Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.261
Filter
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e186, 2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185373

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) have increased exposure and subsequent risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This case-control study was conducted to investigate the contemporaneous risks associated with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst HCWs following in-work exposure to a confirmed coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) case. We assessed the influence of demographic (age, sex, nationality, high risk co-morbidities and vaccination status) and work-related factors (job role, exposure location, contact type, personal protective equipment (PPE) use) on infection risk following nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 exposure. All contact tracing records within the hospital site during waves 1-3 of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland were screened to identify exposure events, cases and controls. In total, 285 cases and 1526 controls were enrolled, as a result of 1811 in-work exposure events with 745 index cases. We demonstrate that male sex, Eastern European nationality, exposure location, PPE use and vaccination status all impact the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection following nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 exposure. The findings draw attention to the need for continuing emphasis on PPE use and its persisting benefit in the era of COVID-19 vaccinations. We suggest that non-work-related factors may influence infection risk seen in certain ethnic groups and that infection risk in high-risk HCW roles (e.g. nursing) may be the result of repeated exposures rather than risks inherent to a single event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Male , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Ireland/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Risk Factors , Hospitals
3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(6): 687-713, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185241

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Pneumonia , Adult , Child , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects
4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(7): 834-839, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An accurate estimate of the average number of hand hygiene opportunities per patient hour (HHO rate) is required to implement group electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (GEHHMSs). We sought to identify predictors of HHOs to validate and implement a GEHHMS across a network of critical care units. DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study (10 hospitals) followed by quality improvement intervention involving 24 critical care units across 12 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Critical care patient beds were randomized to receive 1 hour of continuous direct observation to determine the HHO rate. A Poisson regression model determined unit-level predictors of HHOs. Estimates of average HHO rates across different types of critical care units were derived and used to implement and evaluate use of GEHHMS. RESULTS: During 2,812 hours of observation, we identified 25,417 HHOs. There was significant variability in HHO rate across critical care units. Time of day, day of the week, unit acuity, patient acuity, patient population and use of transmission-based precautions were significantly associated with HHO rate. Using unit-specific estimates of average HHO rate, aggregate HH adherence was 30.0% (1,084,329 of 3,614,908) at baseline with GEHHMS and improved to 38.5% (740,660 of 1,921,656) within 2 months of continuous feedback to units (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Unit-specific estimates based on known predictors of HHO rate enabled broad implementation of GEHHMS. Further longitudinal quality improvement efforts using this system are required to assess the impact of GEHHMS on both HH adherence and clinical outcomes within critically ill patient populations.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Critical Care , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Electronics , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Ontario
5.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.24.23284975

ABSTRACT

There is a demand for more comprehensive studies related to diabetes management in Indian settings covering; incidence, multimorbidity and complications in diabetes patients, clinical progression, medication, and treatment-seeking patterns. CHIPS study aims to bridge this research gap through a systematic analysis of the medical records maintained under an employees contributory health services scheme (CHSS). The CHSS based in an urban metropolitan area has 89,204 beneficiaries. The hospital information management system (HIMS) has records of lab reports, clinical summaries, prescriptions, and drugs and other medical consumables, supplied for every interaction with CHSS. Firstly, a cohort of 835 patients newly diagnosed as diabetic in the year 2011-2012 was identified from the HIMS. Their 10-year (2011-2021) medical history after getting diagnosed as a diabetic patient was elicited from the HIMS in a retrospective manner. For comparison needs another cohort of 1670 age-sex matched non-diabetic beneficiaries was created and similar 10-year medical history was created. A total of 144,511 lab records and 247,473 drug records from the HIMS for the period 2010-2012 were scrutinized to identify newly diabetic patients and their non-diabetic counterparts. The reconstructed 10-year medical history of these two groups will be used to investigate the burden of diabetes in the community, transitions from a non-diabetic and pre-diabetic to a diabetic, excess morbidity in diabetic patients, seasonal variation in glycaemic levels, association between glycaemic control and frequency of health care utilization, and COVID-19-induced temporal changes in glycaemic control.


