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1.
Stroke ; 53(2): 304-306, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779503
2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(14): 1363-1371, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778680

ABSTRACT

The 2020 U.S. Census data show a rapidly diversifying U.S. population. We sought to evaluate whether clinical faculty and leadership representation at academic medical schools reflects the diversifying population over time. Using data from the Association of American Medical Colleges for the period of 1977 through 2019, we found notable progress in female representation among clinical faculty, with smaller gains among department chairs and medical school deans. Racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in medicine are designated as such because their presence within the medical profession is disproportionate to the U.S. Census data. Even with accounting for this underrepresentation, clinical faculty and leadership positions show even starker disparities. Thoughtful policy implementation could help address this persistent underrepresentation among medical school faculty and leadership positions.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical , Cultural Diversity , Female , Humans , Leadership , Schools, Medical , United States
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 727064, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775850

ABSTRACT

Increasing the number of racially and ethnically underrepresented students who pursue scientific graduate studies in programs focusing on science and aging offers an opportunity to increase the number of aging specialists while simultaneously promoting diversity in the research labor market and supporting new ideas. This case study aims to better understand how students participating in an academic preparatory program experience a writing class contextualized within (1) students' writing background and (2) students' future ambitions related to science and aging. The individually-tailored writing class was taught as a critical component of a comprehensive educational program that targets underrepresented racial and ethnic minority undergraduate students who are interested in pursuing scientific graduate studies in fields related to aging. The researchers conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with students (n = 4) enrolled in the 24-month fellowship training program, which included participation in the writing course during the summer prior to their senior year of undergraduate education. All participants were young adult college students who identified as Black or African American and female. Using thematic coding, statements about professional writing skills were divided into four primary themes: (1) prior experiences, (2) class experiences, (3) future goals and ambitions, and (4) structural considerations. These themes suggest potential implications for effective interventions aimed to advance the writing skills and academic and career readiness of racially and ethnically diverse students entering fields of science and aging.


Subject(s)
Career Choice , Education, Graduate , Students , Writing , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aging , /statistics & numerical data , Cultural Diversity , Female , Humans , Minority Groups/psychology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Science/education , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
J Cancer Surviv ; 16(1): 165-182, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734051

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Given the training and experience of lawyers, we assumed that a study of lawyers' willingness to disclose disability in the workplace would provide an example of the actions of a group knowledgeable about disability law. The current study accounts for the effect of visibility of disability, onset and type of disability, and whether the lawyer has made an accommodation request. We also investigate the role of other individual characteristics, such as sexual orientation, gender identity, race/ethnicity, age, and job-related characteristics, in willingness to disclose. METHODS: We use data from the first phase of a longitudinal national survey of lawyers in the USA to estimate the odds of disclosing disability to co-workers, management, and clients using proportional odds models. RESULTS: Lawyers with less visible disabilities, those with mental health disabilities, and those who work for smaller organizations have lower odds of disclosing to co-workers, management, and clients as compared to their counterparts. Attorneys who have requested accommodations are more willing to disclose as compared to those who have not, but only to co-workers and management. Women are less likely than men to disclose to management and clients. However, gender is not a significant determinant of disclosure to co-workers. Older attorneys are more likely to disclose to clients, whereas attorneys with children are less likely to disclose to co-workers. Lastly, lower perceived prejudice and the presence of co-workers with disabilities are associated with higher disclosure scores, but not for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who acquired a disability at a relatively early point in life and those with more visible disabilities are more likely to disclose. However, such willingness is affected by the intersection of disability with other individual and firm-level characteristics. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The findings imply that those with less visible disabilities and with health conditions acquired later in life are less likely to disclose. The relevance of the findings is heightened by the altered work conditions and demands imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic for cancer survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Neoplasms , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Child , Cultural Diversity , Disclosure , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Lawyers , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(3): vo1, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709244

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial investment and effort by federal agencies and institutions to improve the diversity of the professoriate, progress is excruciatingly slow. One program that aims to enhance faculty diversity is the Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (IRACDA) funded by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences. IRACDA supports the training of a diverse cohort of postdoctoral scholars who will seek academic research and teaching careers. The San Diego IRACDA program has trained 109 postdoctoral scholars since its inception in 2003; 59% are women and 63% are underrepresented (UR) Black/African-American, Latinx/Mexican-American, and Indigenous scientists. Sixty-four percent obtained tenure-track faculty positions, including a substantial 32% at research-intensive institutions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis threatens to upend IRACDA efforts to improve faculty diversity, and academia is at risk of losing a generation of diverse, talented scholars. Here, a group of San Diego IRACDA postdoctoral scholars reflects on these issues and discusses recommendations to enhance the retention of UR scientists to avoid a "lost generation" of promising UR faculty scholars.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cultural Diversity , Education, Graduate , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities/statistics & numerical data , California , Education, Graduate/economics , Faculty, Medical/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U.S.) , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Research Personnel/economics , Research Personnel/education , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States , Universities/economics , Women/education
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263750, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674021

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify meanings of and challenges to enacting equitable diversification of genomics research, and specifically precision medicine research (PMR), teams. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 102 individuals involved in three U.S.-based precision medicine research consortia and conducted over 400 observation hours of their working group meetings, consortium-wide meetings, and conference presentations. We also reviewed published reports on genomic workforce diversity (WFD), particularly those relevant to the PMR community. RESULTS: Our study finds that many PMR teams encounter challenges as they strive to achieve equitable diversification on scientific teams. Interviewees articulated that underrepresented team members were often hired to increase the study's capacity to recruit diverse research participants, but are limited to on-the-ground staff positions with little influence over study design. We find existing hierarchies and power structures in the academic research ecosystem compound challenges for equitable diversification. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that meaningful diversification of PMR teams will only be possible when team equity is prioritized as a core value in academic research communities.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/ethics , Cultural Diversity , Laboratory Personnel/ethics , Precision Medicine/ethics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Genomics/ethics , Health Workforce/ethics , Humans , Laboratory Personnel/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care Team/ethics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , United States , Young Adult
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(1): e1009719, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662438

