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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580814

ABSTRACT

The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the home advantage (HA) and the home team performance in the most relevant European rink hockey leagues (Spanish, Portuguese and Italian), considering the presence or absence of spectators in the competition venues due to the effect of COVID-19 restrictions. The sample was composed of 1665 rink hockey matches (654 from the Spanish league, 497 from the Portuguese league, and 514 from the Italian league) played between the 2018-2019 and 2020-2021 seasons. The HA and match variables comparisons were established using several negative binomial regression models. Results showed that the effect of HA did not disappear despite playing without spectators but decreased from 63.99% to 57.41% (p = 0.002). Moreover, the comparison of the match variables showed that playing with spectators benefited local teams' performance, especially in the Portuguese and Italian leagues. Playing with spectators favoured local team performance in rink hockey matches, which is more evident in some analysed leagues. However, as HA does not disappear entirely without spectators, it is necessary to study other relevant performance factors that are not directly or indirectly attributable to crowd behaviour in rink hockey performance analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hockey , Crowding , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580788

ABSTRACT

Numerous nations have implemented lockdown measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a consequence of the lockdown on daily living, social participation, and health service accessibility, vulnerable people, for example, new mothers, may experience an increase in mental health problems. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on Thai new mothers and the variables affecting their mental health. The survey data were collected from 903 Thai mothers with infants aged 0-12 months using an online platform and a face-to-face interview questionnaire survey between 17 July and 17 October 2020, during the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown period. For the final analysis, there were 862 participants who completed all of the questions. The full exploratory analysis was performed by multivariable linear regression to identify the variables influencing maternal mental health. Our study demonstrated that new mothers reported feeling a high extent to some extent of worry (44.9%), increased appetite (40.4%), becoming easily annoyed or irritable (39.1%), and feeling down (33.5%), whereas 82.7% felt able to cope with the first lockdown situation. Practiced relaxation techniques were associated with positive maternal mental health (adjusted ß = 1.05, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.52, p < 0.001). The perceived impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was on the household's ability to pay for rent, to make mortgage payments (adjusted ß = -1.59, 95% CI -2.87 to -0.36, p = 0.011), the household's ability to pay for other essentials, such as utilities and medication (adjusted ß = -1.99, 95% CI -3.16 to -0.81, p = 0.001), household crowding after lockdown (adjusted ß = -3.46, 95% CI -4.86 to -2.06, p < 0.001), and not going outside or doing outdoor activities (adjusted ß = -2.22, 95% CI -3.35 to -1.08, p < 0.001). These impacts were significantly associated with negative mental health. In conclusion, our results emphasize the critical need for continuous monitoring of maternal mental health and developing an effective response strategy and activity for promoting maternal mental health under the stress of repetitive lockdowns and increased economic pressures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20982, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483150

ABSTRACT

Intermittent and periodic outbreaks of infectious diseases have had profound and lasting effects on societies throughout human history. During the global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting coronavirus disease (COVID-19), social distance has been imposed worldwide to limit the spread of the virus. An additional deliberate intention of keeping a minimum safety distance from neighbors can fundamentally alter the "social force" between individuals. Here, we introduce a new "social distance" term inspired by gas molecular dynamics and integrate it into an existing agent-based social force model to describe the dynamics of crowds under social-distanced conditions. The advantage of this "social distance" term over the simple increasing of the repulsive range of other alternatives is that the fundamental crowd properties are precisely described by our model parameters. We compare the new model with the Helbing and Molnar's classical model and experimental data, and show that this new model is superior in reproducing experimental data. We demonstrate the usability of this model with a bottleneck motion base case. The new model shows that the bottleneck effect can be significantly alleviated through small wall modifications. Lastly, we explain the mechanism of this improvement and conclude that this improvement is due to spatial asymmetry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Physical Distancing , Algorithms , COVID-19/transmission , Crowding , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Models, Statistical , Models, Theoretical , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pandemics , Public Health Informatics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478423

