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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 73, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding blood culture utilization and antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition, there has been a concern for increasing AMR infections among COVID-19 cases in LMICs. Here, we investigated epidemiology of AMR bloodstream infections (BSI) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Indonesian national referral hospital. METHODS: We evaluated blood culture utilization rate, and proportion and incidence rate of AMR-BSI caused by WHO-defined priority bacteria using routine hospital databases from 2019 to 2020. A patient was classified as a COVID-19 case if their SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result was positive. The proportion of resistance was defined as the ratio of the number of patients having a positive blood culture for a WHO global priority resistant pathogen per the total number of patients having a positive blood culture for the given pathogen. Poisson regression models were used to assess changes in rate over time. RESULTS: Of 60,228 in-hospital patients, 8,175 had at least one blood culture taken (total 17,819 blood cultures), giving a blood culture utilization rate of 30.6 per 1,000 patient-days. A total of 1,311 patients were COVID-19 cases. Blood culture utilization rate had been increasing before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (both p < 0.001), and was higher among COVID-19 cases than non-COVID-19 cases (43.5 vs. 30.2 per 1,000 patient-days, p < 0.001). The most common pathogens identified were K. pneumoniae (23.3%), Acinetobacter spp. (13.9%) and E. coli (13.1%). The proportion of resistance for each bacterial pathogen was similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases (all p > 0.10). Incidence rate of hospital-origin AMR-BSI increased from 130.1 cases per 100,000 patient-days in 2019 to 165.5 in 2020 (incidence rate ratio 1.016 per month, 95%CI:1.016-1.017, p < 0.001), and was not associated with COVID-19 (p = 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, AMR-BSI incidence and etiology were similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. Incidence rates of hospital-origin AMR-BSI increased in 2020, which was likely due to increased blood culture utilization. We recommend increasing blood culture utilization and generating AMR surveillance reports in LMICs to inform local health care providers and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Blood Culture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Escherichia coli , Hospitals , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sepsis/microbiology
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705332

ABSTRACT

Coinfection rates with other pathogens in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varied during the pandemic. We assessed the latest prevalence of coinfection with viruses, bacteria, and fungi in COVID-19 patients for more than one year and its impact on mortality. A total of 436 samples were collected between August 2020 and October 2021. Multiplex real-time PCR, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed to detect pathogens. The coinfection rate of respiratory viruses in COVID-19 patients was 1.4%. Meanwhile, the rates of bacteria and fungi were 52.6% and 10.5% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were the most commonly detected pathogens. Ninety percent of isolated A. baumannii was non-susceptible to carbapenem. Based on a multivariate analysis, coinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 6.095), older age (OR = 1.089), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 1.006) were risk factors for mortality as a critical outcome. In particular, coinfection with bacteria (OR = 11.250), resistant pathogens (OR = 11.667), and infection with multiple pathogens (OR = 10.667) were significantly related to death. Screening and monitoring of coinfection in COVID-19 patients, especially for hospitalized patients during the pandemic, are beneficial for better management and survival.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Fungi/classification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Young Adult
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 122: 180-186, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676812

