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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243425

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) is clinically relevant to Dengue virus (DENV) infection and poses a major risk to the application of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics against related flaviviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we tested a two-tier approach for selecting non-cross-reactive mAbs combined with modulating Fc glycosylation as a strategy to doubly secure the elimination of ADE while preserving Fc effector functions. To this end, we selected a ZIKV-specific mAb (ZV54) and generated three ZV54 variants using Chinese hamster ovary cells and wild-type (WT) and glycoengineered ΔXF Nicotiana benthamiana plants as production hosts (ZV54CHO, ZV54WT, and ZV54ΔXF). The three ZV54 variants shared an identical polypeptide backbone, but each exhibited a distinct Fc N-glycosylation profile. All three ZV54 variants showed similar neutralization potency against ZIKV but no ADE activity for DENV infection, validating the importance of selecting the virus/serotype-specific mAbs for avoiding ADE by related flaviviruses. For ZIKV infection, however, ZV54CHO and ZV54ΔXF showed significant ADE activity while ZV54WT completely forwent ADE, suggesting that Fc glycan modulation may yield mAb glycoforms that abrogate ADE even for homologous viruses. In contrast to the current strategies for Fc mutations that abrogate all effector functions along with ADE, our approach allowed the preservation of effector functions as all ZV54 glycovariants retained antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against the ZIKV-infected cells. Furthermore, the ADE-free ZV54WT demonstrated in vivo efficacy in a ZIKV-infection mouse model. Collectively, our study provides further support for the hypothesis that antibody-viral surface antigen and Fc-mediated host cell interactions are both prerequisites for ADE, and that a dual-approach strategy, as shown herein, contributes to the development of highly safe and efficacious anti-ZIKV mAb therapeutics. Our findings may be impactful to other ADE-prone viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Flavivirus , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Mice , Cricetinae , Zika Virus/genetics , CHO Cells , Dengue Virus/genetics , Cricetulus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Cross Reactions , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(6): 101088, 2023 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328298

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (CoV) family includes several viruses infecting humans, highlighting the importance of exploring pan-CoV vaccine strategies to provide broad adaptive immune protection. We analyze T cell reactivity against representative Alpha (NL63) and Beta (OC43) common cold CoVs (CCCs) in pre-pandemic samples. S, N, M, and nsp3 antigens are immunodominant, as shown for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS2), while nsp2 and nsp12 are Alpha or Beta specific. We further identify 78 OC43- and 87 NL63-specific epitopes, and, for a subset of those, we assess the T cell capability to cross-recognize sequences from representative viruses belonging to AlphaCoV, sarbecoCoV, and Beta-non-sarbecoCoV groups. We find T cell cross-reactivity within the Alpha and Beta groups, in 89% of the instances associated with sequence conservation >67%. However, despite conservation, limited cross-reactivity is observed for sarbecoCoV, indicating that previous CoV exposure is a contributing factor in determining cross-reactivity. Overall, these results provide critical insights in developing future pan-CoV vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Humans , T-Lymphocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross Reactions
3.
Libyan J Med ; 18(1): 2209949, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319183

ABSTRACT

While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes significant morbidity and mortality in humans, there is a wide range of disease outcomes following virus exposures. Some individuals are asymptomatic while others develop complications within a few days after infection that can lead to fatalities in a smaller portion of the population. In the present study, we have analyzed the factors that may influence the outcome of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection. One factor that may influence virus control is pre-existing immunity conferred by an individual's past exposures to endemic coronaviruses (eCOVIDs) which cause the common cold in humans and generally, most children are exposed to one of the four eCOVIDs before 2 years of age. Here, we have carried out protein sequence analyses to show the amino acid homologies between the four eCOVIDs (i.e. OC43, HKU1, 229E, and NL63) as well as examining the cross-reactive immune responses between SARS-CoV-2 and eCOVIDs by epidemiologic analyses. Our results show that the nations where continuous exposures to eCOVIDs are very high due to religious and traditional causes showed significantly lower cases and low mortality rates per 100,000. We hypothesize that in the areas of the globe where Muslims are in majority and due to religious practices are regularly exposed to eCOVIDs they show a significantly lower infection, as well as mortality rate, and that is due to pre-existing cross-immunity against SARS-CoV-2. This is due to cross-reactive antibodies and T-cells that recognize SARS-CoV-2 antigens. We also have reviewed the current literature that has also proposed that human infections with eCOVIDs impart protection against disease caused by subsequent exposure to SARS-CoV-2. We propose that a nasal spray vaccine consisting of selected genes of eCOVIDs would be beneficial against SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Cross Reactions , Antibodies, Viral
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 945228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313019