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Introducción: Los estudios sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) sobre COVID-19 ayudan a identificar conceptos erróneos y prácticas inadecuadas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Esta información de referencia es fundamental para diseñar estrategias efectivas y mejorar la adherencia a las medidas de prevención. Objetivo: Identificar la CAP relacionada con COVID-19 en pacientes venezolanos cribados en la carpa de triaje del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal entre 215 pacientes entre el 25 de abril y el 25 de mayo de 2020, con entrevistas en persona utilizando una encuesta KAP. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes encuestados (53,5%) se encontraban asintomáticos. La mayoría de ellos, tanto del grupo sintomático como asintomático, tenían un conocimiento adecuado sobre los síntomas y la transmisión de la enfermedad y la mayoría dijo que practicaban la cuarentena, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso de mascarillas en las áreas públicas. Sin embargo, el reemplazo diario de mascarillas de tela fue más frecuente en el grupo asintomático, mientras que el reemplazo cada tres días fue más frecuente en el grupo sintomático. Finalmente, más de la mitad de los participantes admitieron haber estado en lugares concurridos, una práctica común entre los sintomáticos en comparación con los asintomáticos. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio CAP en Venezuela sobre COVID-19. El conocimiento y las prácticas entre los venezolanos podrían mejorarse fortaleciendo los programas de educación y capacitación. Esta información de la fase inicial de la pandemia en Venezuela puede contribuir al diseño de estrategias de promoción y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101617, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454551

ABSTRACT

Mass gathering (MG) medicine emerged against the backdrop of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) hosted the largest annual mass gathering of over 3 million pilgrims from 180 plus countries. However, the events surrounding the latest threat to global health, the PHEIC COVID-19, may be sufficient to highlight the role of mass gatherings, mass migration, and other forms of dense gatherings of people on the emergence, sustenance, and transmission of novel pathogens. The COVID-19 spread illustrates the role of MGs in exacerbation of the scope of pandemics. Cancellation or suspension of MGs would be critical to pandemic mitigation. It is unlikely that medical countermeasures are available during the early phase of pandemics. Therefore, mitigation of its impact, rather than containment and control becomes a priority during pandemics. As the most systematically studied MG-related respiratory disease data come from KSA, the cancellation of Umrah by the KSA authorities, prior to emergence of cases, provide the best opportunity to develop mathematical models to quantify event cancellations related mitigation of COVID-19 transmission in KSA and to the home countries of pilgrims. COVID-19 has already provided examples of both clearly planned event cancellations such as the Umrah suspension in KSA, and where outbreaks and events were continued.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Crowding , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Travel , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Iran , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Ships
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048778, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435050

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Communities, Households and SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology (CHASING) COVID Cohort Study is a community-based prospective cohort study launched during the upswing of the USA COVID-19 epidemic. The objectives of the cohort study are to: (1) estimate and evaluate determinants of the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and deaths; (2) assess the impact of the pandemic on psychosocial and economic outcomes and (3) assess the uptake of pandemic mitigation strategies. PARTICIPANTS: We began enrolling participants from 28 March 2020 using internet-based strategies. Adults≥18 years residing anywhere in the USA or US territories were eligible. 6740 people are enrolled in the cohort, including participants from all 50 US states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Guam. Participants are contacted regularly to complete study assessments, including interviews and dried blood spot specimen collection for serologic testing. FINDINGS TO DATE: Participants are geographically and sociodemographically diverse and include essential workers (19%). 84.2% remain engaged in cohort follow-up activities after enrolment. Data have been used to assess SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence, seroincidence and related risk factors at different phases of the US pandemic; the role of household crowding and the presence of children in the household as potential risk factors for severe COVID-19 early in the US pandemic; to describe the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and its relationship to COVID-19 outcomes and other potential stressors; to identify preferences for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing when community transmission is on the rise via a discrete choice experiment and to assess vaccine hesitancy over time and its relationship to vaccine uptake. FUTURE PLANS: The CHASING COVID Cohort Study has outlined a research agenda that involves ongoing monitoring of the incidence and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 outcomes, mental health outcomes and economic outcomes. Additional priorities include assessing the incidence, prevalence and correlates of long-haul COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(7): e1008353, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360633

