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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 352, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection control had many developments in the COVID 19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic, despite this, there were many complications in different health care facilities as well as dentists' clinics due to the lack of infection control knowledge and compliance failure. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and compliance with the infection control measures in the dental clinics in the Nablus and Tulkarm districts. RESULTS: The results showed that the total positive response regard all infection control domains were (70.0 %). Whereas the participants gave the highest positive response for personnel protective equipment i.e. gloving was (96.10 %). They gave the instruments related to controls the lowest responses, i.e. instruments sterilization was (59.40 %). The analyzed data showed significant statistical differences in the compliance with infection control measures between Nablus and Tulkarm districts "p < 0.05" in the interest of dentists from Tulkarm. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that there is moderate compliance to infection control protocol in Nablus and Tulkarm dental clinics. Thus, there is a need to strengthen adherence to infection control measures. METHOD: A universal sampling was used to assess the infection control program at the dental clinics in Nablus and Tulkarm Districts. The study sample involved 265 dentists. Data was collected using a questionnaire which has been sent via email between July and August 2020. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, One-way ANOVA and Post-Hock tests have been used. Statistical significance was set at ″P <0.05″. Cronbach's alpha has been conducted to ensure the reliability and validity of the questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Dental Clinics/organization & administration , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/standards , COVID-19 , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle East , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e056858, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are among the risk groups for COVID-19. Determining transmission routes and risk levels during healthcare is of great importance in preventing nosocomial outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nosocomial transmission and factors affecting the transmission in HCW. METHODS: HCWs admitted to the infectious diseases outpatient clinic due to contact with a COVID-19 patient and diagnosed with SARS-COV-2 by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) between 20 March 2020 and 30 June 2020 were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 822 HCWs with 295 low, 284 intermediate and 243 high-risk exposures were included in the study. 27.1% of the HCWs were male, and the median age was 31.9 years (20-62). 89.5% of these patients were directly in charge of patient care. Of the index cases contacted, 72.6% were HCW, and 27.4% were non-HCW patients. Most of the risky exposure (51.7%) occurred in nurses. The occurrence frequency of high-risk exposure was lower in those assigned to direct patient care when compared with the occurrence frequency of moderate-risk or low-risk exposures (76.5%, 94.7, 95.3, respectively p<0.001). In most high-risk exposures (220/253), the index cases were HCWs (p<0.001). Symptoms were detected in 311 of the HCWs (37.8%) during the follow-up. The median time to perform SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was 5.3 days (IQR) after the last risky exposure. In multivariate analysis, SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity was 5.65 times higher in HCWs not directly involved in patient care than HCWs who are not involved in patient care (95% CI 2.437 to 13.111; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides particularly useful information on post-exposure COVID-19 follow-up and management of working schedules and procedures of HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Adult , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(Supplement_4): S88-S95, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593724