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new variants of concern (VOCs) of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is one of the main factors of epidemic progression. Their development can be characterized by three critical stages: virus mutation leading to the appearance of new viable variants; the competition of different variants leading to the production of a sufficiently large number of copies; and infection transmission between individuals and its spreading in the population. The first two stages take place at the individual level (infected individual), while the third one takes place at the population level with possible competition between different variants. This work is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the first two stages of this process: the emergence of new variants and their progression in the epithelial tissue with a possible competition between them. The emergence of new virus variants is modeled with non-local reaction-diffusion equations describing virus evolution and immune escape in the space of genotypes. The conditions of the emergence of new virus variants are determined by the mutation rate, the cross-reactivity of the immune response, and the rates of virus replication and death. Once different variants emerge, they spread in the infected tissue with a certain speed and viral load that can be determined through the parameters of the model. The competition of different variants for uninfected cells leads to the emergence of a single dominant variant and the elimination of the others due to competitive exclusion. The dominant variant is the one with the maximal individual spreading speed. Thus, the emergence of new variants at the individual level is determined by the immune escape and by the virus spreading speed in the infected tissue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross Reactions , Diffusion
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1056525, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262698

ABSTRACT

Currently available COVID-19 vaccines include inactivated virus, live attenuated virus, mRNA-based, viral vectored and adjuvanted protein-subunit-based vaccines. All of them contain the spike glycoprotein as the main immunogen and result in reduced disease severity upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. While we and others have shown that mRNA-based vaccination reactivates pre-existing, cross-reactive immunity, the effect of vector vaccines in this regard is unknown. Here, we studied cellular and humoral responses in heterologous adenovirus-vector-based ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (AZ; Vaxzeria, AstraZeneca) and mRNA-based BNT162b2 (BNT; Comirnaty, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccination and compared it to a homologous BNT vaccination regimen. AZ primary vaccination did not lead to measurable reactivation of cross-reactive cellular and humoral immunity compared to BNT primary vaccination. Moreover, humoral immunity induced by primary vaccination with AZ displayed differences in linear spike peptide epitope coverage and a lack of anti-S2 IgG antibodies. Contrary to primary AZ vaccination, secondary vaccination with BNT reactivated pre-existing, cross-reactive immunity, comparable to homologous primary and secondary mRNA vaccination. While induced anti-S1 IgG antibody titers were higher after heterologous vaccination, induced CD4+ T cell responses were highest in homologous vaccinated. However, the overall TCR repertoire breadth was comparable between heterologous AZ-BNT-vaccinated and homologous BNT-BNT-vaccinated individuals, matching TCR repertoire breadths after SARS-CoV-2 infection, too. The reasons why AZ and BNT primary vaccination elicits different immune response patterns to essentially the same antigen, and the associated benefits and risks, need further investigation to inform vaccine and vaccination schedule development.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross Reactions , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(12): e2220320120, 2023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263575