ABSTRACT

Locusts are short horned grasshoppers that exhibit two behaviour types depending on their local population density. These are: solitarious, where they will actively avoid other locusts, and gregarious where they will seek them out. It is in this gregarious state that locusts can form massive and destructive flying swarms or plagues. However, these swarms are usually preceded by the aggregation of juvenile wingless locust nymphs. In this paper we attempt to understand how the distribution of food resources affect the group formation process. We do this by introducing a multi-population partial differential equation model that includes non-local locust interactions, local locust and food interactions, and gregarisation. Our results suggest that, food acts to increase the maximum density of locust groups, lowers the percentage of the population that needs to be gregarious for group formation, and decreases both the required density of locusts and time for group formation around an optimal food width. Finally, by looking at foraging efficiency within the numerical experiments we find that there exists a foraging advantage to being gregarious.


Subject(s)
Appetitive Behavior/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Grasshoppers/physiology , Models, Biological , Animals , Computational Biology , Crowding , Nymph/physiology
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities account for 34% of critically ill patients with COVID-19 despite constituting 14% of the UK population. Internationally, researchers have called for studies to understand deterioration risk factors to inform clinical risk tool development. METHODS: Multicentre cohort study of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 (n=3671) exploring determinants of health, including Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) subdomains, as risk factors for presentation, deterioration and mortality by ethnicity. Receiver operator characteristics were plotted for CURB65 and ISARIC4C by ethnicity and area under the curve (AUC) calculated. RESULTS: Ethnic minorities were hospitalised with higher Charlson Comorbidity Scores than age, sex and deprivation matched controls and from the most deprived quintile of at least one IMD subdomain: indoor living environment (LE), outdoor LE, adult skills, wider barriers to housing and services. Admission from the most deprived quintile of these deprivation forms was associated with multilobar pneumonia on presentation and ICU admission. AUC did not exceed 0.7 for CURB65 or ISARIC4C among any ethnicity except ISARIC4C among Indian patients (0.83, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.93). Ethnic minorities presenting with pneumonia and low CURB65 (0-1) had higher mortality than White patients (22.6% vs 9.4%; p<0.001); Africans were at highest risk (38.5%; p=0.006), followed by Caribbean (26.7%; p=0.008), Indian (23.1%; p=0.007) and Pakistani (21.2%; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic minorities exhibit higher multimorbidity despite younger age structures and disproportionate exposure to unscored risk factors including obesity and deprivation. Household overcrowding, air pollution, housing quality and adult skills deprivation are associated with multilobar pneumonia on presentation and ICU admission which are mortality risk factors. Risk tools need to reflect risks predominantly affecting ethnic minorities.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Housing/standards , Patient Admission , Risk Assessment/methods , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Comorbidity , Crowding , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(10): 1315-1321, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347379

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 incidence and mortality are higher among incarcerated persons than in the general US population, but the extent to which prison crowding contributes to their COVID-19 risk is unknown. Objective: To estimate the associations between prison crowding, community COVID-19 transmission, and prison incidence rates of COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a longitudinal ecological study among all incarcerated persons in 14 Massachusetts state prisons between April 21, 2020, and January 11, 2021. Exposures: The primary exposure of interest was prison crowding, measured by (1) the size of the incarcerated population as a percentage of the prison's design capacity and (2) the percentage of incarcerated persons housed in single-cell units. The analysis included the weekly COVID-19 incidence in the county where each prison is located as a covariate. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the weekly COVID-19 incidence rate as determined by positive SARS-CoV-2 tests among incarcerated persons at each prison over discrete 1-week increments. Results: There was on average 6876 people incarcerated in 14 prisons during the study period. The median level of crowding during the observation period ranged from 25% to 155% of design capacity. COVID-19 incidence was significantly higher in prisons where the incarcerated population was a larger percentage of the prison's design capacity (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per 10-percentage-point difference, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27). COVID-19 incidence was lower in prisons where a higher proportion of incarcerated people were housed in single-cell units (IRR for each 10-percentage-point increase in single-cell units, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93). COVID-19 transmission in the surrounding county was consistently associated with COVID-19 incidence in prisons (IRR [for each increase of 10 cases per 100 000 person-weeks in the community], 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.08). Conclusions and Relevance: This longitudinal ecological study found that within 14 Massachusetts state prisons, increased crowding was associated with increased incidence rates of COVID-19. Researchers and policy makers should explore strategies that reduce prison crowding, such as decarceration, as potential ways to mitigate COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among incarcerated persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Crowding , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Massachusetts , Retrospective Studies
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(31): 1059-1062, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344580