ABSTRACT

Pathogen whole-genome sequencing has become an important tool for understanding the transmission and epidemiology of infectious diseases. It has improved our understanding of sources of infection and transmission routes for important healthcare-associated pathogens, including Clostridioides difficile and Staphylococcus aureus. Transmission from known infected or colonized patients in hospitals may explain fewer cases than previously thought and multiple introductions of these pathogens from the community may play a greater a role. The findings have had important implications for infection prevention and control. Sequencing has identified heterogeneity within pathogen species, with some subtypes transmitting and persisting in hospitals better than others. It has identified sources of infection in healthcare-associated outbreaks of food-borne pathogens, Candida auris and Mycobacterium chimera, as well as individuals or groups involved in transmission and historical sources of infection. SARS-CoV-2 sequencing has been central to tracking variants during the COVID-19 pandemic and has helped understand transmission to and from patients and healthcare workers despite prevention efforts. Metagenomic sequencing is an emerging technology for culture-independent diagnosis of infection and antimicrobial resistance. In future, sequencing is likely to become more accessible and widely available. Real-time use in hospitals may allow infection prevention and control teams to identify transmission and to target interventions. It may also provide surveillance and infection control benchmarking. Attention to ethical and wellbeing issues arising from sequencing identifying individuals involved in transmission is important. Pathogen whole-genome sequencing has provided an incredible new lens to understand the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infection and to better control and prevent these infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
4.
Microb Pathog ; 164: 105409, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early reports have shown that critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have a high prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHOD: In the present study, we determined the bacterial agents isolated from endotracheal aspirate (ETA) cultures of Covid-19 general intensive care patients and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of common bacterial agents compared to the pre-pandemic period. RESULTS: While a total of 119 significant growths with polymicrobial growths were detected in the ETA cultures of 73 (7.5%) of 971 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit before the pandemic, 87 significant growths were detected in the ETA cultures of 67 (11.1%) of 602 patients hospitalized in the Covid-19 intensive care unit (ICU) after the pandemic. While 61 (83.6%) of patients in the ICU died before the pandemic, 63 (94.0%) of patients in the Covid-19 ICU died after the pandemic. In terms of age, gender, and mortality, there was no significant difference between the two ICUs (p > 0.05). Before the pandemic, the mean length of stay in the ICU was 33.59 ± 32.89 days, and after the pandemic, it was 13.49 ± 8.03 days. This was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Acinetobacter baumannii (28.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Escherichia coli (7.5%), Candida spp. (5.0%) were the most prevalent causal microorganisms discovered in pre-pandemic ICU ETA samples, whereas A. baumannii (54.0%), K. pneumoniae (10.3%), P. aeruginosa (6.8%), E. faecium (8%), and Candida spp.(13.7%) were the most common causative microorganisms detected in Covid-19 ICU ETA samples. Except for tigecycline, antibiotic resistance rates in A. baumannii strains increased following the pandemic. Only tobramycin showed a significant difference in the increase of resistance among these antibiotics (p = 0.037). The rate of tigecycline resistance, on the other hand, was 17.6% before the pandemic and 2.2% afterward (p < 0.05). After the pandemic, increased resistance of K. pneumoniae strains to colistin, meropenem, ertapenem, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, tigecycline, and cefepime antibiotics was observed. However, these increases were not statistically significant. Except for imipenem, antibiotic resistance rates in P. aeruginosa strains increased following the pandemic. The increase in resistance of ceftazidime and levofloxacin was statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: As a result, the Covid-19 pandemic requires intensive care follow-ups at an earlier age and with a more mortal course. Although the length of stay in the intensive care unit has been shortened, it is observed that this situation is observed due to early mortality. In P. aeruginosa strains, a significant difference was detected in the resistance increase of the ceftazidime and levofloxacin (p < 0.05) and with the exception of tigecycline, antibiotic resistance rates in A. baumannii strains increased following the pandemic. Only tobramycin showed a significant difference in the increase of resistance among these antibiotics (p = 0.037). Secondary infections in patients create more difficult treatment processes due to both Covid-19 and increasing antibiotic resistance today.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Care , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0201521, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622005

ABSTRACT

Emergency department areas were repurposed as intensive care units (ICUs) for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We describe an outbreak of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing Escherichia coli infections in critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to one of the repurposed units. Seven patients developed infections (6 ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP] and 1 urinary tract infection [UTI]) due to carbapenem-resistant E. coli, and only two survived. Five of the affected patients and four additional patients had rectal carriage of carbapenem-resistant E. coli. The E. coli strain from the affected patients corresponded to a single sequence type. Rectal screening identified isolates of two other sequence types bearing blaNDM-1. Isolates of all three sequence types harbored an IncFII plasmid. The plasmid was confirmed to carry blaNDM-1 through conjugation. An outbreak of clonal NDM-1-producing E. coli isolates and subsequent dissemination of NDM-1 through mobile elements to other E. coli strains occurred after hospital conversion during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. This emphasizes the need for infection control practices in surge scenarios. IMPORTANCE The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in a surge of critically ill patients. Hospitals have had to adapt to the demand by repurposing areas as intensive care units. This has resulted in high workload and disruption of usual hospital workflows. Surge capacity guidelines and pandemic response plans do not contemplate how to limit collateral damage from issues like hospital-acquired infections. It is vital to ensure quality of care in surge scenarios.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Conjugation, Genetic , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Plasmids/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , beta-Lactamases/genetics
6.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 545-546, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545992