ABSTRACT

Hospital outbreak investigations are high-stakes epidemiology. Contacts between staff and patients are numerous; environmental and community exposures are plentiful; and patients are highly vulnerable. Having the best data is paramount to understanding an outbreak in order to stop ongoing transmission and prevent future outbreaks. In the past 5 years, the high-resolution view of transmission offered by analyzing pathogen whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly part of hospital outbreak investigations. Concerns over speed and actionability, assay validation, liability, cost, and payment models lead to further opportunities for work in this area. Now accelerated by funding for COVID-19, the use of genomics in hospital outbreak investigations has firmly moved from the academic literature to more quotidian operations, with associated concerns involving regulatory affairs, data integration, and clinical interpretation. This review details past uses of WGS data in hospital-acquired infection outbreaks as well as future opportunities to increase its utility and growth in hospital infection prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genomics , Hospitals , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1232-E1241, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited space and resources are potential obstacles to infection prevention and control (IPAC) measures in in-centre hemodialysis units. We aimed to assess IPAC measures implemented in Quebec's hemodialysis units during the spring of 2020, describe the characteristics of these units and document the cumulative infection rates during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For this cross-sectional survey, we invited leaders from 54 hemodialysis units in Quebec to report information on the physical characteristics of the unit and their perceptions of crowdedness, which IPAC measures were implemented from Mar. 1 to June 30, 2020, and adherence to and feasibility of appropriate IPAC measures. Participating units were contacted again in March 2021 to collect information on the number of COVID-19 cases in order to derive the cumulative infection rate of each unit. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 38 of the 54 units contacted (70% response rate), which provided care to 4485 patients at the time of survey completion. Fourteen units (37%) had implemented appropriate IPAC measures by 3 weeks after Mar. 1, and all 38 units had implemented them by 6 weeks after. One-third of units were perceived as crowded. General measures, masks and screening questionnaires were used in more than 80% of units, and various distancing measures in 55%-71%; reduction in dialysis frequency was rare. Data on cumulative infection rates were obtained from 27 units providing care to 4227 patients. The cumulative infection rate varied from 0% to 50% (median 11.3%, interquartile range 5.2%-20.2%) and was higher than the reported cumulative infection rate in the corresponding region in 23 (85%) of the 27 units. INTERPRETATION: Rates of COVID-19 infection among hemodialysis recipients in Quebec were elevated compared to the general population during the first year of the pandemic, and although hemodialysis units throughout the province implemented appropriate IPAC measures rapidly in the spring of 2020, many units were crowded and could not maintain physical distancing. Future hemodialysis units should be designed to minimize airborne and droplet transmission of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Infection Control , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Quebec/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(27)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577032

ABSTRACT

BackgroundInfluenza virus presents a considerable challenge to public health by causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Nanopore metagenomic sequencing has the potential to be deployed for near-patient testing, providing rapid infection diagnosis, rationalising antimicrobial therapy, and supporting infection-control interventions.AimTo evaluate the applicability of this sequencing approach as a routine laboratory test for influenza in clinical settings.MethodsWe conducted Oxford Nanopore Technologies (Oxford, United Kingdom (UK)) metagenomic sequencing for 180 respiratory samples from a UK hospital during the 2018/19 influenza season, and compared results to routine molecular diagnostic standards (Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV assay; BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel 2 assay). We investigated drug resistance, genetic diversity, and nosocomial transmission using influenza sequence data.ResultsCompared to standard testing, Nanopore metagenomic sequencing was 83% (75/90) sensitive and 93% (84/90) specific for detecting influenza A viruses. Of 59 samples with haemagglutinin subtype determined, 40 were H1 and 19 H3. We identified an influenza A(H3N2) genome encoding the oseltamivir resistance S331R mutation in neuraminidase, potentially associated with an emerging distinct intra-subtype reassortant. Whole genome phylogeny refuted suspicions of a transmission cluster in a ward, but identified two other clusters that likely reflected nosocomial transmission, associated with a predominant community-circulating strain. We also detected other potentially pathogenic viruses and bacteria from the metagenome.ConclusionNanopore metagenomic sequencing can detect the emergence of novel variants and drug resistance, providing timely insights into antimicrobial stewardship and vaccine design. Full genome generation can help investigate and manage nosocomial outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Influenza, Human , Nanopores , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Metagenome , Neuraminidase/genetics , Seasons , United Kingdom
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572449