Subject(s)
28477 , 59585 , 3942
6.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2481498.v1

ABSTRACT

Background We sought to decipher transmission pathways in healthcare-associated infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within our hospital by epidemiological work-up and complementary whole genome sequencing (WGS). We report the findings of the four largest epidemiologic clusters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurring during the second wave of the pandemic from 11/2020-12/2020.Methods At the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, systematic outbreak investigation is initiated at detection of any nosocomial case of Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), defined as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring more than five days after admission. Clusters of nosocomial infections, defined as the detection of at least two positive patients and/or healthcare workers (HCWs) within one week with an epidemiological link, were further investigated by WGS on respective strains.Results The four epidemiologic clusters included 40 patients and 60 HCWs. Sequencing data was available for 70% of all involved cases (28 patients and 42 HCWs), confirmed epidemiologically suspected in house transmission in 33 cases (47.1% of sequenced cases) and excluded transmission in the remaining 37 cases (52.9%). Among cases with identical strains, epidemiologic work-up suggested transmission mainly through a ward-based exposure (24/33, 72.7%), more commonly affecting HCWs (16/24, 66.7%) than patients (8/24, 33.3%), followed by transmission between patients (6/33, 18.2%), and among HCWs and patients (3/33, 9.1%, respectively two HCWs and one patient).Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses revealed important insights into transmission pathways supporting less than 50% of epidemiologically suspected SARS-CoV-2 transmissions. The remainder of cases most likely reflect community-acquired infection randomly detected by outbreak investigation. Notably, most transmissions occurred between HCWs, possibly indicating lower perception of the risk of infection during contacts among HCWs.


Subject(s)
28477 , 31543 , 59585 , 38065 , 386
7.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2468246.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Improved breastfeeding practices have the potential to save the lives of over 823,000 children under 5 years old globally every year. The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global campaign by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, which promotes best practice to support breastfeeding in maternity services. The Baby-Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) grew out of step 10, with a focus on community-based implementation. The aim of this scoping review is to map and examine the evidence relating to the implementation of BFHI and BFCI globally.Methods This scoping review was conducted according to the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. Inclusion criteria followed the Population, Concepts, Contexts approach. All articles were screened by two reviewers, using Covidence software. Data were charted according to: country, study design, setting, study population, BFHI steps, study aim and objectives, description of intervention, summary of results, barriers and enablers to implementation, evidence gaps, and recommendations. Qualitative and quantitative descriptive analyses were undertaken.Results A total of 279 articles were included in the review. Patterns identified were: i) national policy and health systems: effective and visible national leadership is needed, demonstrated with legislation, funding and policy; ii) hospital policy is crucial, especially in becoming breastfeeding friendly and neonatal care settings iii) implementation of specific steps; iv) the BFCI is implemented in only a few countries and government resources are needed to scale it; v) health worker breastfeeding knowledge and training needs strengthening to ensure long term changes in practice; vi) educational programmes for pregnant and post-partum women are essential for sustained exclusive breastfeeding. Evidence gaps include study design issues and need to improve the quality of breastfeeding data and to perform prevalence and longitudinal studies.Conclusion At a national level, political support for BFHI implementation supports expansion of Baby friendly hospitals. Ongoing quality assurance is essential, as is systematic (re)assessment of BFHI designated hospitals. Baby friendly hospitals should provide breastfeeding support that favours long-term healthcare relationships across the perinatal period. These results can help to support and further enable the effective implementation of BFHI and BFCI globally.


Subject(s)
28477
8.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1368-1383, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153222

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine allows the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals. It is used to increase patients' access to care and provide effective healthcare services at a distance. During the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine has thrived and emerged worldwide as an indispensable resource to improve the management of isolated patients due to lockdown or shielding, including those with hypertension. The best proposed healthcare model for telemedicine in hypertension management should include remote monitoring and transmission of vital signs (notably blood pressure) and medication adherence plus education on lifestyle and risk factors, with video consultation as an option. The use of mixed automated feedback services with supervision of a multidisciplinary clinical team (physician, nurse, or pharmacist) is the ideal approach. The indications include screening for suspected hypertension, management of older adults, medically underserved people, high-risk hypertensive patients, patients with multiple diseases, and those isolated due to pandemics or national emergencies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Italy , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Euro Surveill ; 27(18)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141535

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, a clonal outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of novel sequence type ST3875 was detected in three patients who died of bloodstream infections in one hospital. By 25 April 2022, the outbreak included 339 cases from 38 hospitals across Norway. Initial hospital reports indicate Pseudomonas infection as the main contributing cause in seven deaths. In March 2022, the outbreak strain was identified in non-sterile pre-moistened disposable washcloths, used to clean patients, from three lots from the same international manufacturer.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Pseudomonas Infections , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
10.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277816, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140665