ABSTRACT

COVID -19 stimulated enormous focus on, and change in, infection prevention and control (IPC), not just in the healthcare sector but also among the general public. While global cooperation and guidance are important, there is also an essential role and benefit from national policies that respect local circumstances and cultural differences. Hospitals will have a new role and data sharing and cooperation between areas such as acute and long-term care will be even more important. Further integration of infection control, microbiology and infectious diseases staff in IPC teams is needed. The digital and AI revolutions have roles to play in how and where patients are seen and diagnosed. The built environment may have longer-term influence on changing the behaviour of health professionals than education and training. One constant is the need for highly trained, flexible and motivated staff in these IPC teams.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 182, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical metagenomics (CMg) has the potential to be translated from a research tool into routine service to improve antimicrobial treatment and infection control decisions. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic provides added impetus to realise these benefits, given the increased risk of secondary infection and nosocomial transmission of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens linked with the expansion of critical care capacity. METHODS: CMg using nanopore sequencing was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study on 43 respiratory samples from 34 intubated patients across seven intensive care units (ICUs) over a 9-week period during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. RESULTS: An 8-h CMg workflow was 92% sensitive (95% CI, 75-99%) and 82% specific (95% CI, 57-96%) for bacterial identification based on culture-positive and culture-negative samples, respectively. CMg sequencing reported the presence or absence of ß-lactam-resistant genes carried by Enterobacterales that would modify the initial guideline-recommended antibiotics in every case. CMg was also 100% concordant with quantitative PCR for detecting Aspergillus fumigatus from 4 positive and 39 negative samples. Molecular typing using 24-h sequencing data identified an MDR-K. pneumoniae ST307 outbreak involving 4 patients and an MDR-C. striatum outbreak involving 14 patients across three ICUs. CONCLUSION: CMg testing provides accurate pathogen detection and antibiotic resistance prediction in a same-day laboratory workflow, with assembled genomes available the next day for genomic surveillance. The provision of this technology in a service setting could fundamentally change the multi-disciplinary team approach to managing ICU infections. The potential to improve the initial targeted treatment and rapidly detect unsuspected outbreaks of MDR-pathogens justifies further expedited clinical assessment of CMg.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cross Infection/transmission , Metagenomics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Corynebacterium/genetics , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , beta-Lactamases/genetics
8.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
9.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 69, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 illness which can progress to severe pneumonia. Empiric antibacterials are often employed though frequency of bacterial coinfection superinfection is debated and concerns raised about selection of bacterial antimicrobial resistance. We evaluated sputum bacterial and fungal growth from 165 intubated COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Objectives were to determine frequency of culture positivity, risk factors for and outcomes of positive cultures, and timing of antimicrobial resistance development. METHODS: Retrospective reviews were conducted of COVID-19 pneumonia patients requiring intubation admitted to a 1058-bed four community hospital system on the east coast United States, March 1 to May 1, 2020. Length of stay (LOS) was expressed as mean (standard deviation); 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was computed for overall mortality rate using the exact binomial method, and overall mortality was compared across each level of a potential risk factor using a Chi-Square Test of Independence. All tests were two-sided, and significance level was set to 0.05. RESULTS: Average patient age was 68.7 years and LOS 19.9 days. Eighty-three patients (50.3% of total) originated from home, 10 from group homes (6.1% of total), and 72 from nursing facilities (43.6% of total). Mortality was 62.4%, highest for nursing home residents (80.6%). Findings from 253 sputum cultures overall did not suggest acute bacterial or fungal infection in 73 (45%) of 165 individuals sampled within 24 h of intubation. Cultures ≥ 1 week following intubation did grow potential pathogens in 72 (64.9%) of 111 cases with 70.8% consistent with late pneumonia and 29.2% suggesting colonization. Twelve (10.8% of total) of these late post-intubation cultures revealed worsened antimicrobial resistance predominantly in Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, or Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: In severe COVID-19 pneumonia, a radiographic ground glass interstitial pattern and lack of purulent sputum prior to/around the time of intubation correlated with no culture growth or recovery of normal oral flora ± yeast. Discontinuation of empiric antibacterials should be considered in these patients aided by other clinical findings, history of prior antimicrobials, laboratory testing, and overall clinical course. Continuing longterm hospitalisation and antibiotics are associated with sputum cultures reflective of hospital-acquired microbes and increasing antimicrobial resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable as this was a retrospective chart review study without interventional arm.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection/complications , Fungi/drug effects , Mycoses/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Sputum/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal , Female , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/microbiology , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(3): 115477, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293714

