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1.
Sci Immunol ; 7(68): eabf2846, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685480

ABSTRACT

Macrophages regulate protective immune responses to infectious microbes, but aberrant macrophage activation frequently drives pathological inflammation. To identify regulators of vigorous macrophage activation, we analyzed RNA-seq data from synovial macrophages and identified SLAMF7 as a receptor associated with a superactivated macrophage state in rheumatoid arthritis. We implicated IFN-γ as a key regulator of SLAMF7 expression and engaging SLAMF7 drove a strong wave of inflammatory cytokine expression. Induction of TNF-α after SLAMF7 engagement amplified inflammation through an autocrine signaling loop. We observed SLAMF7-induced gene programs not only in macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients but also in gut macrophages from patients with active Crohn's disease and in lung macrophages from patients with severe COVID-19. This suggests a central role for SLAMF7 in macrophage superactivation with broad implications in human disease pathology.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/immunology , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chronic Disease , Crohn Disease/genetics , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Macrophage Activation/genetics , RNA-Seq/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/genetics , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Synovial Membrane/immunology , Synovial Membrane/metabolism , Synovial Membrane/pathology , Transcriptome/genetics
2.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575253
3.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481024

ABSTRACT

Vaccines to prevent the impact of SARS-CoV-2 are now available, including for patients with autoimmune diseases. However, there is no information about how inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment could impact the cellular and humoral immune responses. This study evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses after vaccination with a two-dose schedule in a Crohn's disease patient treated with Infliximab (10 mg/kg); we included comparisons with a monozygotic twin. The results showed that the Crohn's disease's twin (twin 2) had no antibody detection and reduced activation of CD4+ T cell responses, unlike the twin without the autoimmune disease (twin 1). Twin 2 developed antigen-specific central memory CD8+ T-cells and IFNγ production after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccination, similar to twin 1. These findings elucidated the role of T-cell immunity after COVID-19 immunization on IBD patients despite the lack of antibody production. Finally, our observation supports the consensus recommendation for IBD patients to receive COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Twins, Monozygotic
4.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(12): 1539-1545, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260397

ABSTRACT

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently requires administration of immunosuppressive therapies, which increases susceptibility to a number of infectious pathogens. However, many infections can be prevented by correct and appropriate utilization of vaccinations. While several guidelines have been published on vaccination schedules in patients with IBD, vaccination rates remain suboptimal and even lower than those in the general population. This is due to many factors including poor awareness of the importance of vaccines by gastroenterologists and general practitioners as well as potential prejudices of patients regarding the safety and benefits of vaccines. With the aim of increasing awareness about the key role of immunization in the management of patients with IBD, the present review examines the existing literature relating to the main vaccinations and their application in these patients. We also summarize current evidence in order to provide clinicians with an easy source of reference for the principal recommendations for prevention of infectious diseases in patients with IBD. In addition, the recommendations about traveling for IBD patients are briefly explored. Lastly, since it is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of recommendations on vaccination, we recommend implementing educational programs to ensure compliance with current guidelines.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gastroenterology/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 64, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive and anti-cytokine treatment may have a protective effect for patients with COVID-19. Understanding the immune cell states shared between COVID-19 and other inflammatory diseases with established therapies may help nominate immunomodulatory therapies. METHODS: To identify cellular phenotypes that may be shared across tissues affected by disparate inflammatory diseases, we developed a meta-analysis and integration pipeline that models and removes the effects of technology, tissue of origin, and donor that confound cell-type identification. Using this approach, we integrated > 300,000 single-cell transcriptomic profiles from COVID-19-affected lungs and tissues from healthy subjects and patients with five inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and interstitial lung disease. We tested the association of shared immune states with severe/inflamed status compared to healthy control using mixed-effects modeling. To define environmental factors within these tissues that shape shared macrophage phenotypes, we stimulated human blood-derived macrophages with defined combinations of inflammatory factors, emphasizing in particular antiviral interferons IFN-beta (IFN-ß) and IFN-gamma (IFN-γ), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF. RESULTS: We built an immune cell reference consisting of > 300,000 single-cell profiles from 125 healthy or disease-affected donors from COVID-19 and five inflammatory diseases. We observed a CXCL10+ CCL2+ inflammatory macrophage state that is shared and strikingly abundant in severe COVID-19 bronchoalveolar lavage samples, inflamed RA synovium, inflamed CD ileum, and UC colon. These cells exhibited a distinct arrangement of pro-inflammatory and interferon response genes, including elevated levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, CCL2, CCL3, GBP1, STAT1, and IL1B. Further, we found this macrophage phenotype is induced upon co-stimulation by IFN-γ and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Our integrative analysis identified immune cell states shared across inflamed tissues affected by inflammatory diseases and COVID-19. Our study supports a key role for IFN-γ together with TNF-α in driving an abundant inflammatory macrophage phenotype in severe COVID-19-affected lungs, as well as inflamed RA synovium, CD ileum, and UC colon, which may be targeted by existing immunomodulatory therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colon/immunology , Crohn Disease/genetics , Crohn Disease/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Phenotype , RNA-Seq
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146828

