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1.
J Wound Care ; 30(Sup2): S12-S17, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083226

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is highly contagious and its rapid spread burdens the healthcare system. As the number of confirmed cases goes up, the shortage of medical resources has become a challenge. To avoid the collapse of the healthcare system during the fight with COVID-19, all healthcare workers, including wound care practitioners, should adapt to new roles and use any appropriate methods available to slow the spread of the virus. Integrating telemedicine into wound care during the outbreak helps maintain social distancing, preserve personal protective equipment and medical resources, and eliminate unnecessary exposure for both vulnerable patients and high-risk healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Telemedicine , Triage , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hospitalization , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control
3.
Cir Cir ; 89(1): 4-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077009

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak have major implications in conventional surgical practice. As the number of patients with this diagnosis is rising, the infection risk for the surgical staff will be higher. Few publications have addressed the surgical management of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Objective: To assess recommendations for care of patients and surgical team during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (April 2020) were searched the key words "COVID-19", "PROTOCOL" and "SURGERY". Relevant recommendations, guidelines and cases series were checked for the most accurate information for apply to our center. Results: We found 379 papers that included the key words. A total of 25 papers were included in the manuscript based in the pertinence of the recommendations. Three major topics were selected: perioperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Conclusion: As an attempt to regulate the surgical team approach, we present recommendations to preserve patients and surgical staff safety with high quality standards of care through reproducible strategies applicable in most hospital centers.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Pandemics , Aerosols , Air Pollution, Indoor , Appointments and Schedules , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Mexico , Occupational Exposure , Operating Rooms , Patient Isolation , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel, Hospital , Recovery Room , Sterilization/methods , Surgical Equipment
4.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(2): 96-103, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073073

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adaptation is vital to ensure successful healthcare recovery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hand trauma represents the most common acute emergency department presentation internationally. This study prospectively evaluates the COVID-19 related patient risk, when undergoing management within one of the largest specialist tertiary referral centres in Europe, which rapidly implemented national COVID-19 safety guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in all patients referred to the integrated hand trauma service, during the UK COVID-19 pandemic peak (April-May 2020); all were evaluated for 30-day COVID-19 related death. Random selection was undertaken for patients with hand trauma who either underwent non-operative (control group) or operative (surgery group) management; these groups were prospectively followed-up within a controlled cohort study design and telephoned at 30 days following first intervention (control group) or postoperatively (surgery group). RESULTS: Of 731 referred patients (566 operations), there were no COVID-19 related deaths. Both groups were matched for sex, age, ethnicity, body mass index, comorbidities, smoking, preoperative/first assessment COVID-19 symptoms, pre- and postoperative/first assessment isolation and positive COVID-19 contact (p > 0.050). There were no differences in high service satisfaction (10/10 compared with 10/10; p = 0.067) and treatment outcome (10/10 compared with 10/10; p = 0.961) scores, postoperative/first assessment symptoms (1%, 1/100 compared with 0.8%, 2/250; p = 1.000) or proportion of positive tests (7.1%, 1/14 compared with 2.2%, 2/92; p = 0.349), between the control (n = 100) and surgery (n = 250) groups. CONCLUSION: These data support continued and safe service provision and no increased risk to patients who require surgical management. Such findings are vital for healthcare providers when considering service adaptations to reinstate patient treatment.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hand Injuries/therapy , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Adult , Aged , Amputation, Traumatic/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Fractures, Bone/therapy , Hand Injuries/epidemiology , Hand Joints , Humans , Joint Dislocations/therapy , Lacerations/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Patient Satisfaction , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Tendon Injuries/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(1): 50-52, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065349

ABSTRACT

The impact of secondary infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria in COVID-19- infected patients has yet to be evaluated. Here, we report the clinical and molecular features of an outbreak of seven patients carrying CTX-M-15- and OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to ST326 during COVID-19 pandemic in an ICU in northern Spain. Those patients were admitted to beds close to each other, two of them developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), one exhibited primary bacteremia and the remaining four were considered to be colonized. None of them was colonized prior to admission to the ICU an all, except one of those who developed VAP, were discharged. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir were administered to all of them as COVID-19 therapy and additionally, three of them received tocilizumab and corticosteroids, respectively. Reusing of personal protective equipment due to its initial shortage, relaxation in infection control measures and negative-pressure air in ICU rooms recommended for the protection of health care workers (HCWs), could have contributed to this outbreak. Maximization of infection control measures is essential to avoid secondary infections by MDR bacteria in COVID-infected patients.


