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1.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6649-6657, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health concern in the US. Cancer patients are especially vulnerable to adverse COVID-19 outcomes and require targeted prevention efforts against COVID-19. METHODS: We used longitudinal survey data from patients seen at Moffitt Cancer Center to identify attitudes, beliefs, and sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among cancer patients. Patients with confirmed invasive cancer diagnosis through Cancer Registry data were asked about vaccine acceptance through the question "Now that a COVID-19 vaccine is available, are you likely to get it?" and dichotomized into high accepters (already received it, would get it when available) and low accepters (waiting for a doctor to recommend it, waiting until more people received it, not likely to get it). RESULTS: Most patients (86.8% of 5,814) were high accepters of the COVID-19 vaccine. High accepters had more confidence in the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine than low accepters. Multivariable logistic regression showed older individuals (70-89 vs.18-49: OR:2.57, 95% CI:1.33-4.86), those with greater perceived severity of COVID-19 infection (very serious vs. not at all serious: OR:2.55, 95% CI:1.76-3.70), practicing more risk mitigation behaviors (per one standard deviation OR:1.75, 95% CI:1.57-1.95), and history of receiving the flu shot versus not (OR:6.56, 95% CI:5.25-8.20) had higher odds of vaccine acceptance. Individuals living with more than one other person (vs. alone: OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.79) and those who were more socioeconomically disadvantaged (per 10 percentile points: OR: 0.89, 95 %CI: 0.85, 0.93) had lower odds of reporting vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSION: Most patients with cancer have or would receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Those who are less likely to accept the vaccine have more concerns regarding effectiveness and side effects, are younger, more socioeconomically disadvantaged, and have lower perceptions of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 549-556, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health of medical workers treating patients with COVID-19 is an issue of increasing concern worldwide. The available data on stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 are relatively limited and have not been evaluated in Russia yet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional anonymous survey included 1,090 healthcare workers. Stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics - 9 (SAVE-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7) scales. Logistic regression, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin two component factor model, Cronbach's alpha and ROC-analysis were performed to determine the influence of different variables, internal structure and consistency, sensitivity and specificity of SAVE-9 compared with GAD-7. RESULTS: The median scores on the GAD-7 and SAVE-9 were 5 and 14, respectively. 535 (49.1%) respondents had moderate and 239 (21.9%) had severe anxiety according to SAVE-9. 134 participants (12.3%) had severe anxiety, 144 (13.2%) had moderate according to GAD-7. The component model revealed two-factor structure of SAVE-9: "anxiety and somatic concern" and "social stress". Female gender (OR - 0.98, p=0.04) and younger age (OR - 0.65, p=0.04) were associated with higher level of anxiety according to regression model. The total score of SAVE-9 with a high degree of confidence predicted the GAD-7 value in comparative ROC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers in Russia reported high rates of stress and anxiety. The Russian version of the SAVE-9 displayed a good ratio of sensitivity to specificity compared with GAD-7 and can be recommended as a screening instrument for detection of stress and anxiety in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 521-526, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China and has spread all over the world and affected global mental health. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and experience high levels of distress during an infectious disease outbreak. The aim of this study was to determine anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed a total of 283 pregnant women within the period of May 11 to May 28,2020. During their regular antenatal visit, pregnant women were invited to participate in the study. The self-created personal information form was used to assess the main characteristics of the participants. Anxiety and PTSD symptoms of the pregnant women were measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.20±5.55 years. Regarding gestational age, 72 (25.4%), 86 (30.4) and 125 (44.2) were in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The mean gestational age was 23.82±11.05 weeks. The mean STAI-S and STAI-T scores were 39.52±10.56 within the cut-off value (39-40) of the instrument and 42.74±8.33, respectively. Furthermore, the mean total IES-R score was 36.60±15.65 within the cut-off value (24) of the instrument. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pregnancy complication (p=0.01) and employment status of husband (p=0.04) were the best predictors of state anxiety. Additionally, the presence of COVID-19-related symptoms (p=0.01) and educational level (p=0.01) were found to predict PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women would be likely to experience high levels of anxiety and PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic's delay phase. The results should sensitize the medical team to increased anxiety and PTDS symptoms of the pregnant women in order to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 499-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics are direct antecedent of distinctive physical, psychological, social and financial impacts. A large number of researches are being conducted regarding previous epidemics and pandemics and lot more is currently in progress vis-?-vis COVID-19. The current research is an attempt to explore psychological impacts of COVID-19 specifically to find out the existence, intensity and dynamics of COVID-19 fear in non-clinical educated population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional online study was conducted with non-clinical educated Pakistani citizens. Self-structured questionnaire comprising close and open ended questions was used for data collection from different cities of Pakistan. N=317 participants (men=121, women=196) were the sample for this study. Demographic information was also sought. The age range of sample was 18 to 50+ years. Most of the participants fall in the category of age group 23-28 of sample. All the participants were educated from Intermediate till PhD but majority of participants had 16 years of education. SPSS 22 was used for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis. RESULTS: Results yield significant age wise and profession wise difference in existence of COVID fear. Nine major themes were extracted regarding nature of fear i.e. Corona Fear, Loss, fear of isolation or quarantine, religion related fear, death, consequences of COVID-19, Under developed country, Psychological component of fear and empathy. Those who denied fear were asked the reasons and six major themes were extracted here i.e Religion, Inevitability of death, Precautions, Belief in self, Myths or misinterpretation of disease and Avoidant approach. CONCLUSIONS: Age and profession significantly influenced fear of COVID-19. Gender-wise exploration of themes yields interesting insights. Participants reflected positivity and empathy in crisis situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Cir Cir ; 90(5): 670-677, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical-demographic characteristics of patients recovered from COVID-19 in a third level rehabilitation service. METHOD: A cross-sectional and descriptive study of recovered COVID-19 patients in a rehabilitation service was carried out. Demographic, personal pathological history, his work activity and COVID-19 were taken, as well as alterations after the disease. Descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: 186 files were collected. The mean age was 48.04 ± 11.32 years. Male predominance was found (65.6%). 50% of the patients were health workers. The most common previous pathological conditions were sedentary lifestyle (73.7%) and diabetes mellitus (29%). 43.5% presented grade 3 dyspnea according to the modified Medical Research Council scale. There was a high prevalence of neuromuscular involvement, predominantly peripheral neuropathy (48.4%) and dysautonomia (46.2%). CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to determine the clinical-demographic characteristics of patients recovered from COVID-19 in a third-level rehabilitation service, such as age, sex, type of work, previous pathological conditions (diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension), body mass index, dyspnea, hospitalization, and post-illness disorders. Further investigation of COVID-19 is needed in the development of conditions to different systems.


OBJETIVO: Determinar las características clínico-demográficas de pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 en un servicio de rehabilitación de tercer nivel. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo de pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 en un servicio de rehabilitación. Se tomaron antecedentes demográficos, personales patológicos, de su actividad laboral y de COVID-19, así como alteraciones posteriores a la enfermedad. Se realizó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: Se recolectaron 186 expedientes. La edad media fue de 48.04 ± 11.32 años. Se encontró predominio del sexo masculino (65.6%). El 50% de los pacientes eran trabajadores de la salud. Las condiciones patológicas previas más comunes fueron sedentarismo (73.7%) y diabetes mellitus (29%). El 43.5% presentaron disnea de grado 3 acorde a la escala Medical Research Council modificada. Existió alta prevalencia de compromiso neuromuscular, predominando la neuropatía periférica (48.4%) y la disautonomía (46.2%). CONCLUSIONES: Se logró determinar las características clínico-demográficas de pacientes recuperados de COVID-19 en un servicio de rehabilitación de tercer nivel, como la edad, el sexo, el tipo de trabajo, las condiciones patológicas previas (diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial), el índice de masa corporal, la disnea, la hospitalización y las alteraciones posteriores a la enfermedad. Es necesaria mayor investigación de la COVID-19 en el desarrollo de afecciones en diferentes sistemas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
Int J Yoga Therap ; 32(2022)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100570

ABSTRACT

To avoid severe courses of COVID-19 infections and reduce death rates, vaccination against the SARS-CoV-1 virus was considered an essential strategy in fighting the pandemic. However, some yoga practitioners reject such vaccinations and assume that their yoga practices protect them. We therefore aimed to analyze how many yoga practitioners were vaccinated, their reasons for being vaccinated, and the influence of the ethical principles of yoga (yamas/niyamas) on these decisions. In a cross-sectional survey in summer 2021, we enrolled 1,545 yoga practitioners (86% women; mean age 51.1 ± 10.9 y). The majority of participants were already vaccinated (66%), and their percentage corresponded to that of the general population. Those who were not willing to get vaccinated scored significantly higher on the yama/niyama factors Contentment/Self-Reflection/Devotion and Surrender and Non-Possessiveness. Depending on the centrality of the yamas/niyamas in their lives, yoga participants differed on their vaccination decisions, but they did not relevantly differ on their pro-social reasons (protection of groups at risk, protection of family) when they were already vaccinated. This assumed protection against severe courses of the COVID-19 infection was higher in the nonvaccinated compared to the vaccinated individuals (Cohen's d = 0.99). This conviction was related to the niyama factor Contentment/Self-Reflection/Devotion and Surrender. Thus, in the yoga schools and other places of yoga practice the relevance of vaccination to also protect others should be discussed, and the consequences of following the yamas and niyamas for the sake of others should be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Yoga , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Germany
7.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(4): 442-455, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100308

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In this paper, we explore the adherence patterns to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID-19 mitigation guidelines among current, former, and never smokers. Methods: We used an online cross-sectional survey of adults 18 years or older in 5 northeastern states of the US (N=1084). Results: Unadjusted analyses revealed that current smokers reported lower adherence to the CDC guidelines than former smokers (27.5 vs 29.4, p<.05). After accounting for sociodemographic covariates, this finding was no longer statistically significant. However, compared to former smokers, never smokers reported wearing their mask less often (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.45-0.94) and current smokers were less likely to report always practicing illness-related hygiene skills (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.39-0.93).Conclusions: Never smokers had poorer adherence to CDC guidelines than former smokers, namely wearing their masks, and current smokers were less likely to always follow the hygiene recommendations. Results should inform future public health efforts in targeting current smokers with lower adherence to CDC guidelines and learning from the ability of former smokers to demonstrate high adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smokers , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Smoking/epidemiology
8.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 99-107, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Airway management has undergone a dramatic transformation since the arrival of video laryngoscope (VL). VL has higher intubation success rate on first try and lower complications in comparison to direct laryngoscope (DL). The use of VL is recommended in intubating COVID-19 patients to speed up intubation time and reduce failure rate. A team from Airlangga University developed Wycope Video Laryngoscope (Wycope VL), a VL with Wi-Fi connection to smartphones for an easier VL with low cost. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Wycope VL, C-MAC Video Laryngoscope (C-MAC VL), and DL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design, involving 63 patients who were divided into 3 groups based on the type of laryngoscope, namely Wycope VL, C-MAC VL, and DL. Intubation is carried out by 4th year anaesthesiology resident. Research subjects were patients who will undergo elective surgery at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital under general anaesthesia using orotracheal tube. Inclusion age of 19-64 years, PS ASA 1-2, no anatomical abnormalities of the airway, did not have difficult airway, and was willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: All patients were successfully intubated without complications. C-MAC VL (5.33±1.42 seconds) and Wycope VL (5.95±0.74 seconds) was significantly faster in seeing vocal folds and glottis compared to DL (7.14±0.72 seconds) with P=0.000. DL was significantly faster in average time of intubation (15.52±5.90 seconds) compared to C-MAC VL (16.95±1.11 seconds) and Wycope VL (20.29±2.81 seconds) with P=0.000. CONCLUSION: DL was faster compared to VL in speed of intubation while C-MAC VL and Wycope VL was faster in viewing the vocal folds and glottis compared to DL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy
9.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 29(4): 303-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100052

