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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2449: 235-261, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826140

ABSTRACT

Like an article narrative is deemed by an editor and referees to be worthy of being a version of record on acceptance as a publication, so must the underpinning data also be scrutinized before passing it as a version of record. Indeed without the underpinning data, a study and its conclusions cannot be reproduced at any stage of evaluation, pre- or post-publication. Likewise, an independent study without its own underpinning data also cannot be reproduced let alone be considered a replicate of the first study. The PDB is a modern marvel of achievement providing an organized open access to depositor and user of the data held there opening numerous applications. Methods for modeling protein structures and for determination of structures are still improving their precision, and artifacts of the method exist. So their accuracy is realized if they are reproduced by other methods. It is on such foundations that reproducible data mining is based. Data rates are expanding considerably be they at synchrotrons, the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), electron cryomicroscopes (cryoEM), or at the neutron facilities. The work of a person as a referee or user with a narrative and its underpinning data may well be complemented in future by artificial intelligence with machine learning, the former for specific refereeing and the latter for the more general validation, both ideally before publication. Examples are described involving rhenium theranostics, the anti-cancer platins and the SARS-CoV-2 main protease.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Crystallography/methods , Crystallography, X-Ray , Data Mining , Humans , Macromolecular Substances/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Synchrotrons
2.
J Mol Biol ; 434(9): 167516, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712817

ABSTRACT

Stress granule (SG) formation mediated by Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) constitutes a key obstacle for viral replication, which makes G3BP1 a frequent target for viruses. For instance, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein interacts with G3BP1 directly to suppress SG assembly and promote viral production. However, the molecular basis for the SARS-CoV-2 N - G3BP1 interaction remains elusive. Here we report biochemical and structural analyses of the SARS-CoV-2 N - G3BP1 interaction, revealing differential contributions of various regions of SARS-CoV-2 N to G3BP1 binding. The crystal structure of the NTF2-like domain of G3BP1 (G3BP1NTF2) in complex with a peptide derived from SARS-CoV-2 N (residues 1-25, N1-25) reveals that SARS-CoV-2 N1-25 occupies a conserved surface groove of G3BP1NTF2 via surface complementarity. We show that a φ-x-F (φ, hydrophobic residue) motif constitutes the primary determinant for G3BP1NTF2-targeting proteins, while the flanking sequence underpins diverse secondary interactions. We demonstrate that mutation of key interaction residues of the SARS-CoV-2 N1-25 - G3BP1NTF2 complex leads to disruption of the SARS-CoV-2 N - G3BP1 interaction in vitro. Together, these results provide a molecular basis of the strain-specific interaction between SARS-CoV-2 N and G3BP1, which has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , DNA Helicases , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , RNA Helicases , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Crystallography , DNA Helicases/chemistry , Humans , Mutation , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/chemistry , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/chemistry
3.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 4991-5000, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574766

ABSTRACT

The main protease (3CL Mpro) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, is an essential enzyme for viral replication with no human counterpart, making it an attractive drug target. To date, no small-molecule clinical drugs are available that specifically inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. To aid rational drug design, we determined a neutron structure of Mpro in complex with the α-ketoamide inhibitor telaprevir at near-physiological (22 °C) temperature. We directly observed protonation states in the inhibitor complex and compared them with those in the ligand-free Mpro, revealing modulation of the active-site protonation states upon telaprevir binding. We suggest that binding of other α-ketoamide covalent inhibitors can lead to the same protonation state changes in the Mpro active site. Thus, by studying the protonation state changes induced by inhibitors, we provide crucial insights to help guide rational drug design, allowing precise tailoring of inhibitors to manipulate the electrostatic environment of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography/methods , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Neutrons , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protons
4.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(8): 1469-1481, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387143

ABSTRACT

The programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting element (PFSE) of SARS-CoV-2 is a well conserved structured RNA found in all coronaviruses' genomes. By adopting a pseudoknot structure in the presence of the ribosome, the PFSE promotes a ribosomal frameshifting event near the stop codon of the first open reading frame Orf1a during translation of the polyprotein pp1a. Frameshifting results in continuation of pp1a via a new open reading frame, Orf1b, that produces the longer pp1ab polyprotein. Polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab produce nonstructural proteins NSPs 1-10 and NSPs 1-16, respectively, which contribute vital functions during the viral life cycle and must be present in the proper stoichiometry. Both drugs and sequence alterations that affect the stability of the -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting element disrupt the stoichiometry of the NSPs produced, which compromise viral replication. For this reason, the -1 programmed frameshifting element is considered a promising drug target. Using chaperone assisted RNA crystallography, we successfully crystallized and solved the three-dimensional structure of the PFSE. We observe a three-stem H-type pseudoknot structure with the three stems stacked in a vertical orientation stabilized by two triple base pairs at the stem 1/stem 2 and stem 1/stem 3 junctions. This structure provides a new conformation of PFSE distinct from the bent conformations inferred from midresolution cryo-EM models and provides a high-resolution framework for mechanistic investigations and structure-based drug design.