Subject(s)
/complications , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolism , Aged , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/complications , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Male , Spain , beta-Lactamases/metabolism
7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 152-159, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068135

ABSTRACT

The determinants of the risk of becoming infected by SARS-CoV-2, contracting COVID-19, and being affected by the more serious forms of the disease have been generally explored in merely qualitative terms. It seems reasonable to argue that the risk patterns for COVID-19 have to be usefully studied in quantitative terms too, whenever possible applying the same approach to the relationship 'dose of the exposure vs pathological response' commonly used for chemicals and already followed for several biological agents to SARS-CoV-2, too. Such an approach is of particular relevance in the fields of both occupational epidemiology and occupational medicine, where the identification of the sources of a dangerous exposure and of the web of causation of a disease is often questionable and questioned: it is relevant when evaluating the population risk, too. Specific occupational scenarios, basically involving health workers, exhibit important proportions of both subjects simply infected by SARS-CoV-2 and of ill subjects with, respectively, mild, moderate, and severe disease. Similar patterns have been described referring to various circumstances of community exposure, e.g., standing in crowded public places, travelling on crowded means of transport, living in accommodation or care homes, living in the same household as a COVID-19 case. The hypothesis that these findings are a consequence not only of high probabilities of exposure, but also of high doses (as a product of both intensity and duration, with possible autonomous effects of peaks of exposure) deserves to be systematically tested, in order to reconstruct the web of causation of COVID-19 individual and clustered cases and to cope with situations at critical risk for SARS-CoV-2, needing to be identified, mapped, and dealt with at the right time. A limited but consistent set of papers supporting these assumptions has been traced in the literature. Under these premises, the creation of a structured inventory of both values of viral concentrations in the air (in case and if possible, of surface contaminations too) and of viral loads in biological matrixes is proposed, with the subsequent construction of a scenario-exposure matrix. A scenario-exposure matrix for SARS-CoV-2 may represent a useful tool for research and practical risk management purposes, helping to understand the possibly critical circumstances for which no direct exposure measure is available (this is an especially frequent case, in contexts of low socio-economic level) and providing guidance to determine evidence-based public health strategies.


Subject(s)
/virology , Environmental Exposure , Viral Load , Viremia/virology , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Air Pollution, Indoor , /epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Crowding , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Environmental Monitoring , Family Characteristics , Fomites/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Institutionalization , Occupational Exposure , Risk , Risk Assessment , Time Factors , Transportation
9.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067807

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial infections, also known as hospital-acquired infections, pose a serious challenge to healthcare professionals globally during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic. Nosocomial infection of COVID­19 directly impacts the quality of life of patients, as well as results in extra expenditure to hospitals. It has been shown that COVID­19 is more likely to transmit via close, unprotected contact with infected patients. Additionally, current preventative and containment measures tend to overlook asymptomatic individuals and superspreading events. Since the mode of transmission and real origin of COVID­19 in hospitals has not been fully elucidated yet, minimizing nosocomial infection in hospitals remains a difficult but urgent task for healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals globally should form an alliance against nosocomial COVID­19 infections. The fight against COVID­19 may provide valuable lessons for the future prevention and control of nosocomial infections. The present review will discuss some of the key strategies to prevent and control hospital­based nosocomial COVID­19 infections.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Asymptomatic Infections , China , Cross Infection/transmission , Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals , Humans , Medical Waste Disposal , Personal Protective Equipment , Quality of Life
10.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 2, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067273

ABSTRACT

Measles is a highly contagious disease. A 24 years old patient, recently exposed to measles (unvaccinated), presented in the emergency department with severe agitation, compatible with an acute psychotic episode, during the measles epidemic which spread in Israel in 2018-2019. Upon hospital admission, strict isolation was instructed, yet, without compliance, probably due to the patient's status. Measles diagnosis was promptly confirmed. As measles transmission was eminent, public health measures were employed through immediate implementation of the section 15 of the Public Health Ordinance, allowing for compulsory short-term isolation. The patient's condition improved within a few days and the measures were no longer necessary. This measles case occurred in the pre-Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic when use of a Public Health Ordinance was considered an extreme measure. This is in contrast to the current global use of Public Health laws to enforce strict quarantine and isolation on persons infected or potentially exposed to COVID-19. Nevertheless, minimizing infectious diseases transmission is a core function of public health law. Utilizing legal enforcement in circumstances of immediate public health hazard, such as nosocomial measles transmission, necessitates careful consideration. The integrative clinical and public health approach and prompt measures employed in this exceptional case, led to prevention of further infection spread.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Acute Disease , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Measles/complications , Measles/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Young Adult
11.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 8, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067240