ABSTRACT

During July 2021, 469 cases of COVID-19 associated with multiple summer events and large public gatherings in a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, were identified among Massachusetts residents; vaccination coverage among eligible Massachusetts residents was 69%. Approximately three quarters (346; 74%) of cases occurred in fully vaccinated persons (those who had completed a 2-dose course of mRNA vaccine [Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna] or had received a single dose of Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine ≥14 days before exposure). Genomic sequencing of specimens from 133 patients identified the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in 119 (89%) and the Delta AY.3 sublineage in one (1%). Overall, 274 (79%) vaccinated patients with breakthrough infection were symptomatic. Among five COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized, four were fully vaccinated; no deaths were reported. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values in specimens from 127 vaccinated persons with breakthrough cases were similar to those from 84 persons who were unvaccinated, not fully vaccinated, or whose vaccination status was unknown (median = 22.77 and 21.54, respectively). The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible (1); vaccination is the most important strategy to prevent severe illness and death. On July 27, CDC recommended that all persons, including those who are fully vaccinated, should wear masks in indoor public settings in areas where COVID-19 transmission is high or substantial.* Findings from this investigation suggest that even jurisdictions without substantial or high COVID-19 transmission might consider expanding prevention strategies, including masking in indoor public settings regardless of vaccination status, given the potential risk of infection during attendance at large public gatherings that include travelers from many areas with differing levels of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Crowding , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the consequences of COVID-19 has been the cancelation of collegiate sporting events. We explore the impact of sports on COVID-19 transmission on a college campus. METHODS: Using a compartmental model representing the university, we model the impact of influxes of 10,000 visitors attending events and ancillary activities (dining out, visiting family, shopping, etc.) on 20,000 students. We vary the extent visitors interact with the campus, the number of infectious visitors, and the extent to which the campus has controlled COVID-19 absent events. We also conduct a global sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Events caused an increase in the number of cases ranging from a 25% increase when the campus already had an uncontrolled COVID-19 outbreak and visitors had a low prevalence of COVID-19 and mixed lightly with the campus community to an 822% increase where the campus had controlled their COVID-19 outbreak and visitors had both a high prevalence of COVID-19 and mixed heavily with the campus community. The model was insensitive to parameter uncertainty, save for the duration a symptomatic individual was infectious. CONCLUSION: Sporting events represent a threat to the health of the campus community. This is the case even in circumstances where COVID-19 seems controlled both on-campus and among the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crowding , Sports , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Students
14.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337812