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of hand hygiene (HH) on reducing the transmission of contagious diseases is widely known, although its use has been commonly associated with the area of healthcare. During the COVID-19 pandemic, HH was one of the main measures established to contain the transmission of this virus. The identification of the main barriers and facilitators of HH in young adults (aged 18-29 years old) will contribute to the better planning of HH training and its posterior success. A total of 716 young adults participated in the study by completing the ad hoc online questionnaire (#YesWeHand), which analyzed, among other aspects, the age range, gender and field of study that they belonged to. From the total participants, 81.3% indicated knowing how to perform HH correctly, while 49.4% affirmed having received training. The main reason for performing HH was concern for their own safety and that of others (75.8%), while forgetfulness (36.5%) was the main reason for not performing HH. In the group of young adults, being female, aged between 22 and 25 years old, and having studied in the area of Health Sciences, had a positive influence on correct HH. It is deemed necessary to maintain HH beyond the primary education stages, and to adapt it to different fields of education, ages, and genders, in order to maximize its success. Given the overrepresentation of participants from the healthcare field, it would be desirable to conduct more studies to ensure a better representation of the different educational levels and fields of study of the participants, in order to identify, in a more reliable way, the variables that influence HH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Euro Surveill ; 26(43)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547185

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, viral genomes are available at unprecedented speed, but spatio-temporal bias in genome sequence sampling precludes phylogeographical inference without additional contextual data.AimWe applied genomic epidemiology to trace SARS-CoV-2 spread on an international, national and local level, to illustrate how transmission chains can be resolved to the level of a single event and single person using integrated sequence data and spatio-temporal metadata.MethodsWe investigated 289 COVID-19 cases at a university hospital in Munich, Germany, between 29 February and 27 May 2020. Using the ARTIC protocol, we obtained near full-length viral genomes from 174 SARS-CoV-2-positive respiratory samples. Phylogenetic analyses using the Auspice software were employed in combination with anamnestic reporting of travel history, interpersonal interactions and perceived high-risk exposures among patients and healthcare workers to characterise cluster outbreaks and establish likely scenarios and timelines of transmission.ResultsWe identified multiple independent introductions in the Munich Metropolitan Region during the first weeks of the first pandemic wave, mainly by travellers returning from popular skiing areas in the Alps. In these early weeks, the rate of presumable hospital-acquired infections among patients and in particular healthcare workers was high (9.6% and 54%, respectively) and we illustrated how transmission chains can be dissected at high resolution combining virus sequences and spatio-temporal networks of human interactions.ConclusionsEarly spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Europe was catalysed by superspreading events and regional hotspots during the winter holiday season. Genomic epidemiology can be employed to trace viral spread and inform effective containment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 104-114, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531580