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic becomes a cause of concern for hospital transmission. Caregivers may play an important role as vectors for nosocomial infections; however, infection control for caregivers often is neglected. A nosocomial COVID-19 outbreak occurred in a 768-bed hospital from March 20, 2020, to April 14, 2020. We conducted a retrospective chart review and epidemiologic investigation on all cases. A total of 54 cases of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in the community-based hospital. They included 26 (48.1%) patients, 21 (38.9%) caregivers, and 7 (13.0%) healthcare workers. These 21 caregivers cared for 18 patients, and of these, 9 were positive for COVID-19, 6 were negative, and 3 died before testing. Of the 6 negative patients, 3 had no exposure because the caregiver began to show symptoms at least 5 days after their discharge. Of the 9 positive patients, 4 cases of transmission took place from patient to caregiver (one patient transmitted COVID-19 to two caregivers), and 6 cases of transmission occurred from caregiver to patient. Of the 54 hospital-acquired cases, 38 occurred in the 8th-floor ward and 8 occurred in the 4th-floor ward. The index case of each ward was a caregiver. Counting the number of cases where transmission occurred only between patients and their own caregivers, 9 patients were suspected of having exposure to COVID-19 from their own caregivers. Six patients (66.7%) were infected by COVID-19-confirmed caregivers, and 3 patients were uninfected. Fewer patients among the infected were able to perform independent activities compared to uninfected patients. Not only patients and healthcare workers but also caregivers groups may be vulnerable to COVID-19 and be transmission sources of nosocomial outbreaks. Therefore, infection control programs for caregivers in addition to patients and healthcare workers can be equally important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, Community
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0272919, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections of communicable viral diseases (CVDs) have been posing a tremendous challenge to healthcare workers globally. Healthcare personnel (HCP) is facing a consistent risk of viral infections, and subsequently higher rates of morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We proposed a domain-knowledge-driven infection risk model to quantify the individual HCP and the population-level risks. For individual-level risk estimation, a time-variant infection risk model is proposed to capture the transmission dynamics of CVDs. At the population-level, the infection risk is estimated using a Bayesian network model constructed from three feature sets, including individual-level factors, engineering control factors, and administrative control factors. For model validation, we investigated the case study of the Coronavirus disease, in which the individual-level and population-level infection risk models were applied. The data were collected from various sources such as COVID-19 transmission databases, health surveys/questionaries from medical centers, U.S. Department of Labor databases, and cross-sectional studies. RESULTS: Regarding the individual-level risk model, the variance-based sensitivity analysis indicated that the uncertainty in the estimated risk was attributed to two variables: the number of close contacts and the viral transmission probability. Next, the disease transmission probability was computed using a multivariate logistic regression applied for a cross-sectional HCP data in the UK, with the 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 78.23%. Combined with the previous result, we further validated the individual infection risk model by considering six occupations in the U.S. Department of Labor O*Net database. The occupation-specific risk evaluation suggested that the registered nurses, medical assistants, and respiratory therapists were the highest-risk occupations. For the population-level risk model validation, the infection risk in Texas and California was estimated, in which the infection risk in Texas was lower than that in California. This can be explained by California's higher patient load for each HCP per day and lower personal protective equipment (PPE) sufficiency level. CONCLUSION: The accurate estimation of infection risk at both individual level and population levels using our domain-knowledge-driven infection risk model will significantly enhance the PPE allocation, safety plans for HCP, and hospital staffing strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bayes Theorem , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 131, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of SARS-CoV-2, multidrug-resistant organisms and other healthcare-associated pathogens represents supra-regional challenges for infection prevention and control (IPC) specialists in every European country. To tackle these problems, cross-site research collaboration of IPC specialists is very important. This study assesses the extent and quality of national research collaborations of IPC departments of university hospitals located in Austria, England, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, identifies network gaps, and provides potential solutions. METHODS: Joint publications of IPC heads of all university hospitals of the included countries between 1st of June 2013 until 31st of May 2020 were collected by Pubmed/Medline search. Further, two factors, the journal impact factor and the type/position of authorship, were used to calculate the Scientific Collaboration Impact (SCI) for all included sites; nationwide network analysis was performed. RESULTS: In five European countries, 95 sites and 125 responsible leaders for IPC who had been in charge during the study period were identified. Some countries such as Austria have only limited national research cooperations, while the Netherlands has established a gapless network. Most effective collaborating university site of each country were Lille with an SCI of 1146, Rotterdam (408), Berlin (268), Sussex (204), and Vienna/Innsbruck (18). DISCUSSION: The present study indicates major differences and room for improvement in IPC research collaborations within each country and underlines the potential and importance of collaborating in IPC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Infection Control , Europe/epidemiology