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Introducción: Los estudios sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) sobre COVID-19 ayudan a identificar conceptos erróneos y prácticas inadecuadas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Esta información de referencia es fundamental para diseñar estrategias efectivas y mejorar la adherencia a las medidas de prevención. Objetivo: Identificar la CAP relacionada con COVID-19 en pacientes venezolanos cribados en la carpa de triaje del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal entre 215 pacientes entre el 25 de abril y el 25 de mayo de 2020, con entrevistas en persona utilizando una encuesta KAP. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes encuestados (53,5%) se encontraban asintomáticos. La mayoría de ellos, tanto del grupo sintomático como asintomático, tenían un conocimiento adecuado sobre los síntomas y la transmisión de la enfermedad y la mayoría dijo que practicaban la cuarentena, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso de mascarillas en las áreas públicas. Sin embargo, el reemplazo diario de mascarillas de tela fue más frecuente en el grupo asintomático, mientras que el reemplazo cada tres días fue más frecuente en el grupo sintomático. Finalmente, más de la mitad de los participantes admitieron haber estado en lugares concurridos, una práctica común entre los sintomáticos en comparación con los asintomáticos. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio CAP en Venezuela sobre COVID-19. El conocimiento y las prácticas entre los venezolanos podrían mejorarse fortaleciendo los programas de educación y capacitación. Esta información de la fase inicial de la pandemia en Venezuela puede contribuir al diseño de estrategias de promoción y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 100, 2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an international public health threat, and people's participation in disease-related preventive behaviours is the key to controlling infectious diseases. This study aimed to assess the differences in adopting preventive behaviours among populations to explore potential individual and household factors and inequalities within families. METHODS: This online survey was conducted in April 2020. The directional stratified convenient sampling method was used to select 4704 participants from eight provinces in eastern, central, and western China. The questionnaire included demographic information, household variables, and five target prevention behaviours. The chi-squared test, binary multilevel model, and Mantel-Haenszel hierarchical analysis were used for data analysis in the study. RESULTS: Approximately 71.2% of the participants had appropriate outdoor prevention, and 32.9% of the participants had indoor protection in place. Sharing behaviours (P < 0.001) and education level (P < 0.001) were positively associated with adopting preventive measures. The inhibiting effect of household crowding and stimulating effect of high household income on preventive behaviours were determined in this study. Household size was negatively associated with living area (ß = -0.057, P < 0.05) and living style (ß = -0.077, P < 0.05). Household income was positively associated with age (ß = 0.023, P < 0.05), and relationship with friends (ß = 0.053, P < 0.05). Vulnerable groups, such as older adults or women, are more likely to have inadequate preventive behaviours. Older adults (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.09-2.15), women (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64), and those with more than 2 suspected symptoms (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.07-3.19) were more likely to be affected by the inhibiting effect of household crowding, while the stimulating effect of high household income was limited in these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in COVID-19 prevention behaviours exist between families and inadequate adoption of prevention by vulnerable groups are noteworthy. This study expands the research perspective by emphasizing the role of household factors in preventive behaviours and by focusing on family inequalities. The government should use traditional media as a platform to enhance residents' public health knowledge. Targeted additional wage subsidies, investments in affordable housing, financial support for multigenerational households, and temporary relocation policies may deserve more attention. Communities could play a critical role in COVID-19 prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117060, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308936

ABSTRACT

Importance: Socioeconomic factors in the disparities in COVID-19 outcomes have been reported in studies from the US and other Western countries. However, no studies have documented national- or subnational-level outcome disparities in Asian countries. Objective: To assess the association between regional COVID-19 outcome disparities and socioeconomic characteristics in Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study collected and analyzed confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths (through February 13, 2021) as well as population and socioeconomic data in all 47 prefectures in Japan. The data sources were government surveys for which prefecture-level data were available. Exposures: Prefectural socioeconomic characteristics included mean annual household income, Gini coefficient, proportion of the population receiving public assistance, educational attainment, unemployment rate, employment in industries with frequent close contacts with the public, household crowding, smoking rate, and obesity rate. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rate ratios (RRs) of COVID-19 incidence and mortality by prefecture-level socioeconomic characteristics. Results: All 47 prefectures in Japan (with a total population of 126.2 million) were included in this analysis. A total of 412 126 confirmed COVID-19 cases (326.7 per 100 000 people) and 6910 deaths (5.5 per 100 000 people) were reported as of February 13, 2021. Elevated adjusted incidence and mortality RRs of COVID-19 were observed in prefectures with the lowest household income (incidence RR: 1.45 [95% CI, 1.43-1.48] and mortality RR: 1.81 [95% CI, 1.59-2.07]); highest proportion of the population receiving public assistance (1.55 [95% CI, 1.52-1.58] and 1.51 [95% CI, 1.35-1.69]); highest unemployment rate (1.56 [95% CI, 1.53-1.59] and 1.85 [95% CI, 1.65-2.09]); highest percentage of workers in retail industry (1.36 [95% CI, 1.34-1.38] and 1.45 [95% CI, 1.31-1.61]), transportation and postal industries (1.61 [95% CI, 1.57-1.64] and 2.55 [95% CI, 2.21-2.94]), and restaurant industry (2.61 [95% CI, 2.54-2.68] and 4.17 [95% CI, 3.48-5.03]); most household crowding (1.35 [95% CI, 1.31-1.38] and 1.04 [95% CI, 0.87-1.24]); highest smoking rate (1.63 [95% CI, 1.60-1.66] and 1.54 [95% CI, 1.33-1.78]); and highest obesity rate (0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95] and 1.17 [95% CI, 1.01-1.34]) compared with prefectures with the most social advantages. Among potential mediating variables, higher smoking rate (RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.33-1.78) and obesity rate (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) were associated with higher mortality RRs, even after adjusting for prefecture-level covariates and other socioeconomic variables. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a pattern of socioeconomic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in Japan that was similar to that observed in the US and Europe. National policy in Japan could consider prioritizing populations in socially disadvantaged regions in the COVID-19 response, such as vaccination planning, to address this pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Social Class , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Educational Status , Employment , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Income , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Occupations , Pandemics , Public Assistance , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260986