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are the most common adverse outcomes due to delivery of medical care. HAIs increase morbidity and mortality, prolong hospital stay, and are associated with additional healthcare costs. Contaminated surfaces, particularly those that are touched frequently, act as reservoirs for pathogens and contribute towards pathogen transmission. Therefore, healthcare hygiene requires a comprehensive approach whereby different strategies may be implemented together, next to targeted, risk-based approaches, in order to reduce the risk of HAIs for patients. This approach includes hand hygiene in conjunction with environmental cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and clinical equipment. This review focuses on routine environmental cleaning and disinfection including areas with a moderate risk of contamination, such as general wards. As scientific evidence has not yet resulted in universally accepted guidelines nor led to universally accepted practical recommendations pertaining to surface cleaning and disinfection, this review provides expert guidance for healthcare workers in their daily practice. It also covers outbreak situations and suggests practical guidance for clinically relevant pathogens. Key elements of environmental cleaning and disinfection, including a fundamental clinical risk assessment, choice of appropriate disinfectants and cleaning equipment, definitions for standardized cleaning processes and the relevance of structured training, are reviewed in detail with a focus on practical topics and implementation.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Disinfectants , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Hygiene
9.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 7(1): 100, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We present the unique case of a nosocomial COVID infection acquired after urgent surgical intervention for cervical myelopathy, as well as the sequelae that followed in the postoperative period. CASE PRESENTATION: An initially COVID-negative patient underwent urgent surgical intervention for cervical myelopathy with significant neurological deterioration. She underwent an uncomplicated staged anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with corpectomy, as well as a subsequent posterior cervical instrumented fusion within the same hospitalization. The patient would refuse to adhere to standard COVID precautions during her admission and demonstrated rapid decompensation following her particularly uneventful surgeries, ultimately leading to her expiration. A laboratory test confirmed that she had contracted COVID at the time of the patient's death. DISCUSSION: This report highlights the repercussions of COVID-19 infection during the perioperative period and its implications on surgical outcomes. The stresses of surgery and the body's immunosuppressive responses during this time place patients at particular risk for the contraction of this virus. The standard precautions should be followed and vaccination should be considered for surgical candidates prior to their operations, as they become more readily accessible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Spinal Cord Diseases , Cervical Vertebrae/surgery , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord Diseases/surgery
10.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 182, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical metagenomics (CMg) has the potential to be translated from a research tool into routine service to improve antimicrobial treatment and infection control decisions. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic provides added impetus to realise these benefits, given the increased risk of secondary infection and nosocomial transmission of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens linked with the expansion of critical care capacity. METHODS: CMg using nanopore sequencing was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study on 43 respiratory samples from 34 intubated patients across seven intensive care units (ICUs) over a 9-week period during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. RESULTS: An 8-h CMg workflow was 92% sensitive (95% CI, 75-99%) and 82% specific (95% CI, 57-96%) for bacterial identification based on culture-positive and culture-negative samples, respectively. CMg sequencing reported the presence or absence of ß-lactam-resistant genes carried by Enterobacterales that would modify the initial guideline-recommended antibiotics in every case. CMg was also 100% concordant with quantitative PCR for detecting Aspergillus fumigatus from 4 positive and 39 negative samples. Molecular typing using 24-h sequencing data identified an MDR-K. pneumoniae ST307 outbreak involving 4 patients and an MDR-C. striatum outbreak involving 14 patients across three ICUs. CONCLUSION: CMg testing provides accurate pathogen detection and antibiotic resistance prediction in a same-day laboratory workflow, with assembled genomes available the next day for genomic surveillance. The provision of this technology in a service setting could fundamentally change the multi-disciplinary team approach to managing ICU infections. The potential to improve the initial targeted treatment and rapidly detect unsuspected outbreaks of MDR-pathogens justifies further expedited clinical assessment of CMg.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cross Infection/transmission , Metagenomics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Corynebacterium/genetics , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , beta-Lactamases/genetics
11.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 841-856, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506789

ABSTRACT

Despite a large volume of research in prevention, central line-associated bloodstream infections and catheter-related bloodstream infections continue to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Strategies in prevention, including decision about catheter placement, insertion bundles, adherence to standard of care guidelines, and technologic innovations, shown to decrease rates of catheter-related bloodstream infections and central line-associated bloodstream infections are described in this update. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in increased health care-acquired infections, including central line-associated bloodstream infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/standards , Clinical Decision-Making , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Humans , Patient Care Bundles/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 1535046, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506321

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research aimed to explore the application of a mathematical model based on deep learning in hospital infection control of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. Methods: First, the epidemic data of Beijing, China, were utilized to make a definite susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model fitting to determine the estimated value of the COVID-19 removal intensity ß, which was then used to do a determined SIR model and a stochastic SIR model fitting for the hospital. In addition, the reasonable ß and γ estimates of the hospital were determined, and the spread of the epidemic in hospital was simulated, to discuss the impact of basal reproductive number changes, isolation, vaccination, and so forth on COVID-19. Results: There was a certain gap between the fitting of SIR to the remover and the actual data. The fitting of the number of infections was accurate. The growth rate of the number of infections decreased after measures, such as isolation, were taken. The effect of herd immunity was achieved after the overall immunity reached 70.9%. Conclusion: The SIR model based on deep learning and the stochastic SIR fitting model were accurate in judging the development trend of the epidemic, which can provide basis and reference for hospital epidemic infection control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Deep Learning , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504697