ABSTRACT

The Severe Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has gained research attention worldwide, given the current pandemic. Nevertheless, a previous zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronavirus, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is still causing concern, especially in Saudi Arabia and neighbour countries. The MERS-CoV has been reported from respiratory samples in more than 27 countries, and around 2500 cases have been reported with an approximate fatality rate of 35%. After its emergence in 2012 intermittent, sporadic cases, nosocomial infections and many community clusters of MERS continued to occur in many countries. Human-to-human transmission resulted in the large outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. The inherent genetic variability among various clads of the MERS-CoV might have probably paved the events of cross-species transmission along with changes in the inter-species and intra-species tropism. The current review is drafted using an extensive review of literature on various databases, selecting of publications irrespective of favouring or opposing, assessing the merit of study, the abstraction of data and analysing data. The genome of MERS-CoV contains around thirty thousand nucleotides having seven predicted open reading frames. Spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins are the four main structural proteins. The surface located spike protein (S) of betacoronaviruses has been established to be one of the significant factors in their zoonotic transmission through virus-receptor recognition mediation and subsequent initiation of viral infection. Three regions in Saudi Arabia (KSA), Eastern Province, Riyadh and Makkah were affected severely. The epidemic progression had been the highest in 2014 in Makkah and Riyadh and Eastern Province in 2013. With a lurking epidemic scare, there is a crucial need for effective therapeutic and immunological remedies constructed on sound molecular investigations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , /genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , /genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24503, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062941

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has greatly threatened global public health. The responsibility of healthcare-associated infection control professionals (ICPs) is to prevent and control the nosocomial infections. The mental health status of ICPs deserves more attention, however, the correlational research is still lacking. This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors of mental health status among ICPs in China during the outbreak of COVID-19.A national cross-sectional survey was performed. The online questionnaire was completed by 9228 ICPs from 3776 hospitals throughout China. Data collection tools were used, including demographics data questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Chinese version of the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ) for medical staff. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted.The total score of mental health of Chinese ICPs was 3.45 ±â€Š2.57. 5608 (60.77%) ICPs might have mental health problems. The psychological capital was in the upper-middle level with an average score of 3.72 ±â€Š0.38. An increased mental health problem risk was associated with the greater self-efficacy and working in the public hospital; a significantly lower risk was obtained by working in the second-class hospital rather than in the third-class hospitals. Besides, mental health problem risk of ICPs working in hospitals of the western economic region or northeast economic region was more significant than that in hospitals of the central economic region. However, a lower risk was caused by the unmarried than married, and working years in department ≤1 year contributed to the lower risk than that >20 years. Moreover, fewer working hours per week, higher values of hope, and optimism each were contributed to a lower risk.Chinese healthcare-associated ICPs were under different levels of mental health problems in fighting against COVID-19. More importantly, we should actively deal with the mental health problem of ICPs and help them get rid of psychological disorders.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Infection Control Practitioners , Infection Control , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Stress , Adult , /prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control Practitioners/psychology , Infection Control Practitioners/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 7, 2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compile current published reports on nosocomial outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), evaluate the role of healthcare workers (HCWs) in transmission, and evaluate outbreak management practices. METHODS: Narrative literature review. SHORT CONCLUSION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a large burden on hospitals and healthcare providers worldwide, which increases the risk of nosocomial transmission and outbreaks to "non-COVID" patients or residents, who represent the highest-risk population in terms of mortality, as well as HCWs. To date, there are several reports on nosocomial outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2, and although the attack rate is variable, it can be as high as 60%, with high mortality. There is currently little evidence on transmission dynamics, particularly using genomic sequencing, and the role of HCWs in initiating or amplifying nosocomial outbreaks is not elucidated. There has been a paradigm shift in management practices of viral respiratory outbreaks, that includes widespread testing of patients (or residents) and HCWs, including asymptomatic individuals. These expanded testing criteria appear to be crucial in identifying and controlling outbreaks.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , /prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Health Facilities , Hospitalization , Humans , Population Surveillance , Research
15.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(1): 136-143, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054387