13.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 127, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is universally recognized as a cornerstone measure for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Although the WHO "My five Moments for hand hygiene" poster has been used for more than a decade to delineate hand hygiene indications and promote action, adherence levels among healthcare workers are still notoriously low and disquieting. To compensate for the lack of effective hand hygiene communication, we aimed to evaluate emojis as possible surrogates for the non-verbal aspects of hand hygiene behaviour. METHODS: Following a thorough review of the Unicode version 12.0, the most applicable emojis to the terms used in the WHO 5 Moments poster were extracted. We developed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the view of infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners regarding the use of emojis to show the WHO 5 Moments. Completed questionnaires were collected and analysed to determine the suitability of the existing emojis to illustrate a unified emoji poster. Data were analysed using R (version 3.6.3). RESULTS: A total of 95 IPC practitioners completed the questionnaire from May to October 2019 from different countries. Of these, 69 (74%) were female, and the mean age of the participants was 44.6 ± 10.87 years. We found appropriate emojis for six of the words used in the poster, including for touching (72%), for patient (63%), for clean (53%), for procedure (56%), for body fluid (58%), and for exposure risk (71%). The existing emojis proposed for the words "hygiene", "aseptic", and "surrounding" seemed to be less satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the existing emojis may not be able to substitute the words used in the WHO 5 Moments poster. Emojis might be helpful to address hand hygiene indications in healthcare that may eventually play a role in promoting this measure. However, emojis should be further studied to choose the most appropriate ones and avoid ambiguity and misinterpretation. More emojis to convey health related messages are needed. We recommend further research in this area to evaluate the effect of using emojis in healthcare-related behaviours.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Hand Hygiene/methods , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , World Health Organization
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1416, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The states of IPC (Infection Prevention and Control) is serious under the COVID-19 pandemic. Nosocomial infection reporting is of great significance to transparent management of IPC in regard to the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to explore the relationship between communication openness and nosocomial infection reporting, explore the mediating effect of team cohesion in the two, and provide evidence-based organizational perspective for improving IPC management in the hospitals. METHOD: A questionnaire was used to collect data on communication openness, team cohesion and nosocomial infection reporting in 3512 medical staff from 239 hospitals in Hubei, China. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was conducted to examine the hypothetical model. RESULT: Communication openness was positively related to nosocomial infection reporting (ß = 0.540, p < 0.001), and was positively related to team cohesion (ß = 0.887, p < 0.001). Team cohesion was positively related to nosocomial infection reporting (ß = 0.328, p < 0.001). The partial mediating effect of team cohesion was significant (ß = 0.291, SE = 0.055, 95% CI = [ 0.178,0.392 ]), making up 35.02% of total effect. CONCLUSION: Communication openness was not only positively related to nosocomial infection reporting. Team cohesion can be regarded as a mediator between communication openness and nosocomial infection reporting. It implies that strengthening communication openness and team cohesion is the strategy to promote IPC management from the new organizational perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics , Communication , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(4)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention has been difficult for healthcare providers to maintain during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study summarises themes for maintaining infection prevention activities learnt from the implementation of a quality improvement (QI) programme during the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted qualitative analysis of participants' semistructured exit interviews, self-assessments on HAI prevention activities, participant-created action plans, chat-box discussions during webinars and informal correspondence. SETTING: Intensive care units (ICUs) with elevated rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and/or catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Programme for ICUs: Preventing CLABSI and CAUTI. RESULTS: Forty-nine ICU teams who participated in the programme between December 2019 and April 2021 found ways to maintain activities such as daily huddles, multidisciplinary rounds, and central line and indwelling urinary catheter monitoring despite barriers, including staff turnover, a lack of time, staff fatigue and pandemic-related guidelines limiting providers' time around patients. We use four themes to summarise the ICU teams' adaptations that allowed them to sustain infection prevention activities: (1) Units had CLABSI and CAUTI prevention teams, policies and practices established prior to the pandemic; (2) Units were flexible in their implementation of those policies and practices; (3) Units maintained consistent buy-in for and engagement in HAI prevention activities among both leadership and care teams throughout the pandemic and (4) Units looked to learn from other units in their facility and beyond. CONCLUSIONS: Future shocks such as the pandemic must be anticipated, and the healthcare system must be resilient to the resulting disruptions to HAI prevention activities. This study encountered four themes for successful maintenance of infection prevention activities during the current pandemic: the value of a pre-existing infection prevention infrastructure; a flexibility in approach; broad buy-in for maintaining QI programmes and the facilitation of idea-sharing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Urinary Tract Infections , Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality Improvement , Intensive Care Units , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 841, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. We evaluate incidence of community- and hospital-onset BSI rates and outcomes before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study evaluating patients who were hospitalized for ≥ 1 day with discharge or death between June 1, 2019, and September 4, 2021, across 271 US health care facilities. Community- and hospital-onset BSI and related outcomes before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, including intensive care admission rates, and overall and ICU-specific length of stay (LOS) was evaluated. Bivariate correlations were calculated between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods overall and by SARS-CoV-2 testing status. RESULTS: Of 5,239,692 patient admissions, there were 20,113 community-onset BSIs before the pandemic (11.2/1000 admissions) and 39,740 (11.5/1000 admissions) during the pandemic (P ≤ 0.0062). Corresponding rates of hospital-onset BSI were 2,771 (1.6/1000 admissions) and 6,864 (2.0/1000 admissions; P < 0.0062). Compared to the pre-pandemic period, rates of community-onset BSI were higher in patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (15.8/1000 admissions), compared with 9.6/1000 BSI admissions among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Compared with patients in the pre-pandemic period, SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with community-onset BSI experienced greater ICU admission rates (36.6% vs 32.8%; P < 0.01), greater ventilator use (10.7% vs 4.7%; P < 0.001), and longer LOS (12.2 d vs 9.1 d; P < 0.001). Rates of hospital-onset BSI were higher in the pandemic vs the pre-pandemic period (2.0 vs 1.5/1000; P < 0.001), with rates as high a 7.3/1000 admissions among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with hospital-onset BSI had higher rates of ICU admission (72.9% vs 55.4%; P < 0.001), LOS (34.8 d vs 25.5 d; P < 0.001), and ventilator use (52.9% vs 21.5%; P < 0.001). Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida albicans were more frequently detected in the pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This nationally representative study found an increased risk of both community-onset and hospital-onset BSI during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic period, with the largest increased risk in hospital-onset BSI among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was associated with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 836, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness of infection prevention and control. We found that the incidence of nosocomial infection in neurosurgery has changed. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of "coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and control measures" on nosocomial infections in neurosurgery. METHODS: To explore changes in nosocomial infections in neurosurgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, the clinical data of inpatients undergoing neurosurgery at Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province between January 1 and April 30, 2020 (COVID-19 era) were first analyzed and then compared with those from same period in 2019 (first pre-COVID-19 era). We also analyzed data between May 1 and December 31, 2020 (post-COVID-19 era) at the same time in 2019 (second pre-COVID-19 era). RESULTS: The nosocomial infection rate was 7.85% (54/688) in the first pre-COVID-19 era and 4.30% (26/605) in the COVID-19 era (P = 0.01). The respiratory system infection rate between the first pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 eras was 6.1% vs. 2.0% (P < 0.01), while the urinary system infection rate was 1.7% vs. 2.0% (P = 0.84). Between the first pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 eras, respiratory system and urinary infections accounted for 77.78% (42/54) vs. 46.15% (12/26) and 22.22% (12/54) vs. 46.15% (12/26) of the total nosocomial infections, respectively (P < 0.01). Between the second pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 eras, respiratory system and urinary accounted for 53.66% (44/82) vs. 40.63% (39/96) and 24.39% (20/82) vs. 40.63% (39/96) of the total nosocomial infections, respectively (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of nosocomial infections in neurosurgery reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic. The reduction was primarily observed in respiratory infections, while the proportion of urinary infections increased significantly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Neurosurgery , Respiratory Tract Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(11): 1575-1579, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of exposure to patients using carbapenem on the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) among patients not using carbapenems. DESIGN: An ecological study and a cohort study. SETTING: Two medical surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in inner Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Patients admitted to 2 ICUs from 2013 through 2018 to whom carbapenem was not prescribed. METHODS: In the ecologic study, the monthly use of carbapenems (days of therapy [DOT] per 1,000 patient days) was tested for linear correlation with the 2-month moving average of incidence CR-GNB among patients to whom carbapenem was not prescribed. In the cohort study, those patients were addressed individually for risk factors (demographics, invasive interventions, use of antimicrobials) for acquisition of CR-GNB, including time at risk and the "carbapenem pressure," described as the aggregate DOT among other ICU patients during time at risk. The analysis was performed in univariate and multivariable Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The linear regression model revealed an association of total carbapenem use and incidence of CR-GNB (coefficient, 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.06; P = .001). In the cohort model, the adjusted rate ratio (RR) for carbapenem DOT was 1.009 (95% CI, 1.001-1.018; P = .03). Other significant risk factors were mechanical ventilation and the previous use of ceftazidime (with or without avibactam). CONCLUSIONS: Every additional DOT of total carbapenem use increased the risk of CR-GNB acquisition by patients not using carbapenems by nearly 1%. We found evidence for a population ("herd effect"-like) impact of antimicrobial use in the ICUs.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Humans , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology
19.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 73, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding blood culture utilization and antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition, there has been a concern for increasing AMR infections among COVID-19 cases in LMICs. Here, we investigated epidemiology of AMR bloodstream infections (BSI) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Indonesian national referral hospital. METHODS: We evaluated blood culture utilization rate, and proportion and incidence rate of AMR-BSI caused by WHO-defined priority bacteria using routine hospital databases from 2019 to 2020. A patient was classified as a COVID-19 case if their SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result was positive. The proportion of resistance was defined as the ratio of the number of patients having a positive blood culture for a WHO global priority resistant pathogen per the total number of patients having a positive blood culture for the given pathogen. Poisson regression models were used to assess changes in rate over time. RESULTS: Of 60,228 in-hospital patients, 8,175 had at least one blood culture taken (total 17,819 blood cultures), giving a blood culture utilization rate of 30.6 per 1,000 patient-days. A total of 1,311 patients were COVID-19 cases. Blood culture utilization rate had been increasing before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (both p < 0.001), and was higher among COVID-19 cases than non-COVID-19 cases (43.5 vs. 30.2 per 1,000 patient-days, p < 0.001). The most common pathogens identified were K. pneumoniae (23.3%), Acinetobacter spp. (13.9%) and E. coli (13.1%). The proportion of resistance for each bacterial pathogen was similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases (all p > 0.10). Incidence rate of hospital-origin AMR-BSI increased from 130.1 cases per 100,000 patient-days in 2019 to 165.5 in 2020 (incidence rate ratio 1.016 per month, 95%CI:1.016-1.017, p < 0.001), and was not associated with COVID-19 (p = 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, AMR-BSI incidence and etiology were similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. Incidence rates of hospital-origin AMR-BSI increased in 2020, which was likely due to increased blood culture utilization. We recommend increasing blood culture utilization and generating AMR surveillance reports in LMICs to inform local health care providers and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Blood Culture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Escherichia coli , Hospitals , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sepsis/microbiology
20.
Euro Surveill ; 27(40)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114752