ABSTRACT

Protecting healthcare professionals is crucial in maintaining a functioning healthcare system. The risk of infection and optimal preventive strategies for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic remain poorly understood. Here we report the results of a cohort study that included pre- and asymptomatic healthcare workers. A weekly testing regime has been performed in this cohort since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic to identify infected healthcare workers. Based on these observations we have developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission that integrates the sources of infection from inside and outside the hospital. The data were used to study how regular testing and a desynchronisation protocol are effective in preventing transmission of COVID-19 infection at work, and compared both strategies in terms of workforce availability and cost-effectiveness. We showed that case incidence among healthcare workers is higher than would be explained solely by community infection. Furthermore, while testing and desynchronisation protocols are both effective in preventing nosocomial transmission, regular testing maintains work productivity with implementation costs.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cross Infection , Data Collection , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Models, Theoretical , Occupational Exposure , Pandemics , Risk , Stochastic Processes , Switzerland/epidemiology
14.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(10): 1474-1481, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), patients with cancer may be at a higher risk of suffering from COVID-19. Although patients with hematological malignancy (HM) are reported to have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with those with solid cancer, the effects of treatment for HM on COVID-19 severity have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the risk factors, including number and timing of chemotherapeutic regimens for HM, for COVID-19 severity in 17 patients with HM, who had developed nosocomial COVID-19 in our department, by dividing them into two groups; a severe group (N=7) and a non-severe group (N=10). RESULTS: The overall mortality rate was 47%, and mortality in the severe group was significantly higher than that in the non-severe group (odds ratio [OR], 18.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1223.17, P=0.02). Univariate analysis identified two or more chemotherapeutic regimens for HM (OR, 17.34; 95%CI, 1.15-1165.33, P=0.03) and a low hemoglobin level (P=0.02) as significant risk factors for COVID-19 severity. However, a history of chemotherapy for HM within 3 months prior to the onset of COVID-19 was not a significant risk factor (P=0.54). CONCLUSION: A history of multiple chemotherapeutic regimens in patients with HM may be a risk factor for COVID-19 severity, and physicians should be aware of this.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2985-e2991, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is currently unclear whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection will remain a rare event, only occurring in individuals who fail to mount an effective immune response, or whether it will occur more frequently when humoral immunity wanes following primary infection. METHODS: A case of reinfection was observed in a Belgian nosocomial outbreak involving 3 patients and 2 healthcare workers. To distinguish reinfection from persistent infection and detect potential transmission clusters, whole genome sequencing was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs of all individuals including the reinfection case's first episode. Immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibody responses were quantified in serum of all individuals, and viral infectiousness was measured in the swabs of the reinfection case. RESULTS: Reinfection was confirmed in a young, immunocompetent healthcare worker as viral genomes derived from the first and second episode belonged to different SARS-CoV-2 clades. The symptomatic reinfection occurred after an interval of 185 days, despite the development of an effective humoral immune response following symptomatic primary infection. The second episode, however, was milder and characterized by a fast rise in serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Although contact tracing and viral culture remained inconclusive, the healthcare worker formed a transmission cluster with 3 patients and showed evidence of virus replication but not of neutralizing antibodies in her nasopharyngeal swabs. CONCLUSIONS: If this case is representative of most patients with coronavirus disease 2019, long-lived protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after primary infection might not be likely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Belgium/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496511