ABSTRACT

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the power to improve our lives through a wide variety of applications, many of which fall into the healthcare space; however, a lack of diversity is contributing to limitations in how broadly AI can help people. The UCSF AI4ALL program was established in 2019 to address this issue by targeting high school students from underrepresented backgrounds in AI, giving them a chance to learn about AI with a focus on biomedicine, and promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2020, the UCSF AI4ALL three-week program was held entirely online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, students participated virtually to gain experience with AI, interact with diverse role models in AI, and learn about advancing health through AI. Specifically, they attended lectures in coding and AI, received an in-depth research experience through hands-on projects exploring COVID-19, and engaged in mentoring and personal development sessions with faculty, researchers, industry professionals, and undergraduate and graduate students, many of whom were women and from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds. At the conclusion of the program, the students presented the results of their research projects at the final symposium. Comparison of pre- and post-program survey responses from students demonstrated that after the program, significantly more students were familiar with how to work with data and to evaluate and apply machine learning algorithms. There were also nominally significant increases in the students' knowing people in AI from historically underrepresented groups, feeling confident in discussing AI, and being aware of careers in AI. We found that we were able to engage young students in AI via our online training program and nurture greater diversity in AI. This work can guide AI training programs aspiring to engage and educate students entirely online, and motivate people in AI to strive towards increasing diversity and inclusion in this field.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Biomedical Research , Computational Biology , Cultural Diversity , Mentoring , Adolescent , Biomedical Research/education , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Computational Biology/education , Computational Biology/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Students
10.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(4): 1000-1018, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661587

ABSTRACT

There has never been a stronger call for authenticity in health professions education than this moment in time. The health inequities laid bare by the COVID-19 syndemic (a concept that describes the clustering of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease by political, social, and economic factors) compels health professions educators to learn how to best engage in, sustain, and deepen conversations on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) within our learning environments. Health professions curricula should address such concerns through explicit faculty training programs in dialogue models of communication. In this commentary, I propose that medical improv can help refocus health professions training to the humanistic values of empathy for others and respect for multiple viewpoints. Medical improv refers to teaching methods that adapt improvisation principles and exercises to enhance professional competencies in the health professions, such as communication. I describe a training series implemented at one institution to prepare faculty facilitators to engage in conversations about DEI in a discussion-based core course on the social determinants of health for first year medical students called "Humanity in Medicine." Key elements of dialogue training, including examinations of identity and positionality, caretaking and team-making, and conversations with a skeptic, are viewed through the lens of improv exercises as a pedagogy in communication. I report on facilitator and medical students' positive response to facilitator training and the Humanity in Medicine course. Potential next steps towards a formal evaluation of the method, and outcomes assessments of the use of improv in health professions training are discussed.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Occupations , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cultural Diversity , Curriculum , Health Equity , Health Occupations/education , Humans , Social Inclusion
12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(27): 2499-2501, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592290
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559485

ABSTRACT

This review aims to examine the discrimination and prejudices toward the accent of non-native English speakers and cyberbullying as the ripple effect of these negative consequences. Following Arksey and O'Malley's framework of conducting a scoping review, 60 studies from 2012 to 2021 were retrieved from the ERIC and Google Scholar databases. The studies were reviewed from two aspects: (1) psychological impact on speakers with a non-native English accent, (2) attitudes toward non-native English accents from the victim's and perpetrator's perspectives. The findings suggested that speaking with a non-native English accent drew negative cognitive, affective, and behavioral experiences. Biases toward non-native English accents were due to the general derogatory perception of an accent and the comprehensibility of speakers' accent and pronunciation. "Accent acceptability" can be inculcated at all levels of education, not only through multicultural education but also through the concerted effort of policy makers and practitioners to seriously address this social issue. Accent awareness can dispel unwarranted and undesirable judgements of non-native English accent speakers. Future studies should be conducted on the effects of social and mental health experiences, particularly of non-native ESL and EFL teachers, given that this may be the only profession required to teach "live" during the pandemic and thus be subjected to public praise or ridicule.


Subject(s)
Multilingualism , Speech Perception , Cultural Diversity , Language , Speech Intelligibility
15.
Am Surg ; 87(11): 1701-1703, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556614

ABSTRACT

Inequities in society and health care combined with underlying structural and systemic racism have demonstrated significant consequences which have resulted in a renewed focus on the current state of diversity in health care and the field of surgery. However, efforts to combat racism and increase diversity and inclusion at all levels in the field of surgery require a comprehensive review, significant commitment, and purposeful action to achieve. These actions must include increasing diversity within training program recruitment, improving retention of minority and under-represented trainees, and implementing inclusive, transparent pathways to promotion, leadership, and involvement in scientific inquiry. This symposium brings together experts in surgery, health equity and policy to address antiracism, diversity, equity, and inclusion in a comprehensive manner ranging from workforce diversity and promotion, pipeline diversity, scholarly pursuits, social and political determinants of health.


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Health Equity , Healthcare Disparities , Minority Groups , Social Inclusion , African Americans , Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Personnel Selection , Personnel Turnover , SARS-CoV-2 , Specialties, Surgical , Violence/trends , Workforce
18.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 100(1): 15-17, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550826

ABSTRACT

In a new study, a group evaluate immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated individuals and find evidence of durable immune memory for at least 6 months, irrespective of former infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cultural Diversity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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