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1.
Clin Perinatol ; 50(2): 381-397, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233462

ABSTRACT

We discuss the burden of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in the neonatal ICU and the role of quality improvement (QI) in infection prevention and control. We examine specific QI opportunities and approaches to prevent HAIs caused by Staphylococcus aureus , multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, Candida species, and respiratory viruses, and to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and surgical site infections. We explore the emerging recognition that many hospital-onset bacteremia episodes are not CLABSIs. Finally, we describe the core tenets of QI, including engagement with multidisciplinary teams and families, data transparency, accountability, and the impact of larger collaborative efforts to reduce HAIs.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
2.
PLoS Med ; 20(6): e1004240, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulation of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MRB) in healthcare facilities is a major public health problem. These settings have been greatly impacted by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, notably due to surges in COVID-19 caseloads and the implementation of infection control measures. We sought to evaluate how such collateral impacts of COVID-19 impacted the nosocomial spread of MRB in an early pandemic context. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a mathematical model in which Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and MRB cocirculate among patients and staff in a theoretical hospital population. Responses to COVID-19 were captured mechanistically via a range of parameters that reflect impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on factors relevant for pathogen transmission. COVID-19 responses include both "policy responses" willingly enacted to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission (e.g., universal masking, patient lockdown, and reinforced hand hygiene) and "caseload responses" unwillingly resulting from surges in COVID-19 caseloads (e.g., abandonment of antibiotic stewardship, disorganization of infection control programmes, and extended length of stay for COVID-19 patients). We conducted 2 main sets of model simulations, in which we quantified impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on MRB colonization incidence and antibiotic resistance rates (the share of colonization due to antibiotic-resistant versus antibiotic-sensitive strains). The first set of simulations represents diverse MRB and nosocomial environments, accounting for high levels of heterogeneity across bacterial parameters (e.g., rates of transmission, antibiotic sensitivity, and colonization prevalence among newly admitted patients) and hospital parameters (e.g., rates of interindividual contact, antibiotic exposure, and patient admission/discharge). On average, COVID-19 control policies coincided with MRB prevention, including 28.2% [95% uncertainty interval: 2.5%, 60.2%] fewer incident cases of patient MRB colonization. Conversely, surges in COVID-19 caseloads favoured MRB transmission, resulting in a 13.8% [-3.5%, 77.0%] increase in colonization incidence and a 10.4% [0.2%, 46.9%] increase in antibiotic resistance rates in the absence of concomitant COVID-19 control policies. When COVID-19 policy responses and caseload responses were combined, MRB colonization incidence decreased by 24.2% [-7.8%, 59.3%], while resistance rates increased by 2.9% [-5.4%, 23.2%]. Impacts of COVID-19 responses varied across patients and staff and their respective routes of pathogen acquisition. The second set of simulations was tailored to specific hospital wards and nosocomial bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli). Consequences of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were found to be highly context specific, with impacts depending on the specific ward and bacteria evaluated. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks significantly impacted patient MRB colonization only in settings with high underlying risk of bacterial transmission. Yet across settings and species, antibiotic resistance burden was reduced in facilities with timelier implementation of effective COVID-19 control policies. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that surges in nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission generate selection for the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Timely implementation of efficient COVID-19 control measures thus has 2-fold benefits, preventing the transmission of both SARS-CoV-2 and MRB, and highlighting antibiotic resistance control as a collateral benefit of pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
3.
Urologia ; 90(3): 548-552, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242680

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since COVID-19 pandemic spread, strict preventive measures were adopted to reduce the risk of transmission. Antiseptic dispensers for hand hygiene were diffusely available for patients and hospital staff. To investigate the prophylactic role played by the strict antiseptic rules adopted during pandemic, the rates of nosocomial urinary infections in 2019 and 2020 were compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients' clinical pre-operative characteristics, symptoms, fever, and laboratory data were recorded pre- and post-operatively. Urological surgery was classified in five categories: 1. major surgery 2. upper urinary tract endoscopy, 3. lower urinary tract endoscopy, 4. minor surgery, and 5. Nephrostomy and ureteral stenting. Clavien-Dindo complication score was used. Statistical analysis was performed with R 3.4.2 software. RESULTS: Out of 495 patients, 383 (57.1%) underwent surgical intervention in pre-pandemic March-May 2019 period and 212 (42.9%) in the same pandemic 2020 interval. Preoperatively, 40 (14.1%) and 11 (5.2%) and 77 (27.3%) and 37 (17.5%) patients had fever (p < 0.003) and leukocytosis (p < 0.02), in 2019 and 2020 respectively. Urine culture was positive in 29 (10.2%) and 13 (6.2%) patients respectively (p = 0.22). Post-operatively, 54 (19.1%) and 22 (10.4%) patients and 17 (6.1%) and 2 (0.6%) patients showed fever (p < 0.003) and positive urineculture (p < 0.03), in 2019 and 2020 respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Preoperative and post-operative clinical and laboratory signs of nosocomial urinary infection showed a statistically significant lower incidence during the pandemic period in 2020. This observation could be ascribed to the strong preventive measures, to the medical staff high adherence to hygiene and the diffuse availability of hand sanitizers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control
4.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 36(4): 263-269, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242670