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells have been identified in SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals, potentially modulating COVID-19 and vaccination outcomes. Here, we provide evidence that functional cross-reactive memory CD4+ T cell immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is established in early childhood, mirroring early seroconversion with seasonal human coronavirus OC43. Humoral and cellular immune responses against OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 were assessed in SARS-CoV-2-unexposed children (paired samples at age two and six) and adults (age 26 to 83). Pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cell responses targeting spike, nucleocapsid, and membrane were closely linked to the frequency of OC43-specific memory CD4+ T cells in childhood. The functional quality of the cross-reactive memory CD4+ T cell responses targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike, but not nucleocapsid, paralleled OC43-specific T cell responses. OC43-specific antibodies were prevalent already at age two. However, they did not increase further with age, contrasting with the antibody magnitudes against HKU1 (ß-coronavirus), 229E and NL63 (α-coronaviruses), rhinovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and influenza virus, which increased after age two. The quality of the memory CD4+ T cell responses peaked at age six and subsequently declined with age, with diminished expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and CD38 in late adulthood. Age-dependent qualitative differences in the pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cell responses may reflect the ability of the host to control coronavirus infections and respond to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Child, Preschool , Adult , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Herpesvirus 4, Human , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions
7.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 5(1): 89-93, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-COV-2 variant has raised serious concerns because of its unprecedented rapid rate of spreading and the fact that there are 36 mutations in the spike protein. Since the vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody targets are the spike protein, this may lead to the possibility of vaccine-induced humoral immunity escape. METHODS: We measured the neutralizing activity in vitro for Omicron and compared this with wild type (WH-09) and Delta variants in human and monkey sera from different types of immunity. The monkey sera samples were collected at 1 and 3 months post three-dose inactivated (PiCoVacc) and recombinant protein (ZF2001) vaccination. Human sera were collected from 1 month post three-dose inactivated vaccination. RESULTS: In inactivated vaccine sera, at 1/3 months post three-dose, geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralization antibody (NAb) against the Omicron variant were 4.9/5.2-fold lower than those of the wild type. In recombinant protein vaccine sera, GMTs of NAb against Omicron were 15.7/8.9-fold lower than those of the wild type. In human sera, at 1 month post three-dose inactivated vaccination, GMTs of NAb against Omicron were 3.1-fold lower than those of the wild type. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that despite a reduction in neutralization titers, cross-neutralizing activity against Omicron and Delta variants was still observed after three doses of inactivated and recombinant protein vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Haplorhini , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28557, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229643

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a vector-borne viral disease caused by a Flavivirus whereas the COVID-19 pandemic was caused by a highly contagious virus, SARS-CoV-2 belonging to the family Coronaviridae. However, COVID-19 severity was observably less in dengue-endemic countries and vice versa especially during the active years of the pandemic (2019-2021). We observed that dengue virus (DENV) antibodies (Abs) could cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen. This resulted in SARS-CoV-2 false positivity by rapid Ab test kits. DENV Abs binding to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (and the reverse scenario), as revealed by docking studies further validated DENV and SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 Abs were found to cross-neutralize DENV1 and DENV2 in virus neutralization test (VNT). Abs to other pathogens like Plasmodium were also cross-reactive but non-neutralizing for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we analyze the existing data on SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity with other pathogens, especially dengue to assess its impact on health (cross-protection?) and differential sero-diagnosis/surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035441, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228922

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the persistence of the pandemic, even with mass coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, have raised questions about the durability of immunity and extent of cross-reactive immunity after vaccination. This study aimed to characterize the humoral and cellular immune response to the mRNA-1273 vaccine using a prospective longitudinal cohort. Methods: We recruited 177 young SARS-CoV-2 infection-naive adults. Two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine were administered at 28-day intervals, and blood samples were collected at five time points: pre-vaccination (T0), 4 weeks after the first (T1) and second dose (T2), and 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) after the first dose. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S) IgG antibody, neutralizing antibody, and T-cell immune responses were evaluated. Results: The two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccination induced robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses, which remained higher than the titers at T1 until T4. A higher peak anti-S antibody titer at T2 was associated with better cross-reactive immunity against Delta and Omicron variants and long-lasting (anti-S IgG and neutralizing antibody) humoral immunity up to T4. The overall T-cell immune response was not correlated with peak antibody titers (T-lymphocyte subpopulation analysis was not performed). Conclusion: This study showed that an early strong antibody response is predictive of longer humoral immunity and better cross-reactive neutralizing immunity against Delta and Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Cross Reactions
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1049458, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236273

