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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 738202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775886

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Older women have various experiences regarding the management of urinary incontinence depending on the societies they live in and their cultural backgrounds. The present study aimed to determine older women's experiences in urinary incontinence management. Methods: The present qualitative study employed a conventional content analysis approach and was conducted in Iran from 2019 to 2020. In this research, the data were collected through face-to-face unstructured in-depth interviews with 22 older women suffering from urinary incontinence selected via purposeful sampling. The interviews were continued until reaching the data saturation point. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through Graneheim and Lundman style content analysis, and data management was done using the MAXQDA software. In order to achieve the accuracy and validity of the study, the Four-Dimensions Criteria (FDC) by Lincoln and Guba, namely credibility, dependability, conformability, and transformability, were considered and used. Results: This study was conducted on 22 older women suffering from urinary incontinence with the mean age of 66.54 ± 5.76 years. The acquired data were put in four main categories of "resilience" with three subcategories, "change in lifestyle" with six subcategories, "attempt for treatment of the condition" with three subcategories, and "receiving support" with two subcategories. Conclusion: The study results indicated that the older women suffering from urinary incontinence were resilient against the condition, had changed their lifestyles to manage the condition, and sought treatment. In addition, receiving support from the family and the society played a significant role in the follow-up and management of the condition. The present study findings can help healthcare team members focus on urinary incontinence, design care programs for older women with this condition, and improve their quality of life. Furthermore, focusing on young and middle-aged women's health, providing them with the necessary training for taking care of the genitourinary system, and raising their awareness for preventing urinary incontinence during old ages can be helpful. Moreover, increasing the healthcare team's sensitivity and following the patients up can help diagnose, manage, and treat the condition before exerting adverse impacts on their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Urinary Incontinence , Aged , Culture , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life , Urinary Incontinence/therapy
2.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211006332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691168

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to learn about the use, barriers, reasons and beliefs regarding mind-body practices among adults living in the United States during the beginning months of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. An on-line survey was developed following the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet e-Surveys (CHERRIES) guidelines and using the online survey software program, Qualtrics® XM, platform. Pilot testing of the survey was conducted for usability and functionality. The final 24-item survey was distributed via email and social media. A total of 338 adults responded to the survey, with 68.8% indicating that they participated in mind-body activities since the start of the pandemic. Physical activity was the most frequently (61.5%, n = 227) used mind-body practice. Further, 2 of the common barriers to engaging in mind-body practices were lack of motivation and wandering mind. Frequently listed reasons for using mind-body practices were to promote health, reduce stress and relaxation. Respondents believed that mind-body practices resulted in less stress. These findings may be applicable for reducing psychological stress related to the pandemic, as the pandemic continues to impact many areas of the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Culture , Exercise/psychology , Mind-Body Therapies , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Mind-Body Therapies/methods , Mind-Body Therapies/psychology , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(2): 236-243, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671566

ABSTRACT

Widespread misperceptions about COVID-19 and the novel coronavirus threaten to exacerbate the severity of the pandemic. We conducted preregistered survey experiments in the United States, Great Britain and Canada examining the effectiveness of fact-checks that seek to correct these false or unsupported beliefs. Across three countries with differing levels of political conflict over the pandemic response, we demonstrate that fact-checks reduce targeted misperceptions, especially among the groups who are most vulnerable to these claims, and have minimal spillover effects on the accuracy of related beliefs. However, these reductions in COVID-19 misperception beliefs do not persist over time in panel data even after repeated exposure. These results suggest that fact-checks can successfully change the COVID-19 beliefs of the people who would benefit from them most but that their effects are ephemeral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Culture , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Perception/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Canada/epidemiology , Ethnopsychology , Female , Humans , Male , Psychology, Social/methods , Psychology, Social/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/ethics , Social Media , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261858, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635428

