were extracted to identify any noticeable patterns. The correlation between symptom severity, functional disability, and overall health was explored. The mean age was 47 years, with 237 (64%) females. The median duration of symptoms was 211 days (interquartile range 143-353). Symptoms and functional difficulties increased substantially when compared to before infection. Three distinct severity phenotypes of mild (n = 90), moderate (n = 186), and severe (n = 94) were identified where the severity of individual symptoms was of similar severity within each phenotype. Symptom scores were strongly positively correlated with functional difficulty scores (0.7, 0.6-0.7) and moderately negatively correlated with overall health (-0.4, -0.3, to -0.5). This is the first study reporting on severity phenotypes in a largely nonhospitalized PCS cohort. Severity phenotypes might help stratify patients for targeted interventions and planning of care pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Community Health Services/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(5): 1250-1261, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219872

ABSTRACT

The administration of spike monoclonal antibody treatment to patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 is very challenging. This article summarizes essential components and processes in establishing an effective spike monoclonal antibody infusion program. Rapid identification of a dedicated physical infrastructure was essential to circumvent the logistical challenges of caring for infectious patients while maintaining compliance with regulations and ensuring the safety of our personnel and other patients. Our partnerships and collaborations among multiple different specialties and disciplines enabled contributions from personnel with specific expertise in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, infection prevention and control, electronic health record (EHR) informatics, compliance, legal, medical ethics, engineering, administration, and other critical areas. Clear communication and a culture in which all roles are welcomed at the planning and operational tables are critical to the rapid development and refinement needed to adapt and thrive in providing this time-sensitive beneficial therapy. Our partnerships with leaders and providers outside our institutions, including those who care for underserved populations, have promoted equity in the access of monoclonal antibodies in our regions. Strong support from institutional leadership facilitated expedited action when needed, from a physical, personnel, and system infrastructure standpoint. Our ongoing real-time assessment and monitoring of our clinical program allowed us to improve and optimize our processes to ensure that the needs of our patients with COVID-19 in the outpatient setting are met.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Home Infusion Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Efficiency, Organizational , Home Infusion Therapy/methods , Home Infusion Therapy/standards , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Organizational Culture , Program Development/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States/epidemiology
7.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 55, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom included large scale changes to healthcare delivery, without fully understanding the potential for unexpected effects caused by these changes. The aim was "to ascertain the characteristics of patients, uncertainty over diagnosis, or features of the emergency response to the pandemic that could be modified to mitigate against future excess deaths". METHODS: Review of the entire pathway of care of patients whose death was registered in Salford during the 8 week period of the first wave (primary care, secondary care, 111 and 999 calls) in order to create a single record of healthcare prior to death. An expert panel judged avoidability of death against the National Mortality Case Record Review Programme scale. The panel identified themes using a structured judgement review format. RESULTS: There were 522 deaths including 197 in hospital, and 190 in care homes. 51% of patients were female, 81% Caucasian, age 79 ± 9 years. Dementia was present in 35%, COVID-19 was cause of death in 44%. Healthcare contact prior to death was most frequently with primary care (81% of patients). Forty-six patients (9%) had healthcare appointments cancelled (median 1 cancellation, range 1-9). Fewer than half of NHS 111 calls were answered during this period. 18% of deaths contained themes consistent with some degree of avoidability. In people aged ≥75 years who lived at home this was 53%, in care home residents 29% and in patients with learning disability 44% (n = 9). Common themes were; delays in patients presenting to care providers (10%), delays in testing (17%), avoidable exposure to COVID-19 (26%), delays in provider response (5%), and sub-optimal care (11%). For avoidability scores of 2 or 3 (indicating more than 50% chance of avoidability), 44% of cases had > 2 themes. CONCLUSIONS: The initial emergency response had unforeseen consequences resulting in late presentation, sub-optimal assessments, and delays in receiving care. Death in more vulnerable groups was more likely to display avoidability themes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Responders/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 310, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Induction of labour (IOL) is one of the most commonly performed interventions in maternity care, with outpatient cervical ripening increasingly offered as an option for women undergoing IOL. The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the context of practice and the option of returning home for cervical ripening may now assume greater significance. This work aimed to examine whether and how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed practice around IOL in the UK. METHOD: We used an online questionnaire to survey senior obstetricians and midwives at all 156 UK NHS Trusts and Boards that currently offer maternity services. Responses were analysed to produce descriptive statistics, with free text responses analysed using a conventional content analysis approach. FINDINGS: Responses were received from 92 of 156 UK Trusts and Boards, a 59% response rate. Many Trusts and Boards reported no change to their IOL practice, however 23% reported change in methods used for cervical ripening; 28% a change in criteria for home cervical ripening; 28% stated that more women were returning home during cervical ripening; and 24% noted changes to women's response to recommendations for IOL. Much of the change was reported as happening in response to attempts to minimise hospital attendance and restrictions on birth partners accompanying women. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has changed practice around induction of labour, although this varied significantly between NHS Trusts and Boards. There is a lack of formal evidence to support decision-making around outpatient cervical ripening: the basis on which changes were implemented and what evidence was used to inform decisions is not clear.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Cervical Ripening , Critical Pathways , Labor, Induced , Adult , Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Labor, Induced/methods , Labor, Induced/trends , Maternal Health Services/trends , Organizational Innovation , Policy Making , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25495, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180673