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to review bacterial isolates from respiratory samples of patients with severe COVID-19 disease during the first 2 months of the first wave in our hospital. A single-center retrospective observational study in critically ill adult patients was performed. A total of 1251 respiratory samples from 1195 patients were processed. Samples from 66 patients (5.52%) were determined to be microbiologically significant by a semi-quantitative culture. All patients received broad spectrum antibiotherapy as an empirical treatment. The isolated bacteria were mainly Enterobacterales followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial co-infections in ICU stay could seem not dependent on the virus that has produced the viral pneumonia similarly as with other respiratory viruses such as Influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Tertiary Care Centers , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(4)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189541

ABSTRACT

Introduction. During previous viral pandemics, reported co-infection rates and implicated pathogens have varied. In the 1918 influenza pandemic, a large proportion of severe illness and death was complicated by bacterial co-infection, predominantly Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.Gap statement. A better understanding of the incidence of co-infection in patients with COVID-19 infection and the pathogens involved is necessary for effective antimicrobial stewardship.Aim. To describe the incidence and nature of co-infection in critically ill adults with COVID-19 infection in England.Methodology. A retrospective cohort study of adults with COVID-19 admitted to seven intensive care units (ICUs) in England up to 18 May 2020, was performed. Patients with completed ICU stays were included. The proportion and type of organisms were determined at <48 and >48 h following hospital admission, corresponding to community and hospital-acquired co-infections.Results. Of 254 patients studied (median age 59 years (IQR 49-69); 64.6 % male), 139 clinically significant organisms were identified from 83 (32.7 %) patients. Bacterial co-infections/ co-colonisation were identified within 48 h of admission in 14 (5.5 %) patients; the commonest pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (four patients) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (two patients). The proportion of pathogens detected increased with duration of ICU stay, consisting largely of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The co-infection/ co-colonisation rate >48 h after admission was 27/1000 person-days (95 % CI 21.3-34.1). Patients with co-infections/ co-colonisation were more likely to die in ICU (crude OR 1.78,95 % CI 1.03-3.08, P=0.04) compared to those without co-infections/ co-colonisation.Conclusion. We found limited evidence for community-acquired bacterial co-infection in hospitalised adults with COVID-19, but a high rate of Gram-negative infection acquired during ICU stay.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(12): 2479-2485, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116614