Subject(s)
Crystallography/methods , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/physiology , Molecular Chaperones , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
5.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 71: 36-42, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294213

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen atoms and hydration water molecules in proteins are indispensable for many biochemical processes, especially enzymatic catalysis. The locations of hydrogen atoms in proteins are usually predicted based on X-ray structures, but it is still very difficult to know the ionization states of the catalytic residues, the hydration structure of the protein, and the characteristics of hydrogen-bonding interactions. Neutron crystallography allows the direct observation of hydrogen atoms that play crucial roles in molecular recognition and the catalytic reactions of enzymes. In this review, we present the current status of neutron crystallography in structural biology and recent neutron structural analyses of three enzymes: ascorbate peroxidase, the main protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and copper-containing nitrite reductase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Catalysis , Crystallography , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Molecular , Neutrons
6.
J Hypertens ; 39(8): 1705-1716, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension has been identified as the most common comorbidity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and has been suggested as a risk factor for COVID-19 disease outcomes. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus enters host human cells via binding to host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Inhibition of ACE2 has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach to block SARS-CoV-2 contagion. However, some experts suggest that ACE2 inhibition could worsen the infection. Here, we aimed to study the effect of ACE2 inhibition on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2. METHOD: Crystallographic structures of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the spike receptor-binding domain, native ACE2, and the ACE2 complexed with MLN-4760 were used as the study model structures. The spike proteins were docked to the ACE2 structures and the dynamics of the complexes, ligand-protein, and protein-protein interactions were studied by molecular dynamics simulation for 100 ns. RESULTS: Our result showed that inhibition of ACE2 by MLN-4760 increased the affinity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2. Results also revealed that spike protein binding to the ACE2 inhibited by MLN-4760 restored the enzymatic active conformation of the ACE2 from closed/inactive to open/active conformation by removing MLN-4760 binding from the ligand-binding pocket of ACE2. CONCLUSION: We conclude that using ACE2 inhibitors can increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and worsen COVID-19 disease outcome. We also found that the SARS-CoV-2 can abrogate the function of ACE2 inhibitors and rescue the enzymatic activity of ACE2. Therefore, ACE2 inhibition is not a useful treatment against COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Crystallography , Humans , Imidazoles , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223143

ABSTRACT

The genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus has a capping modification at the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) to prevent its degradation by host nucleases. These modifications are performed by the Nsp10/14 and Nsp10/16 heterodimers using S-adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. Nsp10/16 heterodimer is responsible for the methylation at the ribose 2'-O position of the first nucleotide. To investigate the conformational changes of the complex during 2'-O methyltransferase activity, we used a fixed-target serial synchrotron crystallography method at room temperature. We determined crystal structures of Nsp10/16 with substrates and products that revealed the states before and after methylation, occurring within the crystals during the experiments. Here we report the crystal structure of Nsp10/16 in complex with Cap-1 analog (m7GpppAm2'-O). Inhibition of Nsp16 activity may reduce viral proliferation, making this protein an attractive drug target.


Subject(s)
RNA Caps/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Crystallography , Methylation , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry , Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism , RNA Cap Analogs/chemistry , RNA Cap Analogs/metabolism , RNA Caps/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , S-Adenosylhomocysteine/chemistry , S-Adenosylhomocysteine/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/chemistry , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Synchrotrons , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
8.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213326

ABSTRACT

Fifty years ago, the first landmark structures of antibodies heralded the dawn of structural immunology. Momentum then started to build toward understanding how antibodies could recognize the vast universe of potential antigens and how antibody-combining sites could be tailored to engage antigens with high specificity and affinity through recombination of germline genes (V, D, J) and somatic mutation. Equivalent groundbreaking structures in the cellular immune system appeared some 15 to 20 years later and illustrated how processed protein antigens in the form of peptides are presented by MHC molecules to T cell receptors. Structures of antigen receptors in the innate immune system then explained their inherent specificity for particular microbial antigens including lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, small molecules, and specific proteins. These two sides of the immune system act immediately (innate) to particular microbial antigens or evolve (adaptive) to attain high specificity and affinity to a much wider range of antigens. We also include examples of other key receptors in the immune system (cytokine receptors) that regulate immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, these antigen receptors use a limited set of protein folds to accomplish their various immunological roles. The other main players are the antigens themselves. We focus on surface glycoproteins in enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV-2 that enable entry and egress into host cells and are targets for the antibody response. This review covers what we have learned over the past half century about the structural basis of the immune response to microbial pathogens and how that information can be utilized to design vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Cytokine/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Allergy and Immunology/history , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigen Presentation , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Crystallography/history , Crystallography/methods , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Protein Folding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , V(D)J Recombination
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646270

ABSTRACT

A dodecadepsipeptide valinomycin (VLM) has been most recently reported to be a potential anti-coronavirus drug that could be efficiently produced on a large scale. It is thus of importance to study solid-phase forms of VLM in order to be able to ensure its polymorphic purity in drug formulations. The previously available solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data are combined with the plane-wave DFT computations in the NMR crystallography framework. Structural/spectroscopical predictions (the PBE functional/GIPAW method) are obtained to characterize four polymorphs of VLM. Interactions which confer a conformational stability to VLM molecules in these crystalline forms are described in detail. The way how various structural factors affect the values of SSNMR parameters is thoroughly analyzed, and several SSNMR markers of the respective VLM polymorphs are identified. The markers are connected to hydrogen bonding effects upon the corresponding (13C/15N/1H) isotropic chemical shifts of (CO, Namid, Hamid, Hα) VLM backbone nuclei. These results are expected to be crucial for polymorph control of VLM and in probing its interactions in dosage forms.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Valinomycin/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Carbon Isotopes/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crystallography , Hydrogen Bonding , Nitrogen Isotopes/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Valinomycin/metabolism
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