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the limited evidence and experience with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), this novel pathogen has challenged the field of infection prevention. Despite uncertainty, infection prevention principles and experience with similar diseases have helped guide how to best protect providers and patients against disease acquisition. RECENT FINDINGS: Guidance to date has relied on data from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV to guide practices on patient isolation and personal protective equipment (PPE) use. Although a face mask and eye protection are likely adequate for most clinical scenarios, published guidelines for PPE can be confusing and conflicting. Consensus for what constitutes a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure (AGP) is lacking, but most agree providers performing procedures such as bronchoscopy, intubation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation would likely benefit from the use of an N95 respirator and eye protection. SUMMARY: Needed research to elucidate the predominant SARS-CoV-2 mode of transmission is not likely to be completed in the immediate future. Recommendations for PPE to mitigate procedure-associated risk remain controversial. Nonetheless, implementation of existing measures based on basic infection prevention principles is likely to prevent transmission significantly.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 265-270, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening respiratory condition caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was initially detected in China in December 2019. Currently, in Germany >140 000 cases of COVID-19 are confirmed. Here we report a nosocomial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the pediatric dialysis unit of the University Hospital Münster (UHM). METHODS: Single-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal swabs was used to diagnose the index patient and identify infected contacts. Epidemiological links were analyzed by patient interviews and medical record reviews. In addition, each contact was assessed for exposure to the index case and monitored for clinical symptoms. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of all positive test results were compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. RESULTS: Forty-eight cases were involved in this nosocomial outbreak. Nine contact cases developed laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infections. Two SARS-CoV-2-positive cases remained clinically asymptomatic. Eleven cases reported flulike symptoms without positive results. Ct values were significantly lower in cases presenting typical COVID-19 symptoms, suggesting high viral shedding (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Person-to-person transmission was at the heart of a hospital outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 between healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients in the pediatric dialysis unit at UHM. Semiquantitative rRT-PCR results suggest that individuals with high viral load pose a risk to spread SARS-CoV-2 in the hospital setting. Our epidemiological observation highlights the need to develop strategies to trace and monitor SARS-CoV-2-infected HCWs to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Germany , Humans , Renal Dialysis
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(4): e38, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks emerged at two university-affiliated hospitals in Seoul (hospital A) and Uijeongbu City (hospital S) in the metropolitan Seoul area in March 2020. The aim of this study was to investigate epidemiological links between the outbreaks using whole genome sequencing (WGS) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study, including four non-outbreak (A1-A4) and three outbreak cases (A5-A7) in hospital A and eight cases (S1-S8) in hospital S. Patients' hospital stays, COVID-19 symptoms, and transfer history were reviewed. RNA samples were submitted for WGS and genome-wide single nucleotide variants and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. RESULTS: The index patient (A5) in hospital A was transferred from hospital S on 26 March. Patients A6 and A7 were the family caregiver and sister, respectively, of the patient who shared a room with A5 for 4 days. Prior to transfer, A5 was at the next bed to S8 in the emergency room on 25 March. Patient S6, a professional caregiver, took care of the patient in the room next to S8's room for 5 days until 22 March and then S5 for another 3 days. WGS revealed that SARS-CoV-2 in A2, A3, and A4 belong to clades V/B.2, S/A, and G/B.1, respectively, whereas that of A5-A7 and S1-S5 are of the V/B.2.1 clade and closely clustered. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 in patients A5 and S5 showed perfect identity. CONCLUSION: WGS is a useful tool to understand epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. It is the first study to elucidate the role of patient transfer and caregivers as links of nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 in multiple hospitals.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, University , /genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Electronic Health Records , Female , Genome, Viral , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Seoul/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
18.
Front Public Health ; 8: 618494, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045482

ABSTRACT

Objective: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major public health challenge around the world, and outbreaks of the SARS-CoV-2 have constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Infection control measures are necessary to prevent further spread of the virus and to help control the epidemic situation. Due to the characteristics of gynecological settings, the risk of cross infection between patients and gynecologic practitioners can be high, strict and effective infection control protocols are urgently needed. This article, based on our experience and relevant guidelines and research, introduces prevention and control measures for use in gynecological outpatient clinics and provides recommended management for gynecologists in (potentially) affected areas.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Gynecology , Infection Control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Public Health
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045425

ABSTRACT

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms are emerging as some of the main healthcare problems worldwide. During the COVID-19 pandemic, several Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures have been adopted to reduce nosocomial microorganism transmission. We performed a case-control study to identify if the incidence of MDR bacterial infections while using pandemic-related preventive measures is lower than in previous years. From 2017 to 2020, we monitored hospital discharges over a four-month period (P #) (1 March to 30 June) in St. Andrea Hospital, Rome. In total, we reported 1617 discharges. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to identify significant differences. A value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A significant reduction in the incidence of total MDR bacterial infections was observed during the pandemic compared to in prepandemic years (p < 0.05). We also found a significantly higher incidence of MDR bacterial infections in COVID-19 departments compared with other medical departments (29% and 19%, respectively), with extended-spectrum ß-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae as the pathogens presenting the highest increase. This study demonstrates that maintaining a high level of preventive measures could help tackle an important health problem such as that of the spread of MDR bacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Rome
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