ABSTRACT

What is an effective vaccination policy to end the COVID-19 pandemic? We address this question in a model of the dynamics of policy effectiveness drawing upon the results of a large panel survey implemented in Germany during the first and second waves of the pandemic. We observe increased opposition to vaccinations were they to be legally required. In contrast, for voluntary vaccinations, there was higher and undiminished support. We find that public distrust undermines vaccine acceptance, and is associated with a belief that the vaccine is ineffective and, if enforced, compromises individual freedom. We model how the willingness to be vaccinated may vary over time in response to the fraction of the population already vaccinated and whether vaccination has occurred voluntarily or not. A negative effect of enforcement on vaccine acceptance (of the magnitude observed in our panel or even considerably smaller) could result in a large increase in the numbers that would have to be vaccinated unwillingly in order to reach a herd-immunity target. Costly errors may be avoided if policy makers understand that citizens' preferences are not fixed but will be affected both by the crowding-out effect of enforcement and by conformism. Our findings have broad policy applicability beyond COVID-19 to cases in which voluntary citizen compliance is essential because state capacities are limited and because effectiveness may depend on the ways that the policies themselves alter citizens' beliefs and preferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Crowding , Social Conformity , Social Norms , Vaccination , Health Policy , Humans , Models, Immunological , Motivation
20.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S57-S68, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreaks associated with mass religious gatherings which have the potential of invoking epidemics at large scale have been a great concern. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of outbreak in mass religious gathering and further to assess the preparedness of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for preventing COVID-19 outbreak in this context. METHODS: The risk of COVID-19 outbreak in mass religious gathering was evaluated by using secondary COVID-19 cases and reproductive numbers. The preparedness of a series of NPIs for preventing COVID-19 outbreak in mass religious gathering was then assessed by using a density-dependent model. This approach was first illustrated by the Mazu Pilgrimage in Taiwan and validated by using the COVID-19 outbreak in the Shincheonji Church of Jesus (SCJ) religious gathering in South Korea. RESULTS: Through the strict implementation of 80% NPIs in the Mazu Pilgrimage, the number of secondary cases can be substantially reduced from 1508 (95% CI: 900-2176) to 294 (95% CI: 169-420) with the reproductive number (R) significantly below one (0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.78), indicating an effective containment of outbreak. The expected number of secondary COVID-19 cases in the SCJ gathering was estimated as 232 (basic reproductive number (R0) = 6.02) and 579 (R0 = 2.50) for the first and second outbreak, respectively, with a total expected cases (833) close to the observed data on high infection of COVID-19 cases (887, R0 = 3.00). CONCLUSION: We provided the evidence on the preparedness of NPIs for preventing COVID-19 outbreak in the context of mass religious gathering by using a density-dependent model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Crowding , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Religion , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
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