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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112722

ABSTRACT

This study describes self-reported physical activity (PA), motivation to exercise, physical and mental health and feelings towards PA during the March-May 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. Adults over the age of 18 years (n = 238; 80.2% female) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 3, the Short Form-36 and open-ended questions about PA through an anonymous online survey. Regular exercise was undertaken by 85% of respondents prior to lockdown, but only 49.8% were able to maintain their usual level of PA. Although respondents were considered sufficiently physically active from the IPAQ, 51.5% reported not being able to maintain their usual level of PA primarily due to the closure of their gym facilities. Sixty percent of respondents reported that PA had a positive effect on their overall wellbeing. When asked to specify which aspects of wellbeing were affected, the effect on mental health was reported the most while the effect on body image or fitness was reported the least. Strategies to increase or maintain engagement in physical activity during lockdowns should be encouraged to promote positive mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Exercise , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Self Report , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112718

ABSTRACT

Several public health measures have been implemented to contain the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. The adherence to control measures is known to be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to the disease. This study aimed at assessing COVID-19 knowledge in individuals who were tested for the virus. An online cross-sectional survey of 32 items, adapted to the national context, was conducted among 1656 Ecuadorians. The mean knowledge score was 22.5 ± 3 out of 28, with significant differences being observed with regard to educational attainment. People with postgraduate training scored higher than those with college, secondary and elementary instruction. Indeed, multiple linear regression revealed that lower scores were associated significantly with the latter three levels of education. Interviewees were knowledgeable about the symptoms, detection, transmission and prevention of the disease. However, they were less assertive regarding the characteristics of the virus as well as the usefulness of traditional and unproven treatments. These outcomes indicated a lack of knowledge in fundamental aspects of virus biology, which may limit the effectiveness of further prevention campaigns. Conclusively, educational and communicational programs must place emphasis on explaining the basic molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2; such information will certainly contribute to improve the public's adherence to control measures.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112717

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 emergency has imposed distanced education and has interrupted most rehabilitation services. Adolescents with disabilities have been isolated, and the burden on their families has been exacerbated. A cross-sectional survey was administered to adolescents with disability and to parents of disabled children to describe their experience during lockdown and their concerns or expectations about rehabilitation. A sample of 53 adolescents and 239 parents completed the survey. Adolescents were ages 13-18 years old (45.3% female). Most parents were between 35 and 55 years old (84.9% female). While 53.6% of the parents reported no positive effects of the lockdown, 92.5% of the adolescents expressed favorable consequences. The increased time spent with family members was judged positively by 27.2% of parents and by 64.2% of adolescents. Concern for their child's disability was expressed by 47.3% of parents, while 73.6% of adolescents expressed concerns regarding the ban on meeting friends. In both groups, anxiety symptoms were correlated with the fear of contracting COVID-19 and with financial problems. Parents would have liked even more remote support from school and healthcare professionals, which was available for most participants. Thus, socioeconomic support, assistive technology and telerehabilitation strategies might help families with disabilities during a lockdown.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Disabled Children/rehabilitation , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112712

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on the mental status and dietary intake of residents in Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was conducted from 11 May to 6 June 2020 corresponding to almost two weeks during and after Ramadan (23 April-23 May 2020). The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to assess anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia among the participants was 25.4%, 27.7%, and 19.6%, respectively. Participants aged ≥50 years with high income (≥8000 SAR) were at a lower risk of developing depression, whereas participants of the same age group with income 5000-7000 SAR were at high risk of developing anxiety. Students and master-educated participants suffer from median elevated depression and are required to take more multivitamins and vitamin D than others. Anxiety and depression were more common among married participants with low income. There is a wide range of Saudi residents who are at a higher risk of mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers and mental healthcare providers are advised to provide continuous monitoring of the psychological consequences during this pandemic and provide mental support.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Diet , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Eating , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(2): 294-300, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Italian government took security measures to try to limit infections. Restrictive measures included social distancing, home confinement and the closure of all public structures like gyms and swimming pools. The impact of these limitations on health and lifestyle was inevitably negative. The purpose of this study was to establish the level of physical activity (PA), expressed as energy expenditure (MET-minute/week) in a Southern Italian population before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: An adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) was published on the official website of the National Institute of Gastroenterology IRCCS S. de Bellis, Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy and on several social media in May 2020. RESULTS: Three hundred ten replies (72% women) from Apulia (60%), Calabria (28%), Campania (11%) and Sicily (1%) were included in the study. The COVID-19 lockdown had a negative effect on the vigorous PA intensity level and on walking, but not on the moderate PA intensity level. Additionally, daily time spent sitting down increased by more than 12% during the COVID-19 lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Isolation changed PA behaviors. The decreased energy expenditure (MET-minute/week) during the lockdown had a negative impact in both genders, especially on the young adults and adults' groups.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Metabolism , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sitting Position , Surveys and Questionnaires , Walking
6.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e8, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101609

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID-19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Income , Internet , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Quality of Life/psychology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 35(2): 98-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101897

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze health care personnel's attitudes toward traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) and life satisfaction due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April 2 and 9, 2020. The Questionnaire form was sent to health care personnel online. A total of 560 individuals who answered the questionnaires were included in the study. The data were collected by using the Personal Information Form, Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ), and Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Average age of the participants was 30.88 ± 7.68 years, 82.5% were male, and 65.5% were working as nurses. It was found that 45.5% of the participants used TCM methods for COVID-19 during the last month; 48.7% of the health care personnel stated that they used TCM methods to strengthen their immune system. The HCAMQ total average score was 27.96 ± 5.49; the holistic health subdimension total average score was 9.59 ± 3.04; the complementary and alternative medicine subdimension total average score was 18.37 ± 3.58; and the LSS total average score was 20.78 ± 6.32. A positive weak statistically significant association was found between the HCAMQ and complementary and alternative medicine subdimension and the LSS (P < .05). Participants had moderately positive attitudes toward TCM and life satisfaction. As the participants' positive attitudes toward TCM increased, their life satisfaction was also found to increase.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Complementary Therapies/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Adult , /psychology , Complementary Therapies/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e047216, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG among health careworkers (HCWs) in our university hospital and verify the risk of acquiring the infection according to work area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Monocentric, Italian, third-level university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All the employees of the hospital on a voluntary base, for a total of 4055 participants among 4572 HCWs (88.7%). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of anti-SARS-CoV-2 positive serology according to working area. Association of anti-SARS-CoV-2 positive serology to selected variables (age, gender, country of origin, body mass index, smoking, symptoms and contact with confirmed cases). RESULTS: From 27 April 2020 to 12 June 2020, 4055 HCWs were tested and 309 (7.6%) had a serological positive test. No relevant difference was found between men and women (8.3% vs 7.3%, p=0.3), whereas a higher prevalence was observed among foreign-born workers (27/186, 14.5%, p<0.001), employees younger than 30 (64/668, 9.6%, p=0.02) or older than 60 years (38/383, 9.9%, p=0.02) and among healthcare assistants (40/320, 12.5%, p=0.06). Working as frontline HCWs was not associated with an increased frequency of positive serology (p=0.42). A positive association was found with presence and number of symptoms (p<0.001). The symptoms most frequently associated with a positive serology were taste and smell alterations (OR 4.62, 95% CI: 2.99 to 7.15) and fever (OR 4.37, 95% CI: 3.11 to 6.13). No symptoms were reported in 84/309 (27.2%) HCWs with positive IgG levels. Declared exposure to a suspected/confirmed case was more frequently associated (p<0.001) with positive serology when the contact was a family member (19/94, 20.2%) than a patient or colleague (78/888, 8.8%). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred undetected in a large fraction of HCWs and it was not associated with working in COVID-19 frontline areas. Beyond the hospital setting, exposure within the community represents an additional source of infection for HCWs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Personnel, Hospital , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043721, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and its latest version NEWS2 are recommended for monitoring deterioration in patients admitted to hospital, little is known about their performance in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to compare the performance of the NEWS and NEWS2 in patients with COVID-19 versus those without during the first phase of the pandemic. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two acute hospitals (Scarborough and York) are combined into a single dataset and analysed collectively. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (≥18 years) non-elective admissions discharged between 11 March 2020 and 13 June 2020 with an index or on-admission NEWS2 electronically recorded within ±24 hours of admission to predict mortality at four time points (in-hospital, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours) in COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 admissions. RESULTS: Out of 6480 non-elective admissions, 620 (9.6%) had a diagnosis of COVID-19. They were older (73.3 vs 67.7 years), more often male (54.7% vs 50.1%), had higher index NEWS (4 vs 2.5) and NEWS2 (4.6 vs 2.8) scores and higher in-hospital mortality (32.1% vs 5.8%). The c-statistics for predicting in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 admissions was significantly lower using NEWS (0.64 vs 0.74) or NEWS2 (0.64 vs 0.74), however, these differences reduced at 72hours (NEWS: 0.75 vs 0.81; NEWS2: 0.71 vs 0.81), 48 hours (NEWS: 0.78 vs 0.81; NEWS2: 0.76 vs 0.82) and 24hours (NEWS: 0.84 vs 0.84; NEWS2: 0.86 vs 0.84). Increasing NEWS2 values reflected increased mortality, but for any given value the absolute risk was on average 24% higher (eg, NEWS2=5: 36% vs 9%). CONCLUSIONS: The index or on-admission NEWS and NEWS2 offers lower discrimination for COVID-19 admissions versus non-COVID-19 admissions. The index NEWS2 was not proven to be better than the index NEWS. For each value of the index NEWS/NEWS2, COVID-19 admissions had a substantially higher risk of mortality than non-COVID-19 admissions which reflects the increased baseline mortality risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Early Warning Score , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , /therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037640, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092150

ABSTRACT

Importance: Medical research has not equitably included members of racial/ethnic minority groups or female and older individuals. There are limited data on participant demographic characteristics in vaccine trials despite the importance of these data to current trials aimed at preventing coronavirus disease 2019. Objective: To investigate whether racial/ethnic minority groups and female and older adults are underrepresented among participants in vaccine clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined data from completed US-based vaccine trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2020. The terms vaccine, vaccination, immunization, and inoculation were used to identify trials. Only those addressing vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy of preventative vaccines were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: The numbers and percentages of racial/ethnic minority, female, and older individuals compared with US census data from 2011 and 2018. Secondary outcome measures were inclusion by trial phase and year of completion. Results: A total of 230 US-based trials with 219 555 participants were included in the study. Most trials were randomized (180 [78.3%]), included viral vaccinations (159 [69.1%]), and represented all trial phases. Every trial reported age and sex; 134 (58.3%) reported race and 79 (34.3%) reported ethnicity. Overall, among adult study participants, White individuals were overrepresented (77.9%; 95% CI, 77.4%-78.4%), and Black or African American individuals (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.2%-11.0%) and American Indian or Alaska Native individuals (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.5%) were underrepresented compared with US census data; enrollment of Asian individuals was similar (5.7%; 95% CI, 5.5%-6.0%). Enrollment of Hispanic or Latino individuals (11.6%; 95% CI, 11.1%-12.0%) was also low even among the limited number of adult trials reporting ethnicity. Adult trials were composed of more female participants (75 325 [56.0%]), but among those reporting age as a percentage, enrollment of participants who were aged 65 years or older was low (12.1%; 95% CI, 12.0%-12.3%). Black or African American participants (10.1%; 95% CI, 9.7%-10.6%) and Hispanic or Latino participants (22.5%; 95% CI, 21.6%-23.4%) were also underrepresented in pediatric trials. Among trials reporting race/ethnicity, 65 (48.5%) did not include American Indian or Alaska Native participants and 81 (60.4%) did not include Hawaiian or Pacific Islander participants. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that among US-based vaccine clinical trials, members of racial/ethnic minority groups and older adults were underrepresented, whereas female adults were overrepresented. These findings suggest that diversity enrollment targets should be included for all vaccine trials targeting epidemiologically important infections.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Patient Selection , Sexism/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines , Adult , African Continental Ancestry Group/ethnology , African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/ethnology , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Continental Population Groups/ethnology , Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , European Continental Ancestry Group/ethnology , European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oceanic Ancestry Group/ethnology , Oceanic Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Sexism/ethnology
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041880, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between N95 respirator wearing and device-related pressure injury (DRPI) and to provide a basis for protecting medical staff from skin injuries. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, multicentre study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Medical staff of 60 hospitals were selected from 145 designated medical institutions located in the epidemic area where the patients with COVID-19 were treated in China. RESULTS: In total, 1761 respondents wore N95 respirators (use alone 20.8%; combination use 79.2%), and the prevalence of DRPI was 59.2% (95% CI 56.93 to 61.53). A daily wearing time of >4 hours (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.35), wearing a N95 respirator in combination with goggles both with the presence of sweating (OR 13.40, 95% CI 7.34 to 23.16) and without the presence of sweating (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.14) and wearing only a N95 respirator with the presence of sweating (OR 9.60, 95% CI 7.00 to 13.16) were associated with DRPI. A correspondence analysis indicated that if there was no sweating, regardless of whether the N95 respirator was worn by itself or in combination with goggles, single-site DRPI mainly occurred on the nose bridge, cheek and auricle. If there was sweating present, regardless of whether the N95 was worn by itself or in combination with goggles, multiple DRPI sites occurred more often on the face. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DRPI among medical staff caused by N95 respirators was very high, which was mainly associated with a longer daily wearing time and interaction with sweating. The nasal bridge, cheeks and auricles were the primary protection locations found.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pressure , Sweating
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e042910, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the volunteering of undergraduate health students and interns in the Ministry of Health (MOH) services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, its motivational factors and barriers, as well as their risk perception of COVID-19. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: From 12 to 21 May 2020, an online survey was sent to all undergraduate health students and interns in the KSA. This included questions on demographics, volunteering status, risk perception of COVID-19, as well as motivations and barriers towards volunteering. RESULTS: In a convenience sample of 6016 students and interns across KSA, 1824 (30.31%) have volunteered with the MOH services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Volunteering was more likely among older participants, from the College of Medicine, those with self-perceived at risk of COVID-19 infection and those with self-perceived healthy participants. Females, those who did not think that students had moral duties to volunteer, those who were at risk of seasonal influenza and those with self-perceived at risk of hospitalisation from COVID-19 were less likely to volunteer. Patriotism, gaining experience, assisting when able and religious rewards all were reported as major motivators to volunteer. Non-volunteering participants reported that lack of interest, protocol and knowledge, as well as issues related to their personal health and transportation were the main barriers to volunteering. CONCLUSIONS: About one-third of undergraduate health students and interns volunteered during the first 2 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in KSA. Moral values were the most important motivations among volunteers. Efforts to encourage heath students and interns to volunteer and providing those with appropriate educational programmes are recommended.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Pandemics , Volunteers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Risk Assessment , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044135, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090930

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has unprecedented consequences on population health, with governments worldwide issuing stringent public health directives. In the absence of a vaccine, a key way to control the pandemic is through behavioural change: people adhering to transmission-reducing behaviours (TRBs), such as physical distancing, hand washing and wearing face covering. Non-adherence may be explained by theories of how people think about the illness (the common-sense model of self-regulation) and/or how they think about the TRBs (social cognition theory and protection motivation theory). In addition, outbreaks of infectious diseases and the measures employed to curb them are likely to have detrimental effects on people's mental and general health. Therefore, in representative repeated surveys, we will apply behavioural theories to model adherence to TRBs and the effects on mental and general health in the Scottish population from June to November 2020, following the initial outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Repeated 20 min structured telephone surveys will be conducted with nationally representative random samples of 500 adults in Scotland. The first 6 weeks the survey will be conducted weekly, thereafter fortnightly, for a total of 14 waves (total n=7000). Ipsos MORI will recruit participants through random digit dialling. The core survey will measure the primary outcomes of adherence to TRBs, mental and general health, and explanatory variables from the theories. Further questions will be added, enabling more detailed measurement of constructs in the core survey, additional themes and questions that align with the evolving pandemic. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study was granted by the Life Sciences and Medicine College Ethics Review Board (CERB) at the University of Aberdeen (CERB/2020/5/1942). Results will be made available to policy makers, funders, interested lay people and other researchers through weekly reports and three bimonthly bulletins placed on the CHARIS website and advertised through social media.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Patient Compliance , Research Design , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Scotland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044384, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe evolution, epidemiology and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in subjects tested at or admitted to hospitals in North West London. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: London North West Healthcare NHS Trust (LNWH). PARTICIPANTS: Patients tested and/or admitted for COVID-19 at LNWH during March and April 2020 MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of demographic and clinical outcomes (intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality) of those who tested positive for COVID-19. RESULTS: The outbreak began in the first week of March 2020 and reached a peak by the end of March and first week of April. In the study period, 6183 tests were performed in on 4981 people. Of the 2086 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases, 1901 were admitted to hospital. Older age group, men and those of black or Asian minority ethnic (BAME) group were predominantly affected (p<0.05). These groups also had more severe infection resulting in ICU admission and need for mechanical ventilation (p<0.05). However, in a multivariate analysis, only increasing age was independently associated with increased risk of death (p<0.05). Mortality rate was 26.9% in hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that men, BAME and older population were most commonly and severely affected groups. Only older age was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Young Adult
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that has raised worldwide concern. This study aims to investigate the correlation between the extent of lung infection and relevant clinical laboratory testing indicators in COVID-19 and to analyse its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Chest high-resolution computer tomography (CT) images and laboratory examination data of 31 patients with COVID-19 were extracted, and the lesion areas in CT images were quantitatively segmented and calculated using a deep learning (DL) system. A cross-sectional study method was carried out to explore the differences among the proportions of lung lobe infection and to correlate the percentage of infection (POI) of the whole lung in all patients with clinical laboratory examination values. RESULTS: No significant difference in the proportion of infection was noted among various lung lobes (P > 0.05). The POI of total lung was negatively correlated with the peripheral blood lymphocyte percentage (L%) (r = - 0.633, P < 0.001) and lymphocyte (LY) count (r = - 0.555, P = 0.001) but positively correlated with the neutrophil percentage (N%) (r = 0.565, P = 0.001). Otherwise, the POI was not significantly correlated with the peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) count, monocyte percentage (M%) or haemoglobin (HGB) content. In some patients, as the infection progressed, the L% and LY count decreased progressively accompanied by a continuous increase in the N%. CONCLUSIONS: Lung lesions in COVID-19 patients are significantly correlated with the peripheral blood lymphocyte and neutrophil levels, both of which could serve as prognostic indicators that provide warning implications, and contribute to clinical interventions in patients.


Subject(s)
/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Machine Learning , Adult , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 111, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population health and well-being in Latin America, the current epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, has been severely affected during the past semester. Despite the growing evidence about the link between the pandemic, its control measures, and mental health worldwide, there is still no regional evidence of the potential mental health impact. We describe the prevalence and distribution of depressive symptoms across demographic and socioeconomic risk factors in the Peruvian population amidst a national lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted during the community transmission phase and national lockdown in Peru (May 4th-16th, 2020). We recorded 64,493 responses from adult Peruvian residents through an opt-in online questionnaire. All analyses were weighted using raking based on proportions of sociodemographic variables from the last Peruvian census in 2017. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was calculated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score of 10 or more. We identified associated demographic and socioeconomic factors by prior mental health diagnosis. Sensitivity analysis considered an alternative cut-off point for depressive symptoms of PHQ-9 ≥ 14. RESULTS: A total of 57,446 participants were included in the analytical sample. A third of the participants (n = 23,526, unweighted) showed depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to the study. Participants who reported a previous mental health diagnosis doubled the sample prevalence of depressive symptoms (59, 95%CI 56.7, 61.4%) of those without a prior diagnosis. Psychosocial and functioning reactions were largely more prevalent among females and young adults. A dose-response relationship was found between household income and depressive symptoms across previous mental health diagnosis strata, being as low as 32% less in the wealthiest than the most impoverished group (PR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.58,0.79). Other critical factors associated with a higher burden of depressive symptoms were lower education level, single, unemployed, and chronic comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: An increased burden of depressive symptoms and psychosocial reactions has emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru compared to previous years. The mental health burden disproportionately affects women, the younger population, and those with low income and education. As the country eases the social distancing measures, it is crucial to use local evidence to adjust public health policies and mental health services to the renewed population needs.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 containment measures and the uncertainties associated with the pandemic may have contributed to changes in mental health risks and mental health problems in university students. Due to the high burden of the disease, depression is of particular concern. However, knowledge about the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Swiss university students during the pandemic is limited. We therefore assessed the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their change during the COVID-19 pandemic in a large sample of Swiss university students. METHODS: We assessed depressive symptoms in two cross-sectional cohorts of university students (n = 3571) in spring and autumn 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared them with a matched sample of the Swiss national population (n = 2328). Binary logistic regression models estimated prevalence with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Adjusted prevalence of depressive symptoms in female (30.8% (95% CI: 28.6-33.0)) and male students (24.8% (95% CI: 21.7-28.1)) was substantially higher than in the matching female (10.9% (95% CI: 8.9-13.2)) and male (8.5% (6.6-11.0)) pre-pandemic national population. Depressive symptoms in the two consecutive student cohorts did not significantly differ. CONCLUSIONS: More than a quarter of Swiss university students reported depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was substantially higher as compared to the matched general population. Universities should introduce measures to support students in such times of crisis and gain an understanding of the factors impacting mental health positively or negatively and related to university structures and procedures.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Switzerland/epidemiology , Universities
19.
JSLS ; 24(4)2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090243

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the use of social media platforms by medical students, surgical trainees, and practicing surgeons for surgical education during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: An online, 15-question survey was developed and posted on Facebook and WhatsApp closed surgeon groups. Results: The online survey was completed by 219 participants from South America (87%), North America (7%), Europe (5%), Central America, and Asia. Respondents included medical students (6.4%), surgical residents/fellows (24.2%), and practicing surgeons (69.4%). The most common age group was 35-44 years. When asked which social media platforms they preferred, the video sharing site YouTube (33.3%), the messaging app WhatsApp (21%), and "other" (including videoconferencing sites) (22.3%) were most popular. Respondents reported using social media for surgical education either daily (38.4%) or weekly (45.2%), for an average of 1-5 hours/week. Most (85%) opined that surgical conferences that were cancelled during the pandemic should be made available online, with live discussions. Conclusion: Social media use for surgical education during Covid-19 appears to be increasing and evolving.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , General Surgery/education , Social Media/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Americas/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , /prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical/trends , Europe/epidemiology , Female , General Surgery/trends , Global Health , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05001, 2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090198

ABSTRACT

Background: On 12 June 2020, Brazil reached the second position worldwide in the number of COVID-19 cases. Authorities increased the number of tests performed, including the identification of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 (IgG, IgA, and IgM). There was an overflooding of the market with several tests, and the presence of possible false-positive results became a challenge. The purpose of this study was to describe the seroprevalence and immunoglobulin blood levels in a group of asymptomatic individuals using the reference levels provided by the manufacturer. Methods: Levels of IgG and IgA antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were determined in blood serum by the same ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoassay) test. Patients must be free of symptoms. Results: From 20 to 22 May 2020, 938 individuals were tested. There were 441 (47%) men, age 53 years (interquartile range (IQR) = 39-63.2). The sample included 335 (35.7%) subjects aged ≥60 years old. Subjects with a positive test were 54 (5.8%) for IgG and 96 (10.2%) for IgA and 42 (4.5%) for both IgG and IgA. The prevalence of IgG and IgA positive test was not different in men and women and not different in individuals under 60 and over 60 years of age. Conversely, analysing only individuals with positive tests, the levels of IgG in positive subjects were significantly higher than those with an IgA positive test, 3.00 (IQR = 1.68-5.65), and 1.95 (IQR = 1.40-3.38), respectively; P = 0.017. Additionally, individuals with isolated IgA positive tests had significantly lower levels of IgA than those with both IgA and IgG positive tests: 1.95 (IQR = 1.60-2.40) and 3.15 (IQR = 2.20-3.90), respectively, P = 0.005. These latter data suggest that IgA shows a deviation of the distribution to the left in comparison to IgG distribution data. Indeed, many subjects reported as IgA positive had immunoglobulin levels slightly elevated. Conclusions: In conclusion, we strongly suggest caution in the interpretation of IgA test results. This recommendation is more important for those with positive IgA just above the reference level.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , False Positive Reactions , Immunoglobulin A/blood , /immunology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Reference Values , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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