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1.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 70(4): 177-182, 2022 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2182743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stigma underlies the violation of certain social, economic, and cultural rights of patients with schizophrenia, including their access to treatment and care. Measurement of stigma remains as complex and multifaceted as the phenomenon itself. Several measurement tools are available to assess the prevalence, intensity and qualities of stigma. The aim of the study was to carry out a cross-cultural adaptation of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC), in the Moroccan Arabic dialect commonly known as "Darija". PATIENTS AND METHOD: The study was conducted in three psychiatric departments of public hospitals in the Souss-Massa region, located in southern Morocco. For the diagnosis of schizophrenia, the study was based on the decisions of the psychiatrists practicing at the study sites. The cross-cultural adaptation in Moroccan Darija of the stigma scale developed by Michel Weiss in the EMIC was carried out according to the six-step scientific method developed by Dorcas et al. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency) was 0.845. Convergent validity determined by Pearson's coefficient showed a significant inter-item correlation and the intra-class correlation coefficient (test-retest) was 0.975 (0.993; 0.991). The item added in relation to the COVID-19 situation presented psychometric values similar to the others. CONCLUSION: The Darija version is culturally acceptable and can be used to approach the phenomenon of stigmatization in Morocco.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Language , Morocco/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Schizophrenia/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277969, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140677

ABSTRACT

Nudging is a method for eliciting a desired behavior. One approach to nudging involves information provision. When information presented for this purpose is designed from an evolutionary perspective, it may reveal a deeper level of rationality within human decision-making that might otherwise appear to be irrational. Based on insights from the evolution of altruism, we previously designed a message to remind people of the benefits they have received from the actions of relatives to realize industrialization. We then demonstrated that using this message in Japan was effective at moderating extreme risk-averse attitudes toward air pollution resulting from industrialization. However, the universality of the intervention effect, including whether it could be affected by exogenous factors, was not explored. Therefore, in the present study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial based on an online survey carried out in Japan, Canada, and the US. The intervention was shown to be effective in all the three countries, but the effect size varied according to segment. Although women showed more intervention effects than men in Japan and the US, no significant sex difference was observed in Canada. In terms of personality traits, higher agreeableness significantly contributed to the intervention effects. The influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which necessitated many lifestyle changes, was found to weaken the intervention effect by increasing the message effect in the control group. We propose that this effect was caused by an increased perception of familial support in everyday life. These results suggest that the nudge message was universally effective, although the effect size might have been affected by cultural factors and social events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Female , Male , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Attitude
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113990

ABSTRACT

Assuming the multidimensionality of health literacy, new complex and comprehensive approaches are more adequate to specific disease contexts, such as cancer. Assessing cancer literacy levels is a priority, since it entails potential serious implications for disease outcomes and patient's quality of life. This article reports on the translation and cultural adaptation of the Cancer Health Literacy Test to measure cancer literacy in Portuguese cancer patients. A multidisciplinary team of experts ensured the translation and cultural adaptation of the CHLT-30. A pre-test was conducted in two stages to evaluate the Portuguese version (CHLT-30 PT) in a sample of cancer patients (n = 71). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) and construct validity of CHLT-30 PT were assessed. The results obtained show a good internal consistency of the tool, respectively (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 in the test and 0.80 in the retest). Patients' raw score mean in both test (23.96) and retest (25.97) and the distribution of scores categories are not statistically different. A suggestive association between higher education level and better total score was found compared to the results reported in CHLT-30-DKspa. The results obtained in the pre-test are favorable, and the instrument is now suitable for the next steps of the validation process. A Portuguese version of this tool will allow outlining patients' cancer literacy along the cancer care continuum, enabling the identification and implementation of adequate socio-educational strategies with highly positive impacts on health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Neoplasms , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Portugal , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277183, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098775

ABSTRACT

Disposable plastics are drawing considerable attention as a source of environmental risk despite their benefits in daily life. Banning the use of disposable plastics could increase other types of risks, which may damage the public good in the long run. Considering the trade-off of the risks and benefits, one way to improve social welfare is to conduct proper recycling and to continue using plastics but limit them to essential use, avoiding an unnecessary ban. A potential barrier to such a policy might be risk-averse attitudes toward actions that are perceived to threaten future generations, which is a well-known phenomenon. We previously designed a framework for information provision using messages that remind individuals about familial support, which had significant effects in multiple countries on increasing positive attitudes toward air pollution caused by industrialization. We hypothesized that this information provision could also be effective for disposable plastic use. Thus, we conducted a randomized controlled trial via online surveys in Japan, Canada, and the US to identify the effects of our designed messages about recycling on increasing positive attitudes toward disposable plastics. The intervention effects were measured by the difference-in-difference method and panel analysis based on linear regression models using the respondents' attributes and personality traits. The effects were consistently correlated with a sense of familial support, with the effect sizes varying according to country (US > Japan > Canada). Attributes that positively contributed to the message being more effective were higher agreeableness, lower Machiavellianism, lower psychopathy, and being a woman. Although personal fear about COVID-19 moderated the message effects, concern about the threats to relatives and family boosted the effects. Although the effect sizes were influenced by external factors, the results suggested that our proposed framework for information provision has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of risk-related topics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastics , Female , Humans , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cross-Cultural Comparison , COVID-19/prevention & control , Attitude
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3490, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2054563

ABSTRACT

Objective: to translate and culturally adapt the Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of covid-19 questionnaire to the Brazilian context and to develop and evaluate a sociodemographic and occupational characterization questionnaire to compose the adapted questionnaire. Method: five stages were conducted to adapt the Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of covid-19 questionnaire, namely: translation, synthesis of the translations, evaluation by a committee of judges, back translation and pre-test. As for the complementary questionnaire, it was elaborated and evaluated by a committee of judges and a pre-test was carried out. Results: the questionnaires were validated and the pre-test stage was conducted with health workers and students. Conclusion: the final version adapted to the Brazilian context was called Questionário de avaliação de risco e gestão da exposição de trabalhadores e estudantes de saúde no contexto da covid-19 and is available for use, together with the final version of the Sociodemographic and occupational questionnaire: Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers and students in the context of covid-19. These questionnaires may assist in mitigating the risks of infection, illness and death of health workers and students due to covid-19.


Objetivo: traducir y adaptar culturalmente el cuestionario Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of covid-19 al contexto brasileño y elaborar y evaluar un cuestionario de caracterización sociodemográfica y ocupacional para formular el cuestionario adaptado. Método: se llevaron a cabo cinco pasos para adaptar el cuestionario Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of covid-19: traducción, síntesis de traducciones, evaluación por un comité de jueces, retrotraducción y pretest. En cuanto al cuestionario complementario, fue elaborado y evaluado por un comité de jueces y se realizó una prueba previa. Resultados: se validaron los cuestionarios y se realizó la etapa de pretest con trabajadores y estudiantes del área de la salud. Conclusión: la versión final adaptada al contexto brasileño se denominó Questionário de avaliação de risco e gestão da exposição de trabalhadores e estudantes de saúde no contexto da covid-19 y está disponible para su uso, junto con la versión final del Questionário de avaliação de risco e gestão da exposição de trabalhadores e estudantes de saúde no contexto da COVID-19. Estos cuestionarios pueden ayudar a disminuir los riesgos de infección, enfermedad y muerte de los trabajadores y los estudiantes del área de la salud por covid-19.


Objetivo: traduzir e adaptar culturalmente o questionário Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of covid-19 para o contexto brasileiro e elaborar e avaliar um questionário de caracterização sociodemográfica e ocupacional para compor o questionário adaptado. Método: cinco etapas foram realizadas para adaptação do questionário Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of covid-19: tradução, síntese das traduções, avaliação por comitê de juízes, retrotradução e pré-teste. Quanto ao questionário complementar, foi construído e avaliado por um comitê de juízes e realizado pré-teste. Resultados: os questionários foram validados e a etapa de pré-teste foi realizada com trabalhadores e estudantes da área de saúde. Conclusão: a versão final adaptada para o contexto brasileiro foi denominada Questionário de avaliação de risco e gestão da exposição de trabalhadores e estudantes de saúde no contexto da covid-19 e está disponibilizada para uso, juntamente com a versão final do questionário sociodemográfico e ocupacional: avaliação de risco e gestão da exposição de trabalhadores e estudantes da área de saúde no contexto da covid-19. Estes questionários podem auxiliar na mitigação dos riscos de infecção, adoecimento e morte de trabalhadores e estudantes da área de saúde pela covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatrics , Translations , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0269396, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054307

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak and governmental measures to keep the population safe had a great impact on many aspects of society, including well-being. Using data from N = 1281 participants from six countries (Argentina, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, and Turkey), we first explored differences in anxiety, depression (measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS), and time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; ZTPI), between these countries during the first weeks of the pandemic. We observed that Turkish participants reported the highest levels of anxiety, and Japanese and Greek the lowest. For depression symptoms, the Japanese scored highest and Italians lowest. Next, for each country, we investigated how well the relatively time-stable personality traits of time perspectives, chronotype (reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire; rMEQ), and Big Five personality traits (short Big Five Inventory; BFI) predicted the levels of anxiety and depression (HADS). The regression analyses showed that negative attitudes towards the past predicted the levels of both anxiety and depression in most of the countries we analyzed. Additionally, in many countries, a Past Positive orientation negatively predicted depression whereas the Present Fatalistic subscale predicted anxiety and depression. The chronotype did not contribute additionally to the models. The Big Five traits (and particularly neuroticism) showed substantial incremental explanatory power for anxiety in some countries but did not consistently predict anxiety levels. For depression, the additional variance accounted for by including the BFI as predictors was rather small. Importantly, the ZTPI subscales were retained as significant predictors in the model still when the BFI and rMEQ were considered as potential predictors. Our results yield evidence that the ZTPI time perspectives are valuable predictors for anxiety and depression levels during the first period of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans
7.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 39, 2022 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038786

ABSTRACT

The chronic illness trajectory and its outcomes are well explained by the concept of illness identity; the extent to which ill individuals have integrated their diagnosed chronic illness into their identity or sense of self. The capacity to measure illness identity in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is still relatively unexplored. However, this is potentially useful to help us understand how outcomes for PLHIV could be improved and sustained. This paper aims to explore the cross-cultural adaptation of a Belgian developed Illness Identity Questionnaire (IIQ) and validate the instrument using a sample of South African adults living with HIV. We followed a phased scale adaptation and validation process which included an investigation of conceptual, item, semantic and operational equivalence and also examined the psychometric properties of the IIQ. The concept of illness identity with its four factors; engulfment, rejection, acceptance and enrichment in PLHIV, was found to be relevant within this context. Five items from the original IIQ were excluded from the adapted IIQ due to either semantic insufficiency and/or inadequate measurement equivalence. The mode of administration of the IIQ was changed to accommodate current study participants. The original four factor 25-item model did not fit current data, however, a better contextualized, four-factor, 20-item model was identified and found valid in the current setting. The results showed adequate statistical fit; χ2/d.f. = 1.516, RMSEA = 0.076, SRMR = 0.0893, and CFI = 0.909. Convergent and discriminant validity were also tenable. The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the IIQ was successful, resulting in the availability of an instrument capable of measuring illness identity in PLHIV in a high HIV prevalence and resource-constrained setting. This therefore addresses the paucity of information and expands on knowledge about illness identity.


Subject(s)
Cross-Cultural Comparison , HIV Infections , Adult , Chronic Disease , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , South Africa/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 154: 315-323, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the amount of the total variance of the subjective well-being (SWB) of psychotherapists from 12 European countries explained by between-country vs. between-person differences regarding its cognitive (life satisfaction) and affective components (positive affect [PA] and negative affect [NA]). Second, we explored a link between the SWB and their personal (self-efficacy) and social resources (social support) after controlling for sociodemographics, work characteristics, and COVID-19-related distress. METHODS: In total, 2915 psychotherapists from 12 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Great Britain, Serbia, Spain, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and Switzerland) participated in this study. The participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF), the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. RESULTS: Cognitive well-being (CWB; satisfaction with life) was a more country-dependent component of SWB than affective well-being (AWB). Consequently, at the individual level, significant correlates were found only for AWB but not for CWB. Higher AWB was linked to being female, older age, higher weekly workload, and lower COVID-19-related distress. Self-efficacy and social support explained AWB only, including their main effects and the moderating effect of self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight more individual characteristics of AWB compared to CWB, with a more critical role of low self-efficacy for the link between social support and PA rather than NA. This finding suggests the need for greater self-care among psychotherapists regarding their AWB and the more complex conditions underlying their CWB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Female , Humans , Male , Psychotherapists , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13527, 2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984427

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural differences, as operationalized by Schwartz's refined theory of basic values, in burnout levels among psychotherapists from 12 European countries during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We focused on the multilevel approach to investigate if individual- and country-aggregated level values could explain differences in burnout intensity after controlling for sociodemographic, work-related characteristics and COVID-19-related distress among participants. 2915 psychotherapists from 12 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Great Britain, Serbia, Spain, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and Switzerland) participated in this study. The participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey, the revised version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire, and a survey questionnaire on sociodemographic, work-related factors and the COVID-19 related distress. In general, the lowest mean level of burnout was noted for Romania, whereas the highest mean burnout intensity was reported for Cyprus. Multilevel analysis revealed that burnout at the individual level was negatively related to self-transcendence and openness-to-change but positively related to self-enhancement and conservation values. However, no significant effects on any values were observed at the country level. Male sex, younger age, being single, and reporting higher COVID-19-related distress were significant burnout correlates. Burnout among psychotherapists may be a transcultural phenomenon, where individual differences among psychotherapists are likely to be more important than differences between the countries of their practice. This finding enriches the discussion on training in psychotherapy in an international context and draws attention to the neglected issue of mental health among psychotherapists in the context of their professional functioning.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychotherapists , Serbia , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 500-507, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study examined how psychological resilience acted as a buffer against mental health deterioration during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an online survey in four countries (Japan, Malaysia, China, and the U.S.) to examine how psychological resilience functions toward the maintenance of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We collected data from 1583 citizens from four countries via an online survey between October 14 and November 2, 2020. We gathered demographic data and measured mental distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) and fear of COVID-19. Data on sense of control, ego-resilience, grit, self-compassion, and resilience indicators were also collected. RESULTS: Sense of control was negatively associated with mental distress in all four countries. Self-compassion was negatively associated with mental distress in the samples from Japan, China, and the U.S. We also found an interaction effect for sense of control: the lower the sense of control, the stronger the deterioration of mental distress when the fear of COVID-19 was high. LIMITATIONS: This study's cross-sectional design precludes causal inferences. Further, lack of data from people who were actually infected with the virus limits comparisons of people who were and were not infected. Finally, as this study only compared data from four countries, comparisons with more countries are needed. CONCLUSIONS: A sense of control and self-compassion may help buffer against mental health deterioration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sense of control was consistently associated with mental health across cultures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Malaysia/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963970

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to massive changes in almost all aspects of human life, including emotional states such as anxiety and fear, perspectives about healthy lifestyles, and psychological outcomes. This study aimed to disentangle the mechanisms that underlie the relationships of anxiety towards COVID-19 and fear of negative appearance with well-being, we also investigated the effects of cultural variations on levels of anxiety, fear of negative appearance, healthy lifestyles, and well-being. A total of 881 Indonesians (n = 172) and Poles (n = 709) participated in this study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological well-being, anxiety, fear of negative appearance, compulsive exercise, and eating disorders. Multigroup structural equation modelling (SEM) was used. The results showed no statistically meaningful relationship between anxiety towards COVID-19 and well-being. However, it was found that, in the Polish sample, compulsive exercise and eating disorders mediated the relationship between fear of negative appearance and well-being. Cultural differences were also found in the mean scores of all examined constructs, with eating disorders being an exception. Therefore, this study highlights cultural aspects that determine emotional states, healthy lifestyles, and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Fear/psychology , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: fear of COVID-19 is widespread among the population, especially among college students because of their increased exposure to the media information overload of the COVID-19 outbreak. The Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19 S) is a relatively short instrument used to evaluate fears surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the validity and reliability of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale have not been fully investigated in Chinese university student groups. OBJECTIVES: this study assessed the cross-cultural adaptability and reliability of the FCV-19S for Chinese university students. METHODS: a Chinese version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale (C-FCV-19S) was generated using the translation-backward translation method. Psychometric properties of the C-FCV-19S, including internal consistency, split-half reliability, construct reliability, convergent validity, and diagnostic accuracy, were evaluated. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7) scales were also used to evaluate participants for depression and anxiety. RESULTS: the C-FCV-19S has acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.872) and satisfactory split-half reliability (correlation coefficient: 0.799). Using the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), we examined the construct reliability (KMO = 0.920). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed that the bifactor model of scale (including general factor, factor1: the awareness of COVID-19 and physiological arousal, factor 2: fear-related thinking) had a good fit index (χ2/df =6.18, RMSEA= 0.067, SRMR = 0.028, GFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.970 and CFI= 0.988). Using depression-positive and anxiety-positive scores as reference criteria, we found that the areas under the curve were 0.70 and 0.68, respectively, and that the optimal cutoff scores of the C-FCV-19S was 17.5 (sensitivity: 66.3% and 58.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: the validity and reliability of C-FCV-19S are satisfactory, and the optimal cutoff point was 17.5. The C-FCV-19S can be applied adopted in Chinese university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Universities
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11613, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927100

ABSTRACT

This study reported domestic and overseas Taiwanese people's perceived stress levels and examined the mediation effect of their coping strategies during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 2727 Taiwanese respondents from the COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey (N = 173,426) between March 30 and May 30, 2020. The self-report questionnaire included a modified 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and a 16-item coping strategy scale. Three stress-coping factors were extracted with principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Their effects were examined through a regression and mediation analysis. The overseas Taiwanese participants had a significantly higher stress level than domestic counterparts (2.89 to 2.69 in 1-5 scale, p < 0.001). Government guidance was associated with lower stress level among domestic (- 0.097, 95% C.I. [- 0.131, - 0.063]) but not overseas Taiwanese (0.025, [- 0.114, 0.163]). The association of stress level with residency was mediated by coping strategies, for government guidance (0.04, [0.01, 0.07], ref: domestic participants) and supportive social networks (- 0.03, [- 0.05, - 0.01]). All results hold after the propensity score matching on samples. Government guidance on COVID-19 as a channel for coping with stress is correlated with the residency status of the respondents. Public health authorities should recognize the importance of various mental health interventions during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan
15.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 158-166, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926201

ABSTRACT

The pandemic context presents remarkable psychological challenges for adolescents and young adults. The aim of the present work was to construct and study the psychometric properties of a scale in Spanish language (W-COV) to measure their worries related to the pandemic. Participants were 5559 people aged between 14 and 25 years old (M = 19.05; SD = 3.28). Self-report data were collected using a cross-sectional and cross-cultural design. Participants were from 5 Spanish-speaking countries. Instruments were W-COV to assess worries about COVID-19 and its consequences; DASS-21 for anxiety, depression and stress; and SWLS for life satisfaction. Exploratory, confirmatory and multi-group factor analyses were conducted to determine the factorial structure of the W-COV and its measurement invariance (configural, metric, scalar and error variance). Correlational and regression analyses were also performed to study convergent and predictive validity. The results suggest that W-COV presents a bifactorial structure: (1) a general factor of worries about COVID-19; and (2) three different factors: worries about health, economic and psychosocial consequences from COVID-19. The internal reliability indices Cronbach's α and Omega were adequate. With respect to the invariance results, the instrument can be used interchangeably in the five countries considered, in both genders and in two different age groups (12-17 and 18-25). Regarding validity, W-COV factors were positively associated with anxiety, depression and stress, and negatively predicted life satisfaction. In conclusion, W-COV is a reliable and valid instrument for researchers and health care professionals to assess the psychological impact of the pandemic on mental health of young Ibero-Americans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Psychometrics/methods , Quality of Life/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 908720, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924184

ABSTRACT

Aims: Over the past 2 years, the vaccine conspiracy beliefs construct has been used in a number of different studies. These publications have assessed the determinants and outcomes of vaccine conspiracy beliefs using, in some cases, pooled data from different countries, and compared the results across these contexts. However, studies often do not consider measurement invariance as a necessary requirement for comparative analyses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the cross-cultural MI of the COVID-19 Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (COVID-VCBS) in 12 Latin American countries. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory analysis and alignment method were applied to test measurement invariance in a large number of groups. Results: The COVID-VCBS showed robust psychometric properties and measurement invariance for both factor loadings and crosstabs. Also, a higher level of acceptance of conspiracy beliefs about vaccines is necessary to respond to higher response categories. Similarly, greater acceptance of conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines was related to a lower intention to be vaccinated. Conclusion: The results allow for improved understanding of conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines in the countries assessed; furthermore, they provide researchers and practitioners with an invariant measure that they can use in cross-cultural studies in Latin America. However, further studies are needed to test invariance in other countries, with the goal of developing a truly international measure of conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Latin America
17.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(6): 134-138, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Of the work is a cross-cultural analysis of the characteristics of student response in a pandemic situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of students of NSMU and the Kazakh National University. Al-Farabi in the amount of 37 people aged 20 to 23; The battery of psychological methods was compiled by Spielberger and Khanina; Mississippi Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (civil version) and PSM-25 Psychological Stress Scale. RESULTS: 52.7% of respondents showed an average level of stress, 47.3% - a low level, which indicates insufficient psychological adaptation to psychological stress. High rates of personal and situational anxiety were diagnosed in 67.57% of cases; the average level of reactive anxiety - in 29.73% of cases and personal - in 27.03% of respondents. The majority of respondents showed average levels of post-traumatic stress reactions (50%, n=37), while a low level of post-traumatic stress reactions occurs in 11 (14.87%) people, a low level - in 17 (22.97%) people and increased - in 9 (12.16%) people. Stress level indicators tend to have significant differences: the frequency of occurrence of average stress indicators in the sample of students from Kazakhstan is higher (75.6%) compared to Russian students (24.32%) (p<0.05).Adapting to changing academic workloads in a pandemic situation does not contribute to the psychological well-being of students, as evidenced by the results of diagnosing anxiety and post-traumatic stress reactions. The results obtained emphasize the importance of taking into account cultural factors in stressful situations. CONCLUSION: Cross-cultural differences in the level of emotional response of students in a pandemic situation were revealed.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884124

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to high levels of fear worldwide. Given that fear is an important factor in causing psychological distress and facilitating preventive behaviors, assessing the fear of COVID-19 is important. The seven-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) is a widely used psychometric instrument to assess this fear. However, the factor structure of the FCV-19S remains unclear according to the current evidence. Therefore, the present study used a network analysis to provide further empirical evidence for the factor structure of FCV-19S. A total of 24,429 participants from Iran (n = 10,843), Bangladesh (n = 9906), and Norway (n = 3680) completed the FCV-19S in their local language. A network analysis (via regularized partial correlation networks) was applied to investigate the seven FCV-19S items. Moreover, relationships between the FCV-19S items were compared across gender (males vs. females), age groups (18-30 years, 31-50 years, and >50 years), and countries (Iran, Bangladesh, and Norway). A two-factor structure pattern was observed (three items concerning physical factors, including clammy hands, insomnia, and heart palpitations; four items concerning psychosocial factors, including being afraid, uncomfortable, afraid of dying, and anxious about COVID-19 news). Moreover, this pattern was found to be the same among men and women, across age groups and countries. The network analysis used in the present study verified the two-factor structure for the FCV-19S. Future studies may consider using the two-factor structure of FCV-19S to assess the fear of COVID-19 during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Young Adult
19.
J Fam Psychol ; 36(6): 827-838, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805568

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal and children's adjustment to COVID-19 restrictions in Spain and Italy, with reference to determinants of maternal stress. A total of 950 mothers (45.4% from Spain, n = 432, Mage = 39.6, years old, SD = 5.2 and 54.5% from Italy, n = 518, Mage = 40.5, years, SD = 6.4) of children aged 3-17 years old completed questionnaires on sociodemographic and COVID-19 contextual factors, parenting-related variables, and children externalizing behaviors using an online survey. We examined determinants of parental stress in both countries. Mothers reported a significant increase in parental stress and child externalizing behaviors during COVID-19 home confinement, with more remarkable perceived changes in the Spanish group. Hierarchical linear regressions showed that child age and externalizing behaviors, maternal psychological distress, quality of coparenting and pre-COVID-19 levels of parental stress significantly predicted parental stress in both Italian and Spanish mothers during the pandemic. Results confirmed the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 home confinement on parents and children across countries and revealed common underlying factors responsible for parental stress in Italy and Spain. These findings highlighted the need for communitarian preventive programs to reduce mental health difficulties and parental stress in mothers and behavioral difficulties in children during pandemic restrictions. Particular attention should be paid to young mothers and children, and the key role of positive partner support and coparenting relationships should be considered. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Parenting/psychology , Spain/epidemiology
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 844947, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785449

ABSTRACT

Background: This study tests a framework that examines the role of several mental health factors (mood, wellbeing, health consciousness, and hoarding) on individuals' overconsumption behavior under the novel coronavirus context. This examination is relevant to public health literature because it increases our knowledge on how the context of COVID-19 pandemic affects people's mental health and provides answers to why individuals engage in overconsumption behavior. Additionally, this research also follows a cross-cultural perspective aiming to understand how individuals from different cultural orientations cope with the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that compares samples from two countries: Ecuador (n = 334) and USA (n = 321). Data was collected via an online survey. The timing of data collection was set during the mandatory lockdowns and social distance measures taken by both countries to fight against the COVID-19 virus breakout. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to test the theorized framework. Multi-group analysis was used to explore cultural orientation differences among the relationships included in the model. Results: The results indicate that individuals' mood state has a positive relationship with health consciousness, as people try to regulate their health concerns by maintaining positive perceptions of their subjective wellbeing. Further, the increased concern individuals express in their health is responsible for them to engage in overconsumption behavior. Cultural orientation (individualism vs. collectivism) moderates the relationship between mood and health consciousness. No moderation effect was found for the relationship between health consciousness and overconsumption. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated negative effects in individuals' mental health. Findings from this study suggest that maintaining a positive mood is important for individuals at the time of mandatory lockdowns, and this effort is related to a greater concern and awareness of their health. Further, health consciousness is responsible to stimulate overconsumption behavior. This chain of effects can be explained by individuals' interest in their wellbeing. Culture plays a role in these effects. People from individualistic countries (USA) compared to people from collectivistic countries (Ecuador) demonstrate greater motivation in maintaining their positive mood by showing greater health consciousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
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