ABSTRACT

As a first line of defense to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, people reduced social contacts to avoid pathogen exposure. Using a panel of countries, this research suggests that this was amplified in societies characterized by high social support and future orientation. People reacted more strongly in dense environments; government orders had more effect in high power distance societies. Conversely, a focus on accomplishments was associated with lower changes. Understanding people's actual behaviors in response to health threats across societies is of great importance for epidemiology, public health, international business, and for the functioning of humanity as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Government Regulation , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/psychology
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102361, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccine hesitancy is an ongoing major challenge. We aimed to assess the uptake and hesitancy of the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A short online survey was posted between April 12 to July 31, 2021 targeted at health and social care workers (HCWs) across the globe. RESULTS: 275 from 37 countries responded. Most were hospital or primary care physicians or nurses, 59% women, aged 18-60 years, and 21% had chronic conditions with most prevalent being diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. We found that most HCWs (93%) had taken or willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. While 7% were vaccine hesitant (mainly women aged 30-39 years), respondents main concerns was the safety or potential side effects. Vaccine willing respondents raised concerns of unequal access to the COVID-19 vaccination in some countries, and highlighted that the only solution to overcoming COVID-19 infections was the vaccine booster doses given annually and free mass vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the majority of the frontline HCWs are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Further promotion of the COVID-19 vaccine would reassure and persuade HCWs to become vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel , Social Workers , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Geography , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation/psychology , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Social Workers/psychology , Social Workers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528730

ABSTRACT

Efforts to control the spread of the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic include drastic measures such as isolation, social distancing, and lockdown. These restrictions are accompanied by serious adverse consequences such as forgoing of healthcare. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of forgone care for a variety of healthcare services during a two-month COVID-19 lockdown, using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Healthcare Utilization. A cross-sectional study using computerized phone interviews was conducted with 302 Israeli Jewish participants aged 40 and above. Almost half of the participants (49%) reported a delay in seeking help for at least one needed healthcare service during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Among the predisposing factors, we found that participants aged 60+, being more religious, and reporting higher levels of COVID-19 fear were more likely to report forgone care than younger, less religious and less concerned participants. Among need factors, a statistically significant association was found with a reported diagnosis of diabetes, with participants with the disease having a considerably higher likelihood of forgone care. The findings stress the importance of developing interventions aimed at mitigating the phenomenon of forgoing care while creating nonconventional ways of consuming healthcare services. In the short term, healthcare services need to adapt to the social distancing and isolation measures required to stanch the epidemic. In the long term, policymakers should consider alternative ways of delivering healthcare services to the public regularly and during crisis without losing sight of their budgetary consequences. They must recognize the possibility of having to align medical staff to the changing demand for healthcare services under conditions of health uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Female , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Israel , Jews/psychology , Jews/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20460, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469994

ABSTRACT

Recent work has found that an individual's beliefs and personal characteristics can impact perceptions of and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain individuals-such as those who are politically conservative or who endorse conspiracy theories-are less likely to engage in preventative behaviors like social distancing. The current research aims to address whether these individual differences not only affect people's reactions to the pandemic, but also their actual likelihood of contracting COVID-19. In the early months of the pandemic, U.S. participants responded to a variety of individual difference measures as well as questions specific to the pandemic itself. Four months later, 2120 of these participants responded with whether they had contracted COVID-19. Nearly all of our included individual difference measures significantly predicted whether a person reported testing positive for the virus in this four-month period. Additional analyses revealed that all of these relationships were primarily mediated by whether participants held accurate knowledge about COVID-19. These findings offer useful insights for developing more effective interventions aimed at slowing the spread of both COVID-19 and future diseases. Moreover, some findings offer critical tests of the validity of such theoretical frameworks as those concerning conspiratorial ideation and disgust sensitivity within a real-world context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Culture , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Politics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Trust
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(5): 1230-1239, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408296

ABSTRACT

Developing countries like Pakistan have previously suffered from barriers to acceptance of vaccination by the public because of financial and belief barriers. This study aims to explore these beliefs and highlight concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy in the general population of Pakistan since they are a hindrance to an effective coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) immunization in the country. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 1,778 participants from all four provinces of Pakistan. Results from the study showed more than half of the participants to be unsure of the safety (50%) and efficacy (51%) of the vaccine, whereas 42% were concerned about the side effects of the vaccine. About 72% of the respondents planned to get vaccinated, whereas 28% refused to do so. Internationally made imported vaccines were more trusted by the participants. Forty-four percent of the participants agreed to receive the vaccine upon recommendation from a physician. Lastly, participants who believed in the efficacy of the polio vaccination also considered the COVID-19 vaccine to be safe and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257096, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403311