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCompliance with infection prevention and control (IPC) measures is critical to preventing COVID-19 transmission in healthcare settings.AimTo identify and explain factors influencing compliance with COVID-19-specific IPC measures among healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Finland.MethodsThe study included a web-based survey and qualitative study based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). The link to the anonymous survey was distributed via email to LTCFs through regional IPC experts in December 2020. Outcome was modelled using ordinary logistic regression and penalised ridge logistic regression using regrouped explanatory variables and an original, more correlated set of explanatory variables, respectively. In-depth interviews were conducted among survey participants who volunteered during January-March 2021. Data were analysed thematically using qualitative data analysis software (NVIVO12).ResultsA total of 422 HCWs from 17/20 regions responded to the survey. Three TDF domains were identified that negatively influenced IPC compliance: environmental context and resources, reinforcement and beliefs about capabilities. Twenty HCWs participated in interviews, which resulted in identification of several themes: changes in professional duties and lack of staff planning for emergencies (domain: environmental context and resources); management culture and physical absence of management (domain: reinforcement), knowledge of applying IPC measures, nature of tasks and infrastructure that supports implementation (domain: beliefs about capabilities), that explained how the domains negatively influenced their IPC behaviour.ConclusionsThis study provides insights into behavioural domains that can be used in developing evidence-based behaviour change interventions to support HCW compliance with pandemic-specific IPC measures in LTCFs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Finland/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL