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1.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 58(9): 475-481, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690688

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the development in the number of patients receiving cardiovascular or antidiabetic medications from pharmacies in the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on the data from more than 10 million patients in the IMS longitudinal prescription (LRx) database. The outcome of this study was the development in the number of patients receiving cardiovascular or diabetic medications from pharmacies in January, February, and March 2020, compared to January, February, and March 2019. RESULTS: From March 2019 to March 2020, there was a 39% increase in angiotensin II antagonist prescriptions, a 33% increase in lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, a 32% increase in calcium channel blocker (CCB) prescriptions, a 30% increase in beta blocker prescriptions, a 27% increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, vitamin k antagonist (VKA), and oral antidiabetic prescriptions, a 24% increase in diuretic prescriptions, and an 18% increase in insulin prescriptions. The largest increase was found in the age group of 18 - 40 years (e.g., 57% for VKA, 52% for CCB and angiotensin II antagonists), and the smallest increase occurred in the age group over 80 years (for example, 10% for VKA, 9% for oral antidiabetics, and 3% for insulins). CONCLUSION: The number of patients receiving their drugs from pharmacies was significantly higher in March 2020 than in March 2019, which is an indication of good therapy adherence. Additional studies are needed to examine adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic and possible age differences in adherence.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(697): e540-e547, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a rapid change in workload across healthcare systems. Factors related to this adaptation in UK primary care have not yet been examined. AIM: To assess the responsiveness and prioritisation of primary care consultation type for older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional database study examining consultations between 17 February and 10 May 2020 for patients aged ≥65 years, drawn from primary care practices within the Oxford Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC) sentinel network, UK. METHOD: The authors reported the proportion of consultation type across five categories: clinical administration, electronic/video, face-to-face, telephone, and home visits. Temporal trends in telephone and face-to-face consultations were analysed by polypharmacy, frailty status, and socioeconomic group using incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: Across 3 851 304 consultations, the population median age was 75 years (interquartile range [IQR] 70-82); and 46% (n = 82 926) of the cohort (N = 180 420) were male. The rate of telephone and electronic/video consultations more than doubled across the study period (106.0% and 102.8%, respectively). Face-to-face consultations fell by 64.6% and home visits by 62.6%. This predominantly occurred across week 11 (week commencing 9 March 2020), coinciding with national policy change. Polypharmacy and frailty were associated with a relative increase in consultations. The greatest relative increase was among people taking ≥10 medications compared with those taking none (face-to-face IRR 9.90, 95% CI = 9.55 to 10.26; telephone IRR 17.64, 95% CI = 16.89 to 18.41). CONCLUSION: Primary care has undergone an unprecedented in-pandemic reorganisation while retaining focus on patients with increased complexity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , House Calls/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , General Practitioners/organization & administration , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3360, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks among Brazilian individuals in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in the five Brazilian regions, among adult individuals, via an electronic form disseminated in social media, addressing general information and the use of masks. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks. RESULTS: 3,981 (100%) individuals participated in the study. In total, 95.5% (CI 95%: 94.8-96.1) reported using masks. Fabric masks were more frequently reported (72.7%; CI 95%: 71.3-74.1), followed by surgical masks (27.8%; CI 95%: 26.5-29.2). The percentage of reuse was 71.1% (CI 95%: 69.7-72.5). Most (55.8%; CI 95%: 51.7-60.0) of those exclusively wearing surgical masks reported its reuse. Being a woman and having had contact with individuals presenting respiratory symptoms increased the likelihood of wearing masks (p≤0.001). Additionally, being a woman decreased the likelihood of reusing surgical masks (p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: virtually all the participants reported the use of masks, most frequently fabric masks. The findings draw attention to a risky practice, that of reusing surgical and paper masks. Therefore, guidelines, public policies, and educational strategies are needed to promote the correct use of masks to control and prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Reuse , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Vomiting/etiology
6.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e11, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea remains a public health problem and an important cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. In Namibia, the national prevalence of diarrhoea was 17%; it was responsible for 5% of all deaths in children under 5 years old and is the second leading cause of death. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology and factors associated with acute diarrhoea amongst children less than 5 years of age in Engela district in the Ohangwena region, Namibia. SETTING: The study was conducted in Ohangwena Region in Namibia which extends east to west along the borders of the southern part of Angola. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological data of diarrhoea and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of diarrhoea. RESULTS: The study found a prevalence of 23.8% for diarrhoea in the 2 weeks period preceding the survey amongst children aged under 5 years. The prevalence of diarrhoea was statistically significantly associated with children (p 0.05). The strongest predictor of the prevalence of diarrhoea was the residential area 'informal settlement', with an odds ratio of 36.42. This implies that children living in the informal settlement are 36.42 times at risk of contracting diarrhoea as compared to those living in other residential areas. CONCLUSION: epidemiology; factors; diarrhoea; under-5 years children; Engela district; Ohangwena region; Namibia.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Namibia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 436, 2020 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological symptoms are increasingly being noted among COVID-19 patients. Currently, there is little data on the mental health of neurological healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and influencing factors on anxiety and depression in neurological healthcare workers in Hunan Province, China during the early stage of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted among neurological doctors and nurses in early February 2020 in Hunan Province. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Chinese version of the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) (defined as a total score ≥ 50) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) (defined as a total score ≥ 53). The prevalences of probable anxiety and depression were compared between different groups, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to understand the independent influencing factors on anxiety and depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable anxiety and depression in neurological nurses (20.3 and 30.2%, respectively) was higher than that in doctors (12.6 and 20.2%, respectively). Female healthcare workers (18.4%) had a higher proportion of anxiety than males (10.8%). Probable anxiety and depression were more prevalent among nurses, younger workers (≤ 40 years), and medical staff with junior titles. Logistic regression analysis showed that a shortage of protective equipment was independently associated with probable anxiety (OR = 1.980, 95% CI: 1.241-3.160, P = 0.004), while young age was a risk factor for probable depression (OR = 2.293, 95% CI: 1.137-4.623, P = 0.020) among neurological healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Probable anxiety and depression were more prevalent among neurological nurses than doctors in Hunan Province. The shortage of protective equipment led to probable anxiety, and young age led to probable depression in healthcare workers in neurology departments, which merits attention during the battle against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Nurses/psychology , Pandemics , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospital Units , Humans , Male , Neurology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(8): 801-804, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of seroconverted real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases at different days post-symptom onset; and also find the agreement of chemiluminescence assay used for total antibody detection using RT-PCR as a reference method. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Chughtai Institute of Pathology from April to May 2020. METHODOLOGY: Fifty pre-pandemic samples (healthy population) and 75 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients were divided into 3 equal groups (25 each), according to the days of symptom onset. The samples were analysed using electro-chemiluminescence as assay principle. Positive and negative agreement of COVID-19 antibodies was calculated using EP evaluator to find out the sensitivity of chemiluminescence assay for total antibody detection. The results were analysed using SPSS version 23.0. RESULTS: All the pre-pandemic samples tested were negative for antibodies with a negative agreement of 100%. Total agreement at day 7 post-symptom onset was 84%; whereas, it was 94% at day 14 and increased rapidly to 100% at day 21 post-symptom onset. At day 7 post-symptom onset, 68% of patients were seroconverted; and this percentage was 88% and 100% at day 14 and 21 post-symptom onset, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pre-pandemic samples were non-reactive for COVID-19 antibodies and seroconversion started within the first week post-virus exposure. There was 100% concordance between RT-PCR result and antibody positivity 21 days post-symptom onset. Key Words: COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, Seroconversion, Chemiluminescence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Luminescence , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Seroconversion
10.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 641-648, 2020 Jun 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To understand the psychological status of the staff in a general hospital during the coronavirus disease 2019 and its influential factors, and to provide references for the mental health services to hospital staff. METHODS: Using star platform of questionnaire, the staff in the general hospital were investigated via Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). The influential factors were discussed by descriptive analysis, rank sum test, single factor analysis, correlation analysis and multiple factors binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2 060 valid questionnaires were collected. The negative emotions of nurses and cleaners were the most obvious. The depression scores, anxiety scores and stress scores for nurses and cleaners were 5.06±7.47, 6.36±7.84, 9.75±8.65, and 6.72±8.84, 4.51±6.56, 9.69±9.56, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that staff types, education levels, job status, economic situation and concerns on the supplies of protective goods were the main influential factors for depression; staff types, contacting status with infected patients, economic situation, concerns on the supplies of protective goods, history of disease were the main influential factors for anxiety; contacting status with infected patients, economic situation, concerns on the supplies of protective goods were the main influential factors for stress. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in psychological characteristics among different groups of staff in the general hospital under the outbreak. Thus psychological protection and intervention measures should be formulated according to different groups and work status.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, General , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22227, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread dramatically worldwide, raising considerable concerns and resulting in detrimental effects on the psychological health of people who are vulnerable to the disease. Therefore, assessment of depression in members of the general public and their psychological and behavioral responses is essential for the maintenance of health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and the associated factors among the general public during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression.aA cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic was 182/1342 (13.6%). Regression analysis indicated that feeling stressed, feeling helpless, persistently being worried even with support, never feeling clean after disinfecting, scrubbing hands and items repeatedly, hoarding food, medicine, or daily supplies, and being distracted from work or study were positively associated with depression, while social support and being calm were negatively associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The general public suffered from high levels of depression during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, COVID-19-related mood management and social support should be provided to attenuate depression in the general public.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Self Report , Smartphone
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Sep 03.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Covid-19 pandemic is testing the resistance of health systems, the preservation of health professionals is a priority in processes of this type. The professionals' exposure to suspicious contacts often requires their confinement. The objective was to know the epidemiological characteristics of the primary care professionals who required confinement. METHODS: The research was carried out in the North Metropolitan Primary Care Area of Barcelona, from February 17 to May 3, 2020. 1,418 professionals who required confinement due to the epidemic by Covid-19 participated. The reasons for confinement, symptomatology, the confinement time and the results of PCR tests results were recorded. Univariate descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: 78.8% of the professionals were women and the mean age was 45.2 years. 67.8% were doctors and nurses, in the remaining 32.2% there were different healthcare and non-care professionals. 64.1% of the sample presented symptoms compatible with Covid-19. Participants described multiple symptoms during confinement. 1,050 diagnostic RT- PCR tests were performed, being positive in 323 cases, of which 33 were in asymptomatic people. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the epidemic by Covid-19 is anticipated in health personnel compared to the general population. The distribution of symptoms in healthcare professionals is similar to that of other studies in the general population. Of the total number of professionals requiring isolation, 22.7% confirmed the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Quarantine , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Spain/epidemiology
14.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 309-318, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743513

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and mood changes in the Croatian general population. METHODS: During ten days of the COVID-19 lockdown in Croatia, 3027 respondents (70.3% female) from the general population completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Demographic data and data on lifestyle habits and mood changes before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected. RESULTS: A total of 95.64% of respondents reported to follow most or all restrictions, with female sex (P<0.001) and higher education level (P<0.001) being associated with higher restriction compliance. Women smoked an increased number of cigarettes (P<0.001). The proportion of respondents of both sexes who did not drink or drank 7 drinks per week or more increased (P<0.001). Women also reported lower frequency (P=0.001) and duration of physical exercise (P<0.001). In total, 30.7% of respondents gained weight, with female sex (OR, 2.726) and higher BMI (OR, 1.116; both P<0.001) being associated with an increased likelihood of gaining weight. Both men and women felt more frequently afraid (P<0.001), discouraged (P<0.001), and sad (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in order to reduce long-term negative effects of the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Affect , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , Coronavirus , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Quarantine/psychology , Sadness , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 203-209, 2020.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the additional diagnostic performance of a rapid serological test for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies compared to the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test; for detection of SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out including patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in 3 hospitals, health workers exposed to the infection and outpatients who met suspicious case criteria, all of which underwent the molecular test (RT-PCR) and the rapid serological test. The additional diagnostic performance of rapid serological test was evaluated in comparison to molecular tests. Likewise, an approximation was made to the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid serological test. RESULTS: 144 people were included. With the rapid test, 19.4% of positive results were obtained compared to 11.1% in the molecular test (p = 0.03). The rapid serological test detected 21 cases that had been negative by the initial (RT-PCR), providing an additional diagnostic performance of 56.8% compared to the RT-PCR. The additional diagnostic performance was 50.0% during the first week, 70.0% during the second week and 50.0% during the third week of symptom onset. The sensitivity of the rapid serological test was 43.8% and the specificity of 98.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid serological test was able to detect a greater number of cases than those detected by the molecular test especially after the second week of onset of symptoms. It also showed high specificity. It is therefore useful as a complementary test to RT-PCR, especially during the second and third week of illness.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3437-3444, 2020 Sep.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740426

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses difficulties for long-term care institutions for the elderly, with increased mortality rates for the residents. This study aims to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on mortality of institutionalized elderly in Brazil. Estimates of the percentage of elderly deaths occurring in care homes were calculated for Brazil, States and Regions using estimates for the total number of deaths. The estimation was based upon information available for other countries. The weighted percentage was 44.7% and 107,538 COVID-19 deaths were estimated for the elderly in these institutions in Brazil in 2020. Higher numbers of deaths were expected in the Southeast Region (48,779 deaths), followed by the Northeast Region (28,451 deaths); São Paulo was the most affected State (24,500 deaths). The strong impact of COVID-19 on the elderly population living in long-term care facilities is clear. Estimates for the country exceeded 100,000 elderly people, potentially the most fragile and vulnerable, and are based upon a conservative number of total deaths, in view of other estimates and the alarming situation of death growth in Brazil from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Long-Term Care , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Institutionalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21699, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740199

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of dry eye symptoms (DES) among doctors and nurses in the period of 2019, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.To evaluate the DES of doctors and nurses worked at front-line hospitals with protective glasses for a mean time of 4 to 6 hours, a questionnaire developed by the researchers with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was used. These data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and correlation test with SPSS 22.0.The study included 13 doctors and 40 nurses, among which 16 were male and 37 were female, and the mean age of the participants was 32.43 ±â€Š5.15 years old. According to the OSDI scores, 64.15, 24.52, 7.54, and 3.77% of the participants experienced occasional, mild, moderate, and severe DES, respectively. The factors significantly correlated with OSDI scores were age and duration of wearing protective glasses, while the duration of wearing protective glasses may be a protective factor of dry eye symptoms.Our study showed that most of the doctors and nurses worked at the front-line of combating COVID-19 did not experience DES, while the symptoms of those who experienced DES might be improved by wearing protective glasses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Dry Eye Syndromes , Eye Protective Devices , Infection Control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
19.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 235-238, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739563

ABSTRACT

The present pandemic caused by the SARS COV-2 coronavirus is still ongoing, although it is registered a slowdown in the spread for new cases. The main environmental route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is through droplets and fomites or surfaces, but there is a potential risk of virus spread also in smaller aerosols during various medical procedures causing airborne transmission. To date, no information is available on the risk of contagion from the peritoneal fluid with which surgeons can come into contact during the abdominal surgery on COVID-19 patients. We have investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the peritoneal cavity of patients affected by COVID-19, intraoperatively and postoperatively. KEY WORDS: Covid-19, Laparotomy, Surgery.


Subject(s)
Ascitic Fluid/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intestinal Perforation/surgery , Laparotomy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sigmoid Diseases/surgery , Viremia/transmission , Aerosols , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diverticulum/complications , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Intestinal Perforation/blood , Intestinal Perforation/complications , Intestinal Perforation/virology , Intraoperative Period , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk , Serum/virology , Sigmoid Diseases/blood , Sigmoid Diseases/complications , Sigmoid Diseases/virology , Viremia/virology
20.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(6): 916-921, 2020 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737751

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: To describe the prevalence of ocular features among COVID-19 patients and their relationship with clinical data, inflammatory markers and respiratory support therapy (including CPAP); to investigate SARS-CoV-2 in ocular secretions of symptomatic patients. METHODS: 172 COVID-19 patients were evaluated for presence of ocular manifestations. Clinical and laboratory data were also reviewed. Conjunctival swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Forty-five patients (26.2%) reported ocular manifestations. Patients treated with CPAP were more likely to have ocular abnormalities (p <.01). The presence of ocular symptoms was not associated with more significant alterations on blood tests. Conjunctival swabs from patients with suspect conjunctivitis yielded negative results for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular features are not infrequent in COVID-19 patients, but the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular secretions is low. Ocular manifestations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients can also be a consequence of respiratory support therapy. Prevention of possible transmission through ocular secretions is still recommended.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Conjunctiva/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , RNA, Viral/analysis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
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