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Unyvero Hospitalized Pneumonia (HPN) panel application, a multiplex PCR-based method for the detection of bacterial pathogens from lower respiratory tract (LRT) samples, obtained from COVID-19 patients with suspected secondary hospital-acquired pneumonia. Residual LRT samples obtained from critically ill COVID-19 patients with predetermined microbiological culture results were tested using the Unyvero HPN Application. Performance evaluation of the HPN Application was carried out using the standard-of-care (SoC) microbiological culture findings as the reference method. Eighty-three LRT samples were used in the evaluation. The HPN Application had a full concordance with SoC findings in 59/83 (71%) samples. The new method detected additional bacterial species in 21 (25%) and failed at detecting a bacterial species present in lower respiratory culture in 3 (3.6%) samples. Overall the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the HPN Application were 95.1% (95%CI 96.5-98.3%), 98.3% (95% CI 97.5-98.9%), 71.6% (95% CI 61.0-80.3%), and 99.8% (95% CI 99.3-99.9%), respectively. In conclusion, the HPN Application demonstrated higher diagnostic yield in comparison with the culture and generated results within 5 h.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Cross Infection/microbiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/etiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sweden
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 227, 2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Past respiratory viral epidemics suggest that bacterial infections impact clinical outcomes. There is minimal information on potential co-pathogens in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the US. We analyzed pathogens, antimicrobial use, and healthcare utilization in hospitalized US patients with and without severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included patients with > 1 day of inpatient admission and discharge/death between March 1 and May 31, 2020 at 241 US acute care hospitals in the BD Insights Research Database. We assessed microbiological testing data, antimicrobial utilization in admitted patients with ≥24 h of antimicrobial therapy, and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 141,621 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 (17,003 [12.0%] positive) and 449,339 patients were not tested. Most (> 90%) patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 had additional microbiologic testing performed compared with 41.9% of SARS-CoV-2-untested patients. Non-SARS-CoV-2 pathogen rates were 20.9% for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients compared with 21.3 and 27.9% for SARS-CoV-2-negative and -untested patients, respectively. Gram-negative bacteria were the most common pathogens (45.5, 44.1, and 43.5% for SARS-CoV-2-positive, -negative, and -untested patients). SARS-CoV-2-positive patients had higher rates of hospital-onset (versus admission-onset) non-SARS-CoV-2 pathogens compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative or -untested patients (42.4, 22.2, and 19.5%, respectively), more antimicrobial usage (68.0, 45.2, and 25.1% of patients), and longer hospital LOS (mean [standard deviation (SD)] of 8.6 [11.4], 5.1 [8.9], and 4.2 [8.0] days) and intensive care unit (ICU) LOS (mean [SD] of 7.8 [8.5], 3.6 [6.2], and 3.6 [5.9] days). For all groups, the presence of a non-SARS-CoV-2 pathogen was associated with increased hospital LOS (mean [SD] days for patients with versus without a non-SARS-CoV-2 pathogen: 13.7 [15.7] vs 7.3 [9.6] days for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 8.2 [11.5] vs 4.3 [7.9] days for SARS-CoV-2-negative patients, and 7.1 [11.0] vs 3.9 [7.4] days for SARS-CoV-2-untested patients). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar rates of non-SARS-CoV-2 pathogens in SARS-CoV-2-positive, -negative, and -untested patients, SARS-CoV-2 was associated with higher rates of hospital-onset infections, greater antimicrobial usage, and extended hospital and ICU LOS. This finding highlights the heavy burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare systems and suggests possible opportunities for diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection/microbiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 58-68, 2021 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079734

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV2 pandemic marks the need to pay attention to bacterial pathogens that can complicate the hospital stay of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). ESKAPE bacteria which includes Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae are considered the most important, because of their close relationship with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this work was to identify and characterize ESKAPE bacteria and to detect their possible clonal spread in medical devices, patients, and medical personnel of the ICU for COVID-19 patients of the Hospital Juarez de Mexico. METHODOLOGY: Genetic identification of ESKAPE bacteria was performed by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. Resistance assays were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. Assembly of AdeABCRS operon and inhibition assays of pumps efflux in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were performed. Associated gene involved in biofilm formation (icaA) was performed in isolates belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. Finally, typing by ERIC-PCR and characterization of mobile genetic element SCCmec were done. RESULTS: Heterogeneous distribution of ESKAPE and non-ESKAPE bacteria was detected in various medical devices, patients, and medical personnel. Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant ESKAPE members. The analysis of intergenic regions revealed an important clonal distribution of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+). Genotyping of SCCmec mobile genetic elements and the icaA gene showed that there is no clonal distribution of S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Clonal spread of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+) highlights the importance of adopting good practices for equipment disinfection, surfaces and management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Genotype , Humans , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Mexico , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 287-292, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056691

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) after viral illnesses are important sources of morbidity and mortality. This has not been extensively studied in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study included all COVID-19-positive adult patients (≥18 years) hospitalized between 01 March and 05 August 2020 at the current institution. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAI in the acute care setting was used. The outcomes that were studied were rates and types of infections and in-hospital mortality. Several multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine characteristics associated with development of HAI. RESULTS: Fifty-nine (3.7%) of 1565 patients developed 140 separate HAIs from 73 different organisms: 23 were Gram-positive, 39 were Gram-negative and 11 were fungal. Patients who developed HAI did not have higher odds of death (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.40-1.81, p = 0.69). HAIs were associated with the use of tocilizumab (OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.4-10.6, p < 0.001), steroids (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10, p = 0.007), hydroxychloroquine (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.8, p = 0.05), and acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.8, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: HAI were common in hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Tocilizumab and steroids were associated with increased risk of HAIs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/adverse effects , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Steroids/therapeutic use
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