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A key feature of the COVID-19 pandemic has been the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with different transmission characteristics. However, when a novel variant arrives in a host population, it will not necessarily lead to many cases. Instead, it may fade out, due to stochastic effects and the level of immunity in the population. Immunity against novel SARS-CoV-2 variants may be influenced by prior exposures to related viruses, such as other SARS-CoV-2 variants and seasonal coronaviruses, and the level of cross-reactive immunity conferred by those exposures. Methods: Here, we investigate the impact of cross-reactive immunity on the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants in a simplified scenario in which a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant is introduced after an antigenically related virus has spread in the population. We use mathematical modelling to explore the risk that the novel variant invades the population and causes a large number of cases, as opposed to fading out with few cases. Results: We find that, if cross-reactive immunity is complete (i.e. someone infected by the previously circulating virus is not susceptible to the novel variant), the novel variant must be more transmissible than the previous virus to invade the population. However, in a more realistic scenario in which cross-reactive immunity is partial, we show that it is possible for novel variants to invade, even if they are less transmissible than previously circulating viruses. This is because partial cross-reactive immunity effectively increases the pool of susceptible hosts that are available to the novel variant compared to complete cross-reactive immunity. Furthermore, if previous infection with the antigenically related virus assists the establishment of infection with the novel variant, as has been proposed following some experimental studies, then even variants with very limited transmissibility are able to invade the host population. Discussion: Our results highlight that fast assessment of the level of cross-reactive immunity conferred by related viruses against novel SARS-CoV-2 variants is an essential component of novel variant risk assessments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics , Cross Reactions
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(1): e1011063, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197182

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its sublineages pose a new challenge to healthcare systems worldwide due to its ability to efficiently spread in immunized populations and its resistance to currently available therapies. COVID-19, although targeting primarily the respiratory system, is also now well established that later affects every organ in the body. Most importantly, despite the available therapy and vaccine-elicited protection, the long-term consequences of viral infection in breakthrough and asymptomatic individuals are areas of concern. In the past two years, investigators accumulated evidence on how the virus triggers our immune system and the molecular signals involved in the cross-talk between immune cells and structural cells in the pulmonary vasculature to drive pathological lung complications such as endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis. In the review, we emphasize recent updates on the pathophysiological inflammatory and immune responses associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their potential long-term consequences that may consequently lead to the development of pulmonary vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung , Cross Reactions
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22175, 2022 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186046

ABSTRACT

Sero-surveillance can monitor and project disease burden and risk. However, SARS-CoV-2 antibody test results can produce false positive results, limiting their efficacy as a sero-surveillance tool. False positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody results are associated with malaria exposure, and understanding this association is essential to interpret sero-surveillance results from malaria-endemic countries. Here, pre-pandemic samples from eight malaria endemic and non-endemic countries and four continents were tested by ELISA to measure SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 subunit reactivity. Individuals with acute malaria infection generated substantial SARS-CoV-2 reactivity. Cross-reactivity was not associated with reactivity to other human coronaviruses or other SARS-CoV-2 proteins, as measured by peptide and protein arrays. ELISAs with deglycosylated and desialated Spike S1 subunits revealed that cross-reactive antibodies target sialic acid on N-linked glycans of the Spike protein. The functional activity of cross-reactive antibodies measured by neutralization assays showed that cross-reactive antibodies did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Since routine use of glycosylated or sialated assays could result in false positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody results in malaria endemic regions, which could overestimate exposure and population-level immunity, we explored methods to increase specificity by reducing cross-reactivity. Overestimating population-level exposure to SARS-CoV-2 could lead to underestimates of risk of continued COVID-19 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Epitopes
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140675