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: While the new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly spread across the world, South America was reached later in relation to Asia, Europe and the United States of America (USA). Brazil concentrates now the largest number of cases in the continent and, as the disease speedily progressed throughout the country, prompt and challenging operational strategies had to be taken by institutions caring for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients in order to assure optimal workflows, triage, and management. Although hospitals in the USA, Europe and Asia have shared their experience on this subject, little has been discussed about such strategies in South America or by the perspective of outpatient centers, which are paramount in the radiology field. This article shares the guidelines adopted early in the pandemic by a nationwide outpatient healthcare center composed by a network of more than 200 patient service centers and nearly 2,000 radiologists in Brazil, discussing operational and patient management strategies, staff protection, changes adopted in the fellowship program, and the effectiveness of such measures.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Change Management , Civil Defense , Critical Pathways , Strategic Planning , Technology, Radiologic , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Civil Defense/statistics & numerical data , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , Organizational Innovation , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Strategic Planning/standards , Strategic Planning/statistics & numerical data , Technology, Radiologic/methods , Technology, Radiologic/organization & administration , Technology, Radiologic/statistics & numerical data
13.
Anesth Analg ; 132(1): 31-37, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Care of the pregnant patient during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic presents many challenges, including creating parallel workflows for infected and noninfected patients, minimizing waste of materials, and ensuring that clinicians can seamlessly transition between types of anesthesia. The exponential community spread of disease limited the time for development and training. METHODS: The goals of our workflow and process development were to maximize safety for staff and patients, minimize the risk of contamination, and reduce the waste of unused supplies and materials. We used a cyclical improvement system and the plus/delta debriefing method to rapidly develop workflows consisting of sequential checklists and procedure-specific packs. RESULTS: We designed independent workflows for labor analgesia, neuraxial anesthesia for cesarean delivery, conversion of labor analgesia to cesarean anesthesia, and general anesthesia. In addition, we created procedure-specific material packs to optimize supplies and prevent wastage. Finally, we generated sequential checklists to allow staff to perform standard operating procedures without extensive training. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these workflows and tools allowed our staff to urgently care for patients in high-risk situations without prior experience. Over time, we refined the workflows using a cyclical improvement system. We present our checklists and workflows as well as the system we used for their development, so that others may use them to their benefit.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Anesthesia, Obstetrical , COVID-19/prevention & control , Checklist , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Workflow , COVID-19/transmission , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Quality Improvement/organization & administration , Quality Indicators, Health Care/organization & administration
15.
Heart ; 107(9): 734-740, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are concerns that healthcare and outcomes of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) communities are disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated admission rates, treatment and mortality of BAME with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during COVID-19. METHODS: Using multisource national healthcare records, patients hospitalised with AMI in England during 1 February-27 May 2020 were included in the COVID-19 group, whereas patients admitted during the same period in the previous three consecutive years were included in a pre-COVID-19 group. Multilevel hierarchical regression analyses were used to quantify the changes in-hospital and 7-day mortality in BAME compared with whites. RESULTS: Of 73 746 patients, higher proportions of BAME patients (16.7% vs 10.1%) were hospitalised with AMI during the COVID-19 period compared with pre-COVID-19. BAME patients admitted during the COVID-19 period were younger, male and likely to present with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. COVID-19 BAME group admitted with non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction less frequently received coronary angiography (86.1% vs 90.0%, p<0.001) and had a longer median delay to reperfusion (4.1 hours vs 3.7 hours, p<0.001) compared with whites. BAME had higher in-hospital (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.28) and 7-day mortality (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.31 to 2.19) during COVID-19 compared with pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: In this multisource linked cohort study, compared with whites, BAME patients had proportionally higher hospitalisation rates with AMI, less frequently received guidelines indicated care and had higher early mortality during COVID-19 period compared with pre-COVID-19 period. There is a need to develop clinical pathways to achieve equity in the management of these vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Healthcare Disparities , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/standards , England/epidemiology , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Healthcare Disparities/standards , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/ethnology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/ethnology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
18.
Elife ; 102021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084995

ABSTRACT

Before the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was among the top priorities for global public health. Already a complex challenge, AMR now needs to be addressed in a changing healthcare landscape. Here, we analyse how changes due to COVID-19 in terms of antimicrobial usage, infection prevention, and health systems affect the emergence, transmission, and burden of AMR. Increased hand hygiene, decreased international travel, and decreased elective hospital procedures may reduce AMR pathogen selection and spread in the short term. However, the opposite effects may be seen if antibiotics are more widely used as standard healthcare pathways break down. Over 6 months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the dynamics of AMR remain uncertain. We call for the AMR community to keep a global perspective while designing finely tuned surveillance and research to continue to improve our preparedness and response to these intersecting public health challenges.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Global Health/trends , Anti-Bacterial Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Perioper Pract ; 31(4): 159-162, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067157

ABSTRACT

On 20 August 2020, Public Health England released a new version of the 'COVID-19: Guidance for the remobilisation of services within health and care settings: infection prevention and control recommendations', superseding that of 18 June 2020. In this document, the infection prevention and control principles determine that the treatment, care and support of patients are to be managed in three COVID-19 pathways. These are: 'high risk', 'medium risk' and 'low risk'. In the operating theatre, where procedures may be urgent or planned, and where various surgical and anaesthetic procedures generate airborne particles (aerosols), it is crucial to communicate the infection prevention and control recommendations in a way that is easily understood and followed by all healthcare professionals. The theatre team at one hospital in the East of England produced local alternating signage to communicate the COVID-19 pathway risk during cases in theatres. This signage - named the 'COVID-19 Flag' - is placed outside of the individual theatre to ensure that staff are informed of the infection risk with the cases underway. Furthermore, it is a quick visual guide to be used in conjunction with national guidance and local protocols for appropriate decisions regarding the treatment and care of patients in the operating theatres.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Communication , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Surgical Wound Infection/nursing , England , Humans , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
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