ABSTRACT

Active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), combined immunosuppression and corticosteroid therapy have all been identified as risk factors for a poor outcome in COVID-19 infection. The management of patients with both COVID-19 infection and active IBD is therefore complex. We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with Crohn's disease, on dual immunosuppression with infliximab and mercaptopurine presenting with inflammatory small bowel obstruction and COVID-19 infection. The case highlights the use of nutritional therapy, which remains underused in the management of adults with IBD, to manage his flare acutely. Following negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing and SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing confirming an antibody response, ustekinumab (anti-interleukin 12/23) was prescribed for long-term maintenance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Immunocompromised Host , Adult , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-23/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Ustekinumab/therapeutic use
8.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 443-447, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057900

ABSTRACT

The course of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) might be determined by certain comorbidities (e.g. diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases) and advanced age. Because the impact of immunosuppression on disease severity is not entirely clear, management of patients under immunosuppressive treatment remains controversial. Six cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with COVID-19 on immunosuppressive medication are presented. The aim of this study was to describe patients' clinical manifestation and chronologic development of virus-specific antibodies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection before and after restart with immunosuppressive/biological therapy as an indicator for a specific immune response. All patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-RNA with PCR, were in clinical remission prior to COVID-19 and only one patient continued his immunosuppressive treatment during the COVID-19 infection. Initial symptoms of COVID-19 were pyrexia, diarrhea, cephalea, and dysgeusia and anosmia. No patient needed admission to hospital or ICU. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody development was described to be late in three of the six patients. Late antibody development seems to be more frequent in older patients and in patients with combined immunosuppressive treatment. In this scenario, SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing could be useful prior to restarting immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/immunology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(12): 4191-4196, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID19 evolved rapidly into a global pandemic, forcing hospitals, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) referral units, to change their practices to ensure quality of care. AIMS: To describe the clinical outcomes and the fulfilment of the treatment schedule of patients with IBD treated with biological agents in a single-center of a red-zone of the pandemic, and to report the patients' perceptions about COVID-19 and the measures adopted at our center. METHODS: Therapeutic adherence and clinical outcomes were collected for all patients undergoing treatment with intravenous biologicals and subcutaneous biologicals at our center. A telephone survey was also performed to assess these patients' perceptions of the COVID pandemic and the related measures adopted at their IBD unit. RESULTS: A total of 234 patients were included (117 on intravenous and 117 on subcutaneous biologicals). Only 10% of patients postponed intravenous infusions intentionally and 5% postponed the collection of subcutaneous biologicals at the hospital pharmacy. Only five confirmed COVID-19 cases were registered (2.1%), all of them of mild severity. One hundred and fifty-five patients participated in the survey (77 on intravenous and 78 on subcutaneous drugs). Fear of going to the hospital was the most common reason for postponing biological administrations. Among those on combination therapy, only 7% admitted to have withdrawn immunosuppressants. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to intravenous and subcutaneous biological therapies during the pandemic was high in a single-center cohort of IBD patients even though the cumulative incidence of confirmed COVID-19 was low.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Medication Adherence , Biological Products/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Crohn Disease/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fear , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 809-822.e7, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The host receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is highly expressed in small bowel (SB). Our aim was to identify factors influencing intestinal ACE2 expression in Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) controls. METHODS: Using bulk RNA sequencing or microarray transcriptomics from tissue samples (4 SB and 2 colonic cohorts; n = 495; n = 387 UC; n = 94 non-IBD), we analyzed the relationship between ACE2 with demographics and disease activity and prognosis. We examined the outcome of anti-tumor necrosis factor and anti-interleukin-12/interleukin-23 treatment on SB and colonic ACE2 expression in 3 clinical trials. Univariate and multivariate regression models were fitted. RESULTS: ACE2 levels were consistently reduced in SB CD and elevated in colonic UC compared with non-IBD controls. Elevated SB ACE2 was also associated with demographic features (age and elevated body mass index) associated with poor coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes. Within CD, SB ACE2 was reduced in patients subsequently developing complicated disease. Within UC, colonic ACE2 was elevated in active disease and in patients subsequently requiring anti-tumor necrosis factor rescue therapy. SB and colonic ACE2 expression in active CD and UC were restored by anti-cytokine therapy, most notably in responders. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced SB but elevated colonic ACE2 levels in IBD are associated with inflammation and severe disease, but normalized after anti-cytokine therapy, suggesting compartmentalization of ACE2-related biology in SB and colonic inflammation. The restoration of ACE2 expression with anti-cytokine therapy might be important in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and potentially explain reports of reduced morbidity from coronavirus disease 2019 in IBD patients treated with anti-cytokines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Intestines/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Colitis, Ulcerative/enzymology , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/enzymology , Crohn Disease/genetics , Crohn Disease/immunology , Databases, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Intestines/enzymology , Intestines/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , North America , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Young Adult
12.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977281
13.
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(3): 485-498, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] are considered immunosuppressed, but do not seem more vulnerable for COVID-19. Nevertheless, intestinal inflammation has shown to be an important risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the role of intestinal inflammation on the viral intestinal entry mechanisms, including ACE2, in IBD. METHODS: We collected inflamed and uninflamed mucosal biopsies from Crohn's disease [CD] [n = 193] and ulcerative colitis [UC] [n = 158] patients, and from 51 matched non-IBD controls for RNA sequencing, differential gene expression, and co-expression analysis. Organoids from UC patients were subjected to an inflammatory mix and processed for RNA sequencing. Transmural ileal biopsies were processed for single-cell [sc] sequencing. Publicly available colonic sc-RNA sequencing data, and microarrays from tissue pre/post anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] therapy, were analysed. RESULTS: In inflamed CD ileum, ACE2 was significantly decreased compared with control ileum [p = 4.6E-07], whereas colonic ACE2 was higher in inflamed colon of CD/UC compared with control [p = 8.3E-03; p = 1.9E-03]. Sc-RNA sequencing confirmed this ACE2 dysregulation and exclusive epithelial ACE2 expression. Network analyses highlighted HNF4A as key regulator of ileal ACE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferon regulating factors regulated colonic ACE2. Inflammatory stimuli upregulated ACE2 in UC organoids [p = 1.7E-02], but not in non-IBD controls [p = 9.1E-01]. Anti-TNF therapy restored colonic ACE2 regulation in responders. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal inflammation alters SARS-CoV-2 coreceptors in the intestine, with opposing dysregulations in ileum and colon. HNF4A, an IBD susceptibility gene, seems an important upstream regulator of ACE2 in ileum, whereas interferon signalling might dominate in colon.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Crohn Disease , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 , Ileum , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/virology , Colon/immunology , Colon/pathology , Colon/virology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/pathology , Crohn Disease/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4/genetics , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4/immunology , Humans , Ileum/immunology , Ileum/pathology , Ileum/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction , Single-Cell Analysis
17.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(9): 1334-1336, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15707

ABSTRACT

Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], the main inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] in humans, are chronic, immune-inflammatory diseases, the pathogenesis of which suggests a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. These disabling conditions affect millions of individuals and, together with the drugs used to treat them, can put patients at risk of developing complications and other conditions. This is particularly relevant today, as coronavirus disease [Covid-19] has rapidly spread from China to countries where IBD are more prevalent, and there is convincing evidence that Covid-19-mediated morbidity and mortality are higher in subjects with comorbidities. The primary objectives of this Viewpoint are to provide a focused overview of the factors and mechanisms by which the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infects cells and to illustrate the link between such determinants and intestinal inflammation. We also provide clues about the reasons why the overall IBD population might have no increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlight the potential of cytokine blockers, used to treat IBD patients, to prevent Covid-driven pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Coronavirus Infections , Crohn Disease , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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