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged in late 2019, and quickly spread to every continent causing the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Fast propagation of the disease presented numerous challenges to the health care industry in general and especially placed enormous pressure on laboratory testing. Throughout the pandemic, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-based nucleic acid amplification tests have been the primary technique to identify acute infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. Since the start of the pandemic, there has been a constantly growing need for accurate and fast tests to enable timely protective and isolation means, as well as rapid therapeutic interventions. Here we present an evaluation of the GenomEra test for SARS-CoV-2. Analytical and clinical performance was evaluated in a multicenter setting with specimens analyzed using standard-of-care (SOC) techniques. Analytical sensitivity was assessed from spiked respiratory swab samples collected into different viral transport media, and in the best performer eSwab, the limit of detection was found to be 239 IU/mL in a heat processed sample. The GenomEra SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit did not show specificity/cross-reactivity issues with common micro-organisms or other substances commonly found in respiratory specimens when analyzed both in vitro and in silico. Finally, the clinical performance was assessed in comparison to SOC techniques used at four institutions. Based on the analysis of 274 clinical specimens, the positive agreement of the GenomEra SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit was 90.7%, and the negative agreement was 100%. The GenomEra SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit provided accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 with a short turnaround time in under 90 min.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biological Assay , Pandemics , Cross Reactions
15.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 41(5): 229-230, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097269
16.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 47-53, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incidence and severity of SARS-CoV2 infection are significantly lower in children and teenagers proposing that certain vaccines, routinely administered to neonates and children may provide cross-protection against this emerging infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-protection induced by prior measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccinations against COVID-19. METHODS: The antibody responses to MMR and tetanus vaccines were determined in 53 patients affected with SARS-CoV2 infection and 52 age-matched healthy subjects. Serum levels of antibodies specific for NP and RBD of SARS-CoV2 were also determined in both groups of subjects with ELISA. RESULTS: Our results revealed significant differences in anti-NP (P<0.0001) and anti-RBD (P<0.0001) IgG levels between patients and healthy controls. While the levels of rubella- and mumps specific IgG were not different in the two groups of subjects, measles-specific IgG was significantly higher in patients (P<0.01). The serum titer of anti-tetanus antibody, however, was significantly lower in patients compared to healthy individuals (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that measles vaccination triggers those B cells cross-reactive with SARS-CoV2 antigens leading to the production of increased levels of measles-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Middle Aged , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/therapeutic use
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2352-2355, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054901

ABSTRACT

We assessed cross-reactivity to BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 of neutralizing antibodies elicited by ancestral, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Primary infection elicited homologous antibodies with poor cross-reactivity to Omicron strains. This pattern remained after BA.1 challenge, although ancestral- and Delta-infected mice were protected from BA.1 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins , Cross Reactions
18.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabq3511, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038228

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) breakthrough infection will facilitate the development of next-generation vaccines. Here, we profiled spike (S)-specific B cell responses after Omicron/BA.1 infection in messenger RNA-vaccinated donors. The acute antibody response was characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and a bias toward recognition of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting the early activation of vaccine-induced memory B cells. BA.1 breakthrough infection induced a shift in B cell immunodominance hierarchy from the S2 subunit, which is highly conserved across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), and toward the antigenically variable receptor binding domain (RBD). A large proportion of RBD-directed neutralizing antibodies isolated from BA.1 breakthrough infection donors displayed convergent sequence features and broadly recognized SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Together, these findings provide insights into the role of preexisting immunity in shaping the B cell response to heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variant exposure.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Antibodies, Viral , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
19.
Nat Immunol ; 23(9): 1307-1308, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016770
20.
Nat Immunol ; 23(9): 1324-1329, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016769

ABSTRACT

T cells can contribute to clearance of respiratory viruses that cause acute-resolving infections such as SARS-CoV-2, helping to provide long-lived protection against disease. Recent studies have suggested an additional role for T cells in resisting overt infection: pre-existing cross-reactive responses were preferentially enriched in healthcare workers who had abortive infections1, and in household contacts protected from infection2. We hypothesize that such early viral control would require pre-existing cross-reactive memory T cells already resident at the site of infection; such airway-resident responses have been shown to be critical for mediating protection after intranasal vaccination in a murine model of SARS-CoV3. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the lower respiratory tract of healthy donors obtained before the COVID-19 pandemic revealed airway-resident, SARS-CoV-2-cross-reactive T cells, which correlated with the strength of human seasonal coronavirus immunity. We therefore demonstrate the potential to harness functional airway-resident SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in next-generation mucosal vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Respiratory System
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