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1.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4503-4525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511886

ABSTRACT

Curcumin is a natural compound with great potential for disease treatment. A large number of studies have proved that curcumin has a variety of biological activities, among which anti-inflammatory effect is a significant feature of it. Inflammation is a complex and pervasive physiological and pathological process. The physiological and pathological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, COVID-19 and other research focus diseases are not clear yet, and they are considered to be related to inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin can effectively improve the symptoms of these diseases and is expected to be a candidate drug for the treatment of related diseases. This paper mainly reviews the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin, the inflammatory pathological mechanism of related diseases, the regulatory effect of curcumin on these, and the latest research results on the improvement of curcumin pharmacokinetics. It is beneficial to the further study of curcumin and provides new ideas and insights for the development of curcumin anti-inflammatory preparations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Depression/drug therapy , Humans
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470886

ABSTRACT

During the last decade, we have persistently addressed the question, "how can the innate immune system be used as a therapeutic tool to eliminate cancer?" A cancerous tumor harbors innate immune cells such as macrophages, which are held in the tumor-promoting M2 state by tumor-cell-released cytokines. We have discovered that these tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are repolarized into the nitric oxide (NO)-generating tumoricidal M1 state by the dietary agent curcumin (CC), which also causes recruitment of activated natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T (Tc) cells into the tumor, thereby eliminating cancer cells as well as cancer stem cells. Indications are that this process may be NO-dependent. Intriguingly, the maximum blood concentration of CC in mice never exceeds nanomolar levels. Thus, our results submit that even low, transient levels of curcumin in vivo are enough to cause repolarization of the TAM and recruitment NK cells as well as Tc cells to eliminate the tumor. We have observed this phenomenon in two cancer models, glioblastoma and cervical cancer. Therefore, this approach may yield a general strategy to fight cancer. Our mechanistic studies have so far implicated induction of STAT-1 in this M2→M1 switch, but further studies are needed to understand the involvement of other factors such as the lipid metabolites resolvins in the CC-evoked anticancer pathways.


Subject(s)
Curcumin/therapeutic use , Glioblastoma/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Animals , Female , Glioblastoma/immunology , Glioblastoma/pathology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Mice , Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Nitric Oxide/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/pathology , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/immunology , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111888, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293595

ABSTRACT

Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa L., is a fat-soluble natural compound that can be obtained from ginger plant tuber roots, which accumulative evidences have demonstrated that it can resist viral and microbial infection and has anti-tumor, reduction of blood lipid and blood glucose, antioxidant and removal of free radicals, and is active against numerous disorders various chronic diseases including cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In this article is highlighted the recent evidence of curcuminoids applied in sevral aspects of medical problem particular in COVID-19 pandemics. We have searched several literature databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website via using curcumin and medicinal properties as a keyword. All studies published from the time when the database was established to May 2021 was retrieved. This review article summarizes the growing confirmation for the mechanisms related to curcumin's physiological and pharmacological effects with related target proteins interaction via molecular docking. The purpose is to provide deeper insight and understandings of curcumin's medicinal value in the discovery and development of new drugs. Curcumin could be used in the prevention or therapy of cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, infection, and inflammation based on cellular biochemical, physiological regulation, infection suppression and immunomodulation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Curcumin/metabolism , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Structure, Secondary
4.
J Nutr Biochem ; 97: 108787, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253236

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of mysterious pneumonia at the end of 2019 is associated with widespread research interest worldwide. The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) targets multiple organs through inflammatory, immune, and redox mechanisms, and no effective drug for its prophylaxis or treatment has been identified until now. The use of dietary bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds (PC), has emerged as a putative nutritional or therapeutic adjunct approach for COVID-19. In the present study, scientific data on the mechanisms underlying the bioactivity of PC and their usefulness in COVID-19 mitigation are