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh govt. launched a nationwide vaccination drive against SARS-CoV-2 infection from early February 2021. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines and examine the factors associated with the acceptance in Bangladesh. In between January 30 to February 6, 2021, we conducted a web-based anonymous cross-sectional survey among the Bangladeshi general population. At the start of the survey, there was a detailed consent section that explained the study's intent, the types of questions we would ask, the anonymity of the study, and the study's voluntary nature. The survey only continued when a respondent consented, and the answers were provided by the respondents themselves. The multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 605 eligible respondents took part in this survey (population size 1630046161 and required sample size 591) with an age range of 18 to 100. A large proportion of the respondents are aged less than 50 (82%) and male (62.15%). The majority of the respondents live in urban areas (60.83%). A total of 61.16% (370/605) of the respondents were willing to accept/take the COVID-19 vaccine. Among the accepted group, only 35.14% showed the willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine immediately, while 64.86% would delay the vaccination until they are confirmed about the vaccine's efficacy and safety or COVID-19 becomes deadlier in Bangladesh. The regression results showed age, gender, location (urban/rural), level of education, income, perceived risk of being infected with COVID-19 in the future, perceived severity of infection, having previous vaccination experience after age 18, having higher knowledge about COVID-19 and vaccination were significantly associated with the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. The research reported a high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine refusal and hesitancy in Bangladesh. To diminish the vaccine hesitancy and increase the uptake, the policymakers need to design a well-researched immunization strategy to remove the vaccination barriers. To improve vaccine acceptance among people, false rumors and misconceptions about the COVID-19 vaccines must be dispelled (especially on the internet) and people must be exposed to the actual scientific facts.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/psychology , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Culture , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Refusal
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254870, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378134

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The concept of death is abstract, complex and has a number of meanings. Thus, its understanding and the approach taken to it depend, to a large extent, on aspects such as age, culture, training and religion. Nursing students have regular contact with the process of death and so it is of great interest to understand the attitudes they have towards it. As we live in a plural society it is even more interesting to not only understand the attitudes of Spanish students but, also, those of students coming from other countries. In the present article, we seek to identify and compare the attitudes held by nursing degree students at Hekima-Santé University (Senegal) and the University of Huelva (Spain) about end of life processes. The study identifies elements that condition attitudes and coping with death, whilst considering curricular differences with regards to specific end of life training. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-center study was conducted. The overall sample (N = 142) was divided into groups: Hekima-Santé University (Dakar, Senegal) and the University of Huelva (Huelva, Spain). The measurement instruments used were an ad-hoc questionnaire and Bugen´s Coping with Death Scale. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences (p = 0.005, 95%CI) were found in relation to overall Bugen Scale scores. We can confirm that specialized end of life training (University of Huelva, Spain) did not lead to better coping when compared with a population whose academic curriculum did not provide specific training and who engaged in more religious practices (Hekima-Santé University, Senegal). CONCLUSIONS: In cultures where religion not only influences the spiritual dimension of the individual, but acts in the ethical and moral system and consequently in the economic, educational and family sphere, the accompaniment at the end of life transcends the formative plane. Considering the plural society in which we live, the training that integrates the Degree in Nursing with regard to the care of the final process, must be multidimensional in which spirituality and faith are integrated, working emotional and attentional skills, as well as cultural competence strategies in this process.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Culture , Students, Nursing/psychology , Terminal Care/psychology , Death , Emotions/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Senegal , Spain , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256496, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While vaccines ensure individual protection against COVID-19 infection, delay in receipt or refusal of vaccines will have both individual and community impacts. The behavioral factors of vaccine hesitancy or refusal are a crucial dimension that need to be understood in order to design appropriate interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the behavioral determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and to provide recommendations to increase the acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh. METHODS: We employed a Barrier Analysis (BA) approach to examine twelve potential behavioral determinants (drawn from the Health Belief Model [HBM] and Theory of Reasoned Action [TRA]) of intended vaccine acceptance. We conducted 45 interviews with those who intended to take the vaccine (Acceptors) and another 45 interviews with those who did not have that intention (Non-acceptors). We performed data analysis to find statistically significant differences and to identify which beliefs were most highly associated with acceptance and non-acceptance with COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: The behavioral determinants associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Dhaka included perceived social norms, perceived safety of COVID-19 vaccines and trust in them, perceived risk/susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, perceived positive and negative consequences, perceived action efficacy, perceived severity of COVID-19, access, and perceived divine will. In line with the HBM, beliefs about the disease itself were highly predictive of vaccine acceptance, and some of the strongest statistically-significant (p<0.001) predictors of vaccine acceptance in this population are beliefs around both injunctive and descriptive social norms. Specifically, Acceptors were 3.2 times more likely to say they would be very likely to get a COVID-19 vaccine if a doctor or nurse recommended it, twice as likely to say that most people they know will get a vaccine, and 1.3 times more likely to say that most close family and friends will get a vaccine. The perceived safety of vaccines was found to be important since Non-acceptors were 1.8 times more likely to say that COVID-19 vaccines are "not safe at all". Beliefs about one's risk of getting COVID-19 disease and the severity of it were predictive of being a vaccine acceptor: Acceptors were 1.4 times more likely to say that it was very likely that someone in their household would get COVID-19, 1.3 times more likely to say that they were very concerned about getting COVID-19, and 1.3 times more likely to say that it would be very serious if someone in their household contracted COVID-19. Other responses of Acceptors on what makes immunization easier may be helpful in programming to boost acceptance, such as providing vaccination through government health facilities, schools, and kiosks, and having vaccinators maintain proper COVID-19 health and safety protocols. CONCLUSION: An effective behavior change strategy for COVID-19 vaccines uptake will need to address multiple beliefs and behavioral determinants, reducing barriers and leveraging enablers identified in this study. National plans for promoting COVID-19 vaccination should address the barriers, enablers, and behavioral determinants found in this study in order to maximize the impact on COVID-19 vaccination acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Attitude , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Culture , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341686