ABSTRACT

We aimed to apply the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model to increase effectiveness and sustainability of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) hand hygiene (HH) guidelines within healthcare systems. Our cross-sectional, mixed-methods study took place at Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), a tertiary care hospital in Jimma, Ethiopia, between November 2018 and August 2020 and consisted of three phases: baseline assessment, intervention, and follow-up assessment. We conducted questionnaires addressing HH knowledge and attitudes, interviews to identify HH barriers and facilitators within the SEIPS framework, and observations at the WHO's 5 moments of HH amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) at JUMC. We then implemented HH interventions based on WHO guidelines and results from our baseline assessment. Follow-up HH observations were conducted months later during the Covid-19 pandemic. 250 HCWs completed questionnaires with an average knowledge score of 61.4% and attitude scores indicating agreement that HH promotes patient safety. Interview participants cited multiple barriers to HH including shortages and location of HH materials, inadequate training, minimal Infection Prevention Control team presence, and high workload. We found an overall baseline HH compliance rate of 9.4% and a follow-up compliance rate of 72.1%. Drastically higher follow-up compared to baseline compliance rates were likely impacted by our HH interventions and Covid-19. HCWs showed motivation for patient safety despite low HH knowledge. Utilizing the SEIPS model helped identify institution-specific barriers that informed targeted interventions beyond WHO guidelines aimed at increasing effectiveness and sustainability of HH efforts.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi ; 77(10): 1255-1258, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473734
18.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 1055-1075, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487740

ABSTRACT

Health care-acquired viral respiratory infections are common and cause increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the threat of viral respiratory infection has been underscored by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, respiratory viruses have a significant impact in health care settings even under normal circumstances. Studies report decreased nosocomial transmission when aggressive infection control measures are implemented, with more success noted when using a multicomponent approach. Influenza vaccination of health care personnel furthers decrease rates of transmission; thus, mandatory vaccination is becoming more common. This article discusses the epidemiology, transmission, and control of health care-associated respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Guideline Adherence , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
19.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 151, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484323

ABSTRACT

Concomitant prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and extensively drug-resistant bacteria transmission is a difficult challenge in intensive care units dedicated to COVID-19 patients. We report a nosocomial cluster of four patients carrying NDM-1 plasmid-encoded carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae. Two main factors may have contributed to cross-transmission: misuse of gloves and absence of change of personal protective equipment, in the context of COVID-19-associated shortage. This work highlights the importance of maintaining infection control measures to prevent CPE cross-transmission despite the difficult context and that this type of outbreak can potentially involve several species of Enterobacterales.


Subject(s)
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Bacterial Proteins , COVID-19 , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Lactamases
20.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 150, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) present a major public health problem that significantly affects patients, health care providers and the entire healthcare system. Infection prevention and control programs limit HCAIs and are an indispensable component of patient and healthcare worker safety. The clinical best practices (CBPs) of handwashing, screening, hygiene and sanitation of surfaces and equipment, and basic and additional precautions (e.g., isolation, and donning and removing personal protective equipment) are keystones of infection prevention and control (IPC). There is a lack of rigorous IPC economic evaluations demonstrating the cost-benefit of IPC programs in general, and a lack of assessment of the value of investing in CBPs more specifically. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess overall costs associated with each of the four CBPs. METHODS: Across two Quebec hospitals, 48 healthcare workers were observed for two hours each shift, for two consecutive weeks. A modified time-driven activity-based costing framework method was used to capture all human resources (time) and materials (e.g. masks, cloths, disinfectants) required for each clinical best practice. Using a hospital perspective with a time horizon of one year, median costs per CBP per hour, as well as the cost per action, were calculated and reported in 2018 Canadian dollars ($). Sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1831 actions were recorded. The median cost of hand hygiene (N = 867) was 20 cents per action. For cleaning and disinfection of surfaces (N = 102), the cost was 21 cents per action, while cleaning of small equipment (N = 85) was 25 cents per action. Additional precautions median cost was $4.1 per action. The donning or removing or personal protective equipment (N = 720) cost was 76 cents per action. Finally, the total median costs for the five categories of clinical best practiced assessed were 27 cents per action. CONCLUSIONS: The costs of clinical best practices were low, from 20 cents to $4.1 per action. This study provides evidence based arguments with which to support the allocation of resources to infection prevention and control practices that directly affect the safety of patients, healthcare workers and the public. Further research of costing clinical best care practices is warranted.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection/economics , Hand Hygiene/economics , Hygiene/economics , Infection Control/economics , Adult , Canada , Female , Humans , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prospective Studies
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