ABSTRACT

Background: Every workplace has got hazards in many different forms, ranging from sharps, falling objects, chemicals, infections, noise and a lot of other potentially dangerous situations. The occupational safety and health administration mandates employers to protect their employees from such potentially dangerous workplace hazards. Personal protective equipment (PPE) plays an important role in preventing and ensuring health safety amongst industrial workers. This study aimed to determine the use of PPE and rules compliance amongst Industrial Workers in Kano State. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess 150 workers selected from the Sharada Industrial Estate, Kano, Nigeria, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: The response rate was 88.2%, and the mean age of respondents was 28.1 ± 7.4. About 72% were male, 74.7% had secondary education and 16.4% reported ever having a child with a congenital anomaly. Up to 25% reported using PPE always, 62% used PPE occasionally and 12% never used PPE. Factors significantly associated with the use of PPE at bivariate level were: Gender, 'provision of statutory regulation by the management', 'provision of PPE on worksite' and 'provision of training to staff' respectively. However, on multivariable regression analysis, only 'provision of statutory regulation by the management' and 'provision of PPE on worksite' were found to be independent (intrinsic) predictors of the use of PPE. Conclusions: Training alone does not necessarily increase the uptake of PPE amongst industrial workers. There is a need to ensure the availability of PPE at the worksite, as well as statutory regulations by industries.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment , Female , Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Nigeria , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 29(4): 296-302, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100051

ABSTRACT

Background: The free-of-cost supply could not meet the demand for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in India, so the government approved an injection option with a price. We aimed to determine how much money an individual would be willing to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children and assess the factors determining it. Methods: We conducted a study among all adults visiting the outpatient department of a government tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India, in August 2021. Trained nursing officers combined bidding game and open-ended question methods during personal interviews to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) values. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of 1565 participants was 40.8 (12.2) years with 46.5% (n = 727) males, 70.4% (n = 1102) parents, 50.0% (n = 783) educated upto class 12 and 30.9% (n = 483) belonging to upper-middle socio-economic scale (SES). The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) WTP amount for the first dose and the subsequent/booster dose among the unvaccinated (50.2%, n = 785) and vaccinated (49.8%, n = 780) participants were ₹0 (0-100) and ₹0 (0-200), respectively. The median (IQR) WTP for inoculating children with any COVID-19 vaccine was ₹50 (0-300) in both groups. Significant differences were found in the WTP prices for adult vaccines in both groups concerning age category (P = 0.02), education (P < 0.01) and SES (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Although more than half of the respondents were unwilling to pay for themselves, WTP for COVID-19 vaccination was higher for their children. Policy-makers should consider income, education and age to cap the private sector vaccination price.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Child , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nigeria , India , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(10): 1647-1653, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100048

ABSTRACT

Background: Most educational institutions in Nigeria were shut down for a long while at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic as a preventive measure, and this affected dental students' academic and clinical training. Aim: To determine the influence of the pandemic on the academic, clinical training, and psychosocial well-being of dental students in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate dental students in clinical years in Nigerian dental schools. Participants received the questionnaire through an online platform, it had four sections; socio-demographics, impact on academic training, psychosocial well-being, and an open-ended segment for participants' suggestions to challenges. A mixed method was utilized to analyze the data. The statistical significance level was P < 0.05. Results: One hundred two dental students from nine dental schools participated, with a mean age of 25.3 ± 2.4 years. There were 56 (54.9%) males. Most students, 80 (78.4%) reported that their stay-at-home had not been rewarding academically. The majority, 90 (88.2%) were worried about contracting COVID-19 on school resumption. Participants' psychosocial well-being had significant associations with gender (P = 0.001) and self-directed learning during their stay-at-home (P = 0.001). More female students, 33 (71.7%) were severely worried compared to males 20 (35.7%). Their major suggestions were to commence online teaching and examinations (40.1%) and be provided with adequate personal protective equipment (18.6%). Conclusion: Most undergraduate students in Nigeria were anxious about COVID-19, and females were more affected. This negatively impacted their academic and clinical training. This underscores the importance of adequate psychological support for undergraduate dental students by school authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Nigeria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students, Dental/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(4): 860-863, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100025

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a major pandemic of the century and little is known about the impact of maternal infection on placental histopathology. Histopathologic examination of placental tissue can contribute to significant information regarding the pathophysiology of the disease and how it affects the fetal outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Pathology, Government Doon Medical College and Hospital, Dehradun, on the placenta of 50 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive pregnant females confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from August 2020 to October 2020. Fifty term historical placentas were taken as control. Placenta sections were fixed in formalin, processed into paraffin blocks, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, and visualized for any abnormality. Results: The most prominent histological finding in the placenta of pregnant women affected by COVID-19 was chorangiosis, which is a feature of fetal vascular malperfusion seen in 28 (56%) cases. Other features included maternal vascular malperfusions (MVM) such as villous crowding and agglutination in 12 (24%) cases. Tenney-Parker change was seen in 13 (26%) patients. Intervillous fibrinoid deposition and intervillous hemorrhage were seen in 37 (74%) patients and 7 (14%) patients showed significant calcification. Other findings observed were less common. Conclusion: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a significant impact on fetal and maternal circulation causing features of fetal and maternal malperfusion such as chorangiosis, villous crowding, and agglutination. Indicating that the infection could cause a potential rise in the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as intrauterine fetal growth retardation, preterm birth, or stillbirth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Premature Birth/pathology , Fetal Growth Retardation , Placenta Diseases/pathology
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(4): 907-910, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100023

ABSTRACT

Context: COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging pandemic that is rapidly spreading with more than 114 million confirmed cases and 2.5 million deaths by far. Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) in VTM has been used as the gold standard respiratory specimen for SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (rRT-PCR) tests. But now the virus can also be detected in other clinical specimens like bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum, saliva, throat swab, blood, and stool specimens. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic potential of saliva as a sample in comparison to NPS for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 paired samples (NPS and Saliva) received in the Department of Microbiology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur over a period of 2 months. Methods and Material: NPS from individuals were collected in a sterile tube containing Viral Transport Medium™. Before swab collection, whole saliva was collected by spitting from the suspected patient into a sterile container. Both were stored at room temperature and transferred to the diagnostic laboratory within four hours of collection where extraction was done using Perkin Elmer chemagic extractor and rRT- PCR was performed using NIV, Pune mastermix. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in saliva were 84.26%, 100%, 100%, and 54.05%, respectively. The accuracy of detection of COVID-19 by saliva samples compared to the routinely used NPS samples (considered as the standard reference) for RT PCR was 86.72%. Conclusions: Our results show that saliva as a reliable sample type for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nasopharynx , India , Specimen Handling/methods
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(8): 1564-1571, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find the moderating role of social support and creative coping, and the mediating role of cyberchondria in relationship between fear of coronavirus disease-2019 and stress in university students. METHODS: The correlational study was conducted at the Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan, between May and September 2020, and comprised students regardless of gender and age from different public and private universities across Pakistan. Data was collected online using Fear of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Scale, Cyberchondria Severity Scale, Creative Coping Strategies Scale, Social Support Survey, Perceived Stress Scale and Perception of Academic Stress Scale. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 205 subjects, 83(40.5%) were males and 122(59.5%) were females. The overall mean age was 21.22±1.84 years. Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 had significant positive relationship with cyberchondria, and cyberchondria had significant positive relationship with creative coping and academic stress (p<0.05). Social support had significant negative relationship with general stress (p<0.05). There was significant interaction among fear of coronavirus disease-2019, creative coping, social support and cyberchondria in predicting general stress (p<0.05). Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 alone did not predict stress (p>0.05), but it significantly predicted cyberchondria which, in turn, predicted stress (p<0.05). Creative coping and social support significantly moderated the relationship involving fear of coronavirus disease-2019, cyberchondria and general stress (p<0.05). The female subjects utilised more creative coping strategies, received more social support, and had higher levels of general stress compared to the males (p<0.05), while the male subjects had more mistrust on medical professionals (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings are important for students, parents and teachers to understand the role of social support to reduce the fear of coronavirus disease-2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear , Social Support , Students
15.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(6): 577-587, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100904

ABSTRACT

Background: Transplanted patients receiving immunosuppressive agents are at a higher risk of Coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their polypharmacy state makes the choice of treatment challenging. This study aimed to assess the drug-related problems (DRP) and clinical pharmacists' interventions to manage transplanted patients and candidates for transplantation with COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the COVID-19 intensive care unit of Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center (Iran), from March 2020 to April 2021. Patients were admitted to the COVID-19 intensive care unit based on clinical symptoms or positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The clinical pharmacist reviewed all medications and physicians' orders on a daily basis and evaluated DRPs in accordance with the pharmaceutical care network of Europe (PCNE) classification (V 8.01). The treatment team was informed of the DRPs, and the acceptance or rejection of the intervention was also documented. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 25.0). In order to determine the proportion and determinants of drug-related problems, descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied, respectively. Results: A clinical pharmacist reviewed 631 individuals with 11770 medication orders, and 639 DRPs were found in 69% of them with an average of 1.01±1 per patient. The most commonly reported DRPs were treatment efficacy issues followed by adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A total of 982 interventions were provided at prescriber, patient, and drug levels, of which 801 were accepted, and 659 (82.27%) were fully implemented. Conclusion: There have been considerable drug-related issues in managing transplanted patients with COVID-19. DRPs are more common in people with polypharmacy, more than three comorbidities, and hydroxychloroquine regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Iran/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 156, 2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China launched its new round of health care reform to develop primary care in 2009, establishing 954,390 primary care institutions that employed over 10 million staff by 2019. However, some studies have shown that the prevention and management of respiratory diseases is inadequate in these institutions. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of grassroots institutions throughout China between September and December 2020 based on the standardized Prevention and Treatment System and Capacity Building Project of Respiratory Diseases in primary care settings. The operation of the respiratory department in primary health care institutions was evaluated in terms of facilities, drugs, personnel and management of chronic diseases by means of questionnaires. Descriptive analyses were performed to calculate percentages and frequencies of key parameters. RESULTS: A total of 144 primary health care institutions were surveyed, including 51 in the east, 82 in the west, 9 in the central and 2 in the northeast. Approximately 60% of institutions had spirometers and pulse oximeters. The majority had short-acting bronchodilators, theophylline, systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, and traditional Chinese medicine. More than half had at least one respiratory physician and operator for spirometry. Half of the institutions carried out screening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease within the jurisdiction. The institutions in the east were superior to those in the west regarding the equipment, common drugs, medical staff, and management of respiratory diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals that the overall operation of the respiratory department in primary care settings needs to be further strengthened. It is crucial to provide adequate essential equipment, medical professionals, and medicines for proper diagnosis and treatment of chronic respiratory diseases, as well as improving the management of diseases.


Subject(s)
Respiration Disorders , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Primary Health Care , Respiration Disorders/prevention & control
17.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 45, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Commentators believe that the ethical decision-making climate is instrumental in enhancing interprofessional collaboration in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was twofold: (1) to determine the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave one's job among nurses and physicians, and between the different ICU types and (2) determine the association between the ethical climate, moral distress, and intention to leave. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study between May 2021 and August 2021 involving 206 nurses and physicians in a large urban academic hospital. We used the validated Ethical Decision-Making Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) and the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP) tools and asked respondents their intention to leave their jobs. We also made comparisons between the different ICU types. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to identify statistically significant associations between the Ethical Climate, Moral Distress, and Intention to Leave. RESULTS: Nurses perceived the ethical climate for decision-making as less favorable than physicians (p < 0.05). They also had significantly greater levels of moral distress and higher intention to leave their job rates than physicians. Regarding the ICU types, the Neonatal/Pediatric unit had a significantly higher overall ethical climate score than the Medical and Surgical units (3.54 ± 0.66 vs. 3.43 ± 0.81 vs. 3.30 ± 0.69; respectively; both p ≤ 0.05) and also demonstrated lower moral distress scores (both p < 0.05) and lower "intention to leave" scores compared with both the Medical and Surgical units. The ethical climate and moral distress scores were negatively correlated (r = -0.58, p < 0.001); moral distress and "intention to leave" was positively correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.001); and ethical climate and "intention to leave" were negatively correlated (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences exist in the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave between nurses and physicians and between the different ICU types. Inspecting the individual factors of the ethical climate and moral distress tools can help hospital leadership target organizational factors that improve interprofessional collaboration, lessening moral distress, decreasing turnover, and improved patient care.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Intention , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Job Satisfaction , Morals , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220016521, 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2098913

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: Social distancing policies to combat the pandemic of COVID-19 directly impacted the physical activity (PA) index of the population. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with insufficient leisure-time PA and the changing behavior of residents of the city of Sao Paulo, the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil. Methods: The questionnaire used in this research was made available online and included questions on demographics and physical activity. A total of 1.096 adult residents of Sao Paulo completed the questionnaire between July 8th and August 8th, 2020. Results: For individuals who were already physically active before the restrictions, a total of 55.8% of the sample kept insufficiently active during the quarantine. Factors such as education, working conditions, and direct relationship with Covid-19 care were associated with decreased leisure-time PA practice, impacting 57.6% of the sample, especially females. People with less formal education, those who possibly changed their routines to working from home, and those who were directly connected to Covid cases were not able to maintain a daily PA routine. Conclusion: The data presented here warn about the impacts of the pandemic on engagement in PA, suggesting the need for incentives from intersectoral public policies on sports, leisure, and health to perform these activities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Sedentary Behavior , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20210421, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize and identify depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress associated with the COVID-19 Infodemic in the elderly from São Paulo. METHOD: Exploratory and cross-sectional study with the elderly in the capital of São Paulo who had internet access. The sociodemographic profile, the COVID-19 infodemic, depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 411 older people participated in the study. There was a predominance of women (76.4%), with higher education (57.9%), using private health services, and with little income variation. Older people were more exposed to news or information about COVID-19 on the internet (45.3%), followed by television (34.5%), and radio (11.4%). The average stress was 19.96 points; 33.1% had anxiety, and 39.7% had depressive symptoms. The greater the number of people living with the elderly, the greater the stress (p = 0.001) and anxiety (p = 0.02). The hours of exposure to information on the internet led to stress (p = 0.001), depressive symptoms (p = 0.02), and anxiety (p = 0.02) in the elderly. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, exposure to information on the internet triggered anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms in the elderly. The findings highlight the need for multi and interdisciplinary interventions to mitigate such repercussions on the elderly's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infodemic , Male , Mental Health
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1296, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current pandemic context, dental professionals have greater occupational risks due to their healthcare activity, placing their expectations on the vaccine as a means of protection and at the same time hoping that the immunization process will be safe, reliable and comfortable, giving them greater peace of mind when they return to work. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary validation of a scale to measure perception of the COVID-19 vaccination process in Peruvian dental professionals. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with instrumental design. The scale was self-administered virtually. It was distributed through social networks to 220 dental professionals from two universities in the Peruvian capital between June and August 2021. The Aiken V was used for content analysis, while descriptive statistics such as mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness were used for construct validation, in addition to Pearson's correlation matrix for analysis of the 18 items. Subsequently, a Parallel Analysis based on minimum rank factor analysis was performed. Finally, the reliability of the total scale and its dimensions was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The Aiken V coefficient values were favorable for all items. Parallel analysis indicated the existence of three dimensions. Principal component analysis with rotation suggested grouping eight items for the first dimension, six items for the second dimension and four items for the third dimension. These dimensions showed good reliability, as Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.90), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.84) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78-0.86), respectively. In addition, the overall reliability of the scale was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.86-0.91), being acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The perception scale of the COVID-19 vaccination process in dental professionals proved preliminarily to be a valid and reliable scale that can be used for research purposes. However, it is recommended to extend its application and evaluate its metric properties in other health professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peru/epidemiology , Perception , Dentists , Vaccination
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