ABSTRACT

Stigma is a negative feeling affecting many patients with various health conditions, especially the contagious ones such as COVID-19. The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) is one of the valid and reliable stigma-measuring tools; however, it has not been translated and validated in Arabic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and validate the EMIC in Arabic among a sample of Arabic-speaking adults who recently recovered from COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. The 12 items of the EMIC scale were forward- and backward-translated and reviewed by all authors to check the face and content validity prior to approving the final version of the Arabic 12-item EMIC. A total of 174 participants aged ≥18 years who contracted COVID-19 and recovered as of 29 July 2020 were interviewed. The Cronbach's alpha of the Arabic version of the 12-item EMIC was 0.79, indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency. Using principal component analysis with varimax rotation, two factors explained more than 60% of the variance of the translated EMIC scale. The mean EMIC score was 5.91, implying a low level of stigma among participants. Married participants (ß = 2.93; 95%CI 0.88 to 4.98, p = 0.005) and those with a family history of mental illness (ß = 2.38; 95%CI 0.29 to 4.46, p = 0.025) were more likely to have higher EMIC scores in comparison to their counterparts who were unmarried and had no family history of mental illness. On the contrary, older adults were less likely to have high EMIC scores (ß = -0.11; 95%CI -0.21 to -0.01, p = 0.03). Future studies with larger samples of patients with COVID-19 and various health conditions should be conducted to examine the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the EMIC among different patient populations and to unveil the factors that may play a role in patients' feelings of stigmatization in this part of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Adult , Culture , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(9): 1190-1202, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328848

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made the world seem less predictable. Such crises can lead people to feel that others are a threat. Here, we show that the initial phase of the pandemic in 2020 increased individuals' paranoia and made their belief updating more erratic. A proactive lockdown made people's belief updating less capricious. However, state-mandated mask-wearing increased paranoia and induced more erratic behaviour. This was most evident in states where adherence to mask-wearing rules was poor but where rule following is typically more common. Computational analyses of participant behaviour suggested that people with higher paranoia expected the task to be more unstable. People who were more paranoid endorsed conspiracies about mask-wearing and potential vaccines and the QAnon conspiracy theories. These beliefs were associated with erratic task behaviour and changed priors. Taken together, we found that real-world uncertainty increases paranoia and influences laboratory task behaviour.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Paranoid Disorders/psychology , Health Policy , Humans , Infection Control , Masks , Pandemics
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308180

ABSTRACT

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attitude , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Human Rights , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Politics , Quarantine/psychology , Spain
16.
Nature ; 595(7866): 205-213, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303778