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a leading cause of preventable harm in US hospitals. Hospitals are required to conduct surveillance and report selected HAIs, including central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, colon and abdominal hysterectomy surgical-site infections, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, and Clostridioides difficile infections, to the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network. RECENT FINDINGS: Up until the COVID-19 pandemic, there was significant progress in reducing HAIs. However, the pandemic resulted in extraordinary challenges for infection prevention in hospitals. Increases in HAIs were observed throughout 2020 and 2021. The Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals has recently been updated and provides common sense evidenced-based strategies to reduce HAIs. SUMMARY: The purpose of this review is to highlight important changes since the 2014 Compendium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Urinary Tract Infections , Female , Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 45, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physiotherapists and physiotherapy undergraduates have direct contact with patients which make them transmitters of infections if they do not follow standard precautions. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions, and source of information among physiotherapy undergraduates in Sri Lanka. METHODS: An observational Google based survey study was conducted among 294 physiotherapy undergraduates, of which there were 103 in University of Peradeniya, 103 in University of Colombo, and 88 in General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University. The Infection Control Standardized Questionnaire comprising three domains: knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions and hand hygiene was used for data collection along with a self-constructed data sheet for socio-demographic information and source of information. RESULTS: Participants achieved mean knowledge of 67.1 ± 16.8, 84.4 ± 14.7 and 66.4 ± 15.4 for nosocomial infections, standard precautions, and hand hygiene respectively. Of the total sample, 225 (76.5%) achieved adequate level of total knowledge. Eighty-three of them (28.3%) equally mentioned, formal teaching at faculty and informal sources as the most important source of knowledge. There was no significant impact of university and the duration of clinical exposure on knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions, hand hygiene and total knowledge. The study year has a significant impact on standard precautions (P = 0.004) and total knowledge (P = 0.035) and final years had highest knowledge compared to the other study years. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of nosocomial infections and infection control measures were satisfactory among the physiotherapy undergraduates in Sri Lanka. Further developments of formal sources of information about nosocomial infections are recommended.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Sri Lanka , Information Sources , Infection Control , Physical Therapy Modalities
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 11, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The core components (CCs) of infection prevention and control (IPC) from World Health Organization (WHO) are crucial for the safety and quality of health care. Our objective was to examine the level of implementation of WHO infection prevention and control core components (IPC CC) in a developing country. We also aimed to evaluate health care-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in intensive care units (ICUs) in association with implemented IPC CCs. METHODS: Members of the Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialization Association (EKMUD) were invited to the study via e-mail. Volunteer members of any healt care facilities (HCFs) participated in the study. The investigating doctor of each HCF filled out a questionnaire to collect data on IPC implementations, including the Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework (IPCAF) and HAIs/AMR in ICUs in 2021. RESULTS: A total of 68 HCFs from seven regions in Türkiye and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus participated while 85% of these were tertiary care hospitals. Fifty (73.5%) HCFs had advanced IPC level, whereas 16 (23.5%) of the 68 hospitals had intermediate IPC levels. The hospitals' median (IQR) IPCAF score was 668.8 (125.0) points. Workload, staffing and occupancy (CC7; median 70 points) and multimodal strategies (CC5; median 75 points) had the lowest scores. The limited number of nurses were the most important problems. Hospitals with a bed capacity of > 1000 beds had higher rates of HAIs. Certified IPC specialists, frequent feedback, and enough nurses reduced HAIs. The most common HAIs were central line-associated blood stream infections. Most HAIs were caused by gram negative bacteria, which have a high AMR. CONCLUSIONS: Most HCFs had an advanced level of IPC implementation, for which staffing was an important driver. To further improve care quality and ensure everyone has access to safe care, it is a key element to have enough staff, the availability of certified IPC specialists, and frequent feedback. Although there is a significant decrease in HAI rates compared to previous years, HAI rates are still high and AMR is an important problem. Increasing nurses and reducing workload can prevent HAIs and AMR. Nationwide "Antibiotic Stewardship Programme" should be initiated.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Infection Control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/microbiology , World Health Organization , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293786