ABSTRACT

Social and cultural forces shape almost every aspect of infectious disease transmission in human populations, as well as our ability to measure, understand, and respond to epidemics. For directly transmitted infections, pathogen transmission relies on human-to-human contact, with kinship, household, and societal structures shaping contact patterns that in turn determine epidemic dynamics. Social, economic, and cultural forces also shape patterns of exposure, health-seeking behaviour, infection outcomes, the likelihood of diagnosis and reporting of cases, and the uptake of interventions. Although these social aspects of epidemiology are hard to quantify and have limited the generalizability of modelling frameworks in a policy context, new sources of data on relevant aspects of human behaviour are increasingly available. Researchers have begun to embrace data from mobile devices and other technologies as useful proxies for behavioural drivers of disease transmission, but there is much work to be done to measure and validate these approaches, particularly for policy-making. Here we discuss how integrating local knowledge in the design of model frameworks and the interpretation of new data streams offers the possibility of policy-relevant models for public health decision-making as well as the development of robust, generalizable theories about human behaviour in relation to infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Models, Biological , Social Conditions/statistics & numerical data , Climate , Culture , Datasets as Topic , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Locomotion , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Weather
17.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 719-728, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299059

ABSTRACT

This paper intends to analyse the current political and social situation in Brazil and show how this context has influenced the management of the public health crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, the authors conducted an investigation into Brazil's historical roots, which have not only engendered deep class differences but, also, social psychopathologies such as dissociation and perversion. Finally, this paper presents a symbolic analysis of social exclusion and how the mythical figure of Sophia can inspire a renewed movement of inclusion and tolerance.


Cet article se propose d'analyser la situation politique et sociale actuelle au Brésil et de montrer comment ce contexte a influencé la gestion de la crise sanitaire publique générée par la COVID-19. Dans ce but, les autrices ont conduit une enquête approfondie sur les racines historiques du Brésil, racines qui ont engendré non seulement de profondes différences de classes mais également des psychopathologies sociales, telles la dissociation et la perversion. Cet article présente en conclusion une analyse symbolique de l'exclusion sociale et montre comment le personnage mythique de Sophia peut inspirer un mouvement renouvelé d'inclusion et de tolérance.


El presente trabajo intenta analizar la situación actual política y social en Brasil y muestra como este contexto ha influenciado el manejo de la crisis de la salud pública generada por la pandemia del COVID-19. A este fin, las autoras llevaron a cabo una investigación sobre las raíces históricas de Brasil, las cuales, no solamente han generado profundas diferencias de clase, sino también psicopatologías sociales como disociación y perversión. Finalmente, el presente trabajo presenta un análisis simbólico de la exclusión social y cómo la figura mítica de Sophia puede inspirar un movimiento renovador de inclusión y tolerancia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Culture , Politics , Prejudice , Psychoanalytic Theory , Brazil/ethnology , Colonialism , Enslavement , Humans , Social Inclusion , Social Isolation
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10170, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251651

ABSTRACT

Modeling human behavior within mathematical models of infectious diseases is a key component to understand and control disease spread. We present a mathematical compartmental model of Susceptible-Infectious-Removed to compare the infected curves given by four different functional forms describing the transmission rate. These depend on the distance that individuals keep on average to others in their daily lives. We assume that this distance varies according to the balance between two opposite thrives: the self-protecting reaction of individuals upon the presence of disease to increase social distancing and their necessity to return to a culturally dependent natural social distance that occurs in the absence of disease. We present simulations to compare results for different society types on point prevalence, the peak size of a first epidemic outbreak and the time of occurrence of that peak, for four different transmission rate functional forms and parameters of interest related to distancing behavior, such as: the reaction velocity of a society to change social distance during an epidemic. We observe the vulnerability to disease spread of close contact societies, and also show that certain social distancing behavior may provoke a small peak of a first epidemic outbreak, but at the expense of it occurring early after the epidemic onset, observing differences in this regard between society types. We also discuss the appearance of temporal oscillations of the four different transmission rates, their differences, and how this oscillatory behavior is impacted through social distancing; breaking the unimodality of the actives-curve produced by the classical SIR-model.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Physical Distancing , Social Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Culture , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Epidemiologic Methods , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Time Factors
19.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 31: e3110, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1288725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Older people's mental health is at risk during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study investigated gender differences in home isolation, beliefs about Covid-19 and mental health indicators among elderly internet users during the pandemic. A total of 384 older persons (66.9% women and 30.1% men) answered an online survey devised to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, beliefs/attitudes about Covid-19, depression (PHQ-2), loneliness (short version of the UCLA-BR), social support and resilience (the BRS). Older women showed poorer mental health indicators, were more likely to adhere to home isolation and believe in the effectiveness of this measure, and felt more self-confident to self-isolate at home. Stronger perceived vulnerability to Covid-19 and awareness of the gravity of the disease were related to poorer mental health indicators among women. Older women are a high-risk group for negative mental health outcomes during the pandemic and should therefore be a primary focus of actions to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on mental health.