ABSTRACT

Microbial contamination in the hospital environment is a major concern for public health, since it significantly contributes to the onset of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which are further complicated by the alarming level of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of HAI-associated pathogens. Chemical disinfection to control bioburden has a temporary effect and can favor the selection of resistant pathogens, as observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Instead, probiotic-based sanitation (probiotic cleaning hygiene system, PCHS) was reported to stably abate pathogens, AMR, and HAIs. PCHS action is not rapid nor specific, being based on competitive exclusion, but the addition of lytic bacteriophages that quickly and specifically kill selected bacteria was shown to improve PCHS effectiveness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of such combined probiotic-phage sanitation (PCHSφ) in two Italian hospitals, targeting staphylococcal contamination. The results showed that PCHSφ could provide a significantly higher removal of staphylococci, including resistant strains, compared with disinfectants (-76%, p < 0.05) and PCHS alone (-50%, p < 0.05). Extraordinary sporadic chlorine disinfection appeared compatible with PCHSφ, while frequent routine chlorine usage inactivated the probiotic/phage components, preventing PCHSφ action. The collected data highlight the potential of a biological sanitation for better control of the infectious risk in healthcare facilities, without worsening pollution and AMR concerns.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Probiotics , Humans , Sanitation/methods , Chlorine , Pandemics , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/microbiology , Staphylococcus , Delivery of Health Care , Probiotics/therapeutic use
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(4): e238059, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303064

ABSTRACT

Importance: The reported incidence of many health care-associated infections (HAIs) increased during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, it is unclear whether this is due to increased patient risk or to increased pressure on the health care system. Objective: To assess HAI occurrence among patients admitted to hospitals with and without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of inpatients discharged both with and without laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection was conducted. Data were obtained between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2022, from community hospitals affiliated with a large health care system in the US. Exposure: COVID-19 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Occurrence of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, and Clostridioides difficile infection as reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network. Results: Among nearly 5 million hospitalizations in 182 hospitals between 2020 and 2022, the occurrence of health care-associated infections (HAIs) was high among the 313 200 COVID-19 inpatients (median [SD] age, 57 [27.3] years; 56.0% women). Incidence per 100 000 patient-days showed higher HAIs among those with COVID-19 compared with those without. For CLABSI, the incidence for the full 9 quarters of the study was nearly 4-fold higher among the COVID-19 population than the non-COVID-19 population (25.4 vs 6.9). For CAUTI, the incidence in the COVID-19 population was 2.7-fold higher in the COVID-19 population (16.5 vs 6.1), and for MRSA, 3.0-fold higher (11.2 vs 3.7). Quarterly trends were compared with the same quarter in 2019. The greatest increase in the incidence of HAI in comparison with the same quarter in 2019 for the entire population occurred in quarter 3 of 2020 for CLABSI (11.0 vs 7.3), quarter 4 of 2021 for CAUTI (7.8 vs 6.8), and quarter 3 of 2021 for MRSA (5.2 vs 3.9). When limited to the non-COVID-19 population, the increase in CLABSI incidence vs the 2019 incidence was eliminated, and the quarterly rates of MRSA and CAUTI were lower vs the prepandemic 2019 comparator quarter. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of hospitals during the pandemic, HAI occurrence among inpatients without COVID-19 was similar to that during 2019 despite additional pressures for infection control and health care professionals. The findings suggest that patients with COVID-19 may be more susceptible to HAIs and may require additional prevention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Urinary Tract Infections , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals, Community
10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 31, 2023 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the 14 countries categorised as having a triple burden of tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), and TB-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections. TB infection prevention and control (TB-IPC) guidelines were introduced in 2011 by the National Health Department of PNG. This study assesses the implementation of this policy in a sample of district hospitals in two regions of PNG. METHODS: The implementation of TB-IPC policy was assessed using a survey method based on the World Health Organization (WHO) IPC assessment framework (IPCAF) to implement the WHO's IPC core components. The study included facility assessment at ten district hospitals and validation observations of TB-IPC practices. RESULTS: Overall, implementation of IPC and TB-IPC guidelines was inadequate in participating facilities. Though 80% of facilities had an IPC program, many needed more clearly defined IPC objectives, budget allocation, and yearly work plans. In addition, they did not include senior facility managers in the IPC committee. 80% (n = 8 of 10) of hospitals had no IPC training and education; 90% had no IPC committee to support the IPC team; 70% had no surveillance protocols to monitor infections, and only 20% used multimodal strategies for IPC activities. Similarly, 70% of facilities had a TB-IPC program without a proper budget and did not include facility managers in the TB-IPC team; 80% indicated that patient flow poses a risk of TB transmission; 70% had poor ventilation systems; 90% had inadequate isolation rooms; and though 80% have personal protective equipment available, frequent shortages were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-recommended TB-IPC policy is not effectively implemented in most of the participating district hospitals. Improvements in implementing and disseminating TB-IPC guidelines, monitoring TB-IPC practices, and systematic healthcare worker training are essential to improve TB-IPC guidelines' operationalisation in health settings to reduce TB prevalence in PNG.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Papua New Guinea/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Hospitals
11.
Infect Dis Health ; 28(2): 102-114, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection prevention and control (IPC) in the medical imaging (MI) setting is recognised as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care and safe working conditions. Surveys are commonly used and have advantages for IPC research. The aim of this study was to identify the core concepts in surveys published in the literature that examined IPC in MI environments. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify studies that employed a survey relating to IPC in the MI setting. For each included study, descriptive study information and survey information were extracted. For IPC-specific survey items, directed content analysis was undertaken, using eleven pre-determined codes based on the 'Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare'. Content that related to 'Knowledge', 'Attitudes' and 'Practice' were also identified. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies and 21 unique surveys were included in this review. IPC-specific survey items assessed diverse dimensions of IPC, most commonly relating to 'transmission-based precautions' and 'applying standard and transmission-based precautions during procedures'. 'Practice' and 'Knowledge' related survey items were most frequent, compared to 'Attitudes'. CONCLUSION: MI research using survey methods have focused on the 'entry' points of IPC, rather than systemic IPC matters around policy, education, and stewardship. The concepts of 'Knowledge', 'Attitudes' and 'Practice' are integrated in IPC surveys in the MI context, with a greater focus evident on staff knowledge and practice. Existing topics within IPC surveys in MI are tailored to individual studies and locales, with lack of consistency to national frameworks.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Australia , Infection Control/methods , Health Facilities , Diagnostic Imaging
12.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(4): 333-338, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282394

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mathematical, statistical, and computational models provide insight into the transmission mechanisms and optimal control of healthcare-associated infections. To contextualize recent findings, we offer a summative review of recent literature focused on modeling transmission of pathogens in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic shift in the modeling landscape as the healthcare community has raced to characterize the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and develop effective interventions. Inequities in COVID-19 outcomes have inspired new efforts to quantify how structural bias impacts both health outcomes and model parameterization. Meanwhile, developments in the modeling of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridioides difficile, and other nosocomial infections continue to advance. Machine learning continues to be applied in novel ways, and genomic data is being increasingly incorporated into modeling efforts. SUMMARY: As the type and amount of data continues to grow, mathematical, statistical, and computational modeling will play an increasing role in healthcare epidemiology. Gaps remain in producing models that are generalizable to a variety of time periods, geographic locations, and populations. However, with effective communication of findings and interdisciplinary collaboration, opportunities for implementing models for clinical decision-making and public health decision-making are bound to increase.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Models, Theoretical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance
13.
J Patient Saf ; 19(3): 173-179, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278002

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are associated with significant patient harm and health care costs. Central line-associated bloodstream infections are preventable through quality improvement initiatives. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many challenges to these initiatives. Our community health system in Ontario, Canada, had a baseline rate of 4.62 per 1000 line days during the baseline period. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to reduce CLABSIs by 25% by 2023. METHODS: An interprofessional quality aim committee performed a root cause analysis to identify areas for improvement. Change ideas included improving governance and accountability, education and training, standardizing insertion and maintenance processes, updating equipment, improving data and reporting, and creating a culture of safety. Interventions occurred over 4 Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. The outcome was CLABSI rate per 1000 central lines: process measures were rate of central line insertion checklists used and central line capped lumens used, and balancing measure was the number of CLABSI readmissions to the critical care unit within 30 days. RESULTS: Central line-associated bloodstream infections decreased over 4 Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from a baseline rate of 4.62 (July 2019-February 2020) to 2.34 (December 2021-May 2022) per 1000 line days (51%). The rate of central line insertion checklists used increased from 22.8% to 56.9%, and central line capped lumens used increased from 72% to 94.3%. Mean CLABSI readmissions within 30 days decreased from 1.49 to 0.1798. CONCLUSIONS: Our multidisciplinary quality improvement interventions reduced CLABSIs by 51% across a health system during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Catheterization, Central Venous , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Humans , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Quality Improvement , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control
14.
Br J Community Nurs ; 28(4): 184-186, 2023 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277588

ABSTRACT

The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of infection prevention and control (IPC), and accentuated the need for better health and safety measures to protect both healthcare professionals and their patients. In this article, Francesca Ramadan provides an overview of IPC measures for community nurses, such as hand hygiene and personal protective equipment, along with the safe management of care equipment and the care environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Nurses , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control , Health Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 44(6): 948-950, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255377

ABSTRACT

In total, 50 healthcare facilities completed a survey in 2021 to characterize changes in infection prevention and control and antibiotic stewardship practices. Notable findings include sustained surveillance for multidrug-resistant organisms but decreased use of human resource-intensive interventions compared to previous surveys in 2013 and 2018 conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/drug therapy
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 135: 81-89, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerosol spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major problem in hospitals, leading to an increase in supplementary high-efficiency particulate air filtration aimed at reducing nosocomial transmission. This article reports a natural experiment that occurred when an air cleaning unit (ACU) on a medicine for older people ward was switched off accidentally while being commissioned. AIM: To assess aerosol transport within the ward and determine whether the ACU reduced airborne particulate matter (PM) levels. METHODS: An ACU was placed in a ward comprising two six-bedded bays plus three single-bed isolation rooms which had previously experienced several outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019. During commissioning, real-time measurements of key indoor air quality parameters (PM1-10, CO2, temperature and humidity) were collected from multiple sensors over 2 days. During this period, the ACU was switched off accidentally for approximately 7 h, allowing the impact of the intervention on PM to be assessed. FINDINGS: The ACU reduced the PM counts considerably (e.g. PM1 65.5-78.2%) throughout the ward (P<0.001 all sizes), with positive correlation found for all PM fractions and CO2 (r=0.343-0.817; all P<0.001). PM counts rose/fell simultaneously when the ACU was off, with correlation of PM signals from multiple locations (e.g. r=0.343-0.868; all P<0.001) for particulates <1 µm). CONCLUSION: Aerosols migrated rapidly between the various ward subcompartments, suggesting that social distancing alone cannot prevent nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 as this fails to mitigate longer-range (>2 m) transmission. The ACU reduced PM levels considerably throughout the ward space, indicating its potential as an effective intervention to reduce the risk posed by infectious airborne particles.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Aged , Particulate Matter/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Carbon Dioxide , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Hospitals , Cross Infection/prevention & control , United Kingdom
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 44(2): 342-344, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253200

ABSTRACT

Hospital-associated fungal infections from construction and renovation activities can be mitigated using an infection control risk assessment (ICRA) and implementation of infection prevention measures. The effectiveness of these measures depends on proper installation and maintenance. Consistent infection prevention construction rounding with feedback is key to ongoing compliance.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hospital Design and Construction , Mycoses , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262037

ABSTRACT

Frequently touched surfaces (FTS) that are contaminated with pathogens are one of the main sources of nosocomial infections, which commonly include hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). HAIs are considered the most common adverse event that has a significant burden on the public's health worldwide currently. The persistence of pathogens on contaminated surfaces and the transmission of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens by way of healthcare surfaces, which are frequently touched by healthcare workers, visitors, and patients increase the risk of acquiring infectious agents in hospital environments. Moreover, not only in hospitals but also in high-traffic public places, FTS play a major role in the spreading of pathogens. Consequently, attention has been devoted to developing novel and alternative methods to tackle this problem. This study planned to produce and characterize innovative functionalized enameled coated surfaces supplemented with 1% AgNO3 and 2% AgNO3. Thus, the antimicrobial properties of the enamels against relevant nosocomial pathogens including the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and the yeast Candida albicans were assessed using the ISO:22196:2011 norm.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Cross Infection , Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
20.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 37(1): 65-86, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283840

ABSTRACT

Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a global public health threat, which disproportionately impact older adults. Host factors including aging-related changes, comorbidities, and geriatric syndromes, such as dementia and frailty, predispose older individuals to infection. The HAI risks from medical interventions such as device use, antibiotic use, and lapses in infection control follow older adults as they transfer among a network of interrelated acute and long-term care facilities. Long-term care facilities are caring for patients with increasingly complex needs, and the home-like communal environment of long-term care facilities creates distinct infection prevention challenges.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Urinary Tract Infections , Humans , Aged , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
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