Resumo A saúde mental de idosos encontra-se em risco durante pandemia de Covid-19. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar diferenças de sexo com relação ao isolamento domiciliar, crenças sobre Covid-19 e indicadores de saúde mental em idosos usuários de internet durante a pandemia. A amostra foi composta por 384 idosos (66,9% mulheres e 30,1% homens) que responderam instrumentos online para aferir: dados sociodemográficos, crenças/atitudes sobre Covid-19, depressão (PHQ-2), solidão (versão curta da UCLA-BR), suporte social e resiliência (EBR). Idosas apresentaram piores índices de saúde mental, aderiram mais ao isolamento domiciliar, relataram acreditar mais na efetividade do isolamento e sentiram-se mais autoconfiantes em praticá-lo. Percepções mais fortes sobre vulnerabilidade e gravidade da doença apresentaram relações com piores índices de saúde mental para as idosas. Idosas compreendem grupo de risco para desfechos negativos em saúde mental na pandemia da Covid-19, devendo esse grupo ser foco prioritário para ações de mitigação dos efeitos da pandemia no âmbito da saúde mental.


Resumen La salud mental de los ancianos está en riesgo en la pandemia de la Covid-19. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las diferencias de género en relación con el aislamiento domiciliario, las creencias sobre el Covid-19 y los indicadores de salud mental en los ancianos, que son usuarios de Internet, durante la pandemia. Una muestra de 384 ancianos (66,9% mujeres y 30,1% hombres) respondieron cuestionarios online para medir: datos sociodemográficos, creencias y actitudes sobre Covid-19, depresión (PHQ-2), soledad (versión corta del UCLA-BR), apoyo social y resiliência (EBR). Las mujeres de edad avanzada presentaron los peores índices de salud mental, se adhirieron más al aislamiento en el hogar, informaron que creían más en la efectividad del aislamiento y se sentían más seguras de sí mismas al practicarlo. Las percepciones más fuertes de vulnerabilidad y gravedad de la enfermedad mostraron más relaciones significativas con los peores índices de salud mental para las ancianas. Las ancianas son un grupo de riesgo de resultados negativos para la salud mental en la pandemia de la Covid-19, y este grupo debería ser un enfoque prioritario para las acciones de mitigación de los efectos de la pandemia en la salud mental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Social Isolation , Mental Health , Health of the Elderly , Coronavirus Infections , Sickness Impact Profile , Culture , Depression , Resilience, Psychological , Pandemics , Loneliness
20.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 40(2): 101-107, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285227

ABSTRACT

. Cultural meta-analysis 2: the after Covid-19. Against the background of the promises-expectations of an ethically and ecologically renewed and resilient world (declared needed to compensate and to avoid the repetition of the pandemic tragedy), the same methodology proposed in the heart of the Covid scenario has been applied: a cultural metanalysis - transversal through and comprehensive of the various points of view which have had ( and seem to have) an important role for a period defined as 'some light at the end of the tunnel'. After the mandatory priority of a focus on the most qualified health literature, the survey provides essential elements of information and analysis on scenarios which more closely coincide with the challenges to be faced if and when the imaginary of a 'different-better' world should be translated into reality, specifically in the model area of health. With the obvious limitation of an exercise of methodology (which cannot pretend to a completeness of coverage), both world famous and 'significant' authors are included, as well as Italian voices. The take-home - not easy - message is clear. The pandemic has not been an 'health-disease' event. Its 'syndemic' nature (i.e. its interaction with structural, permanent, economic, social, cultural pandemics) imposes the acceptance and the long-term pursuit of new civilisation paradigms. Health care is definitely one of the areas where this cultural challenge must be met.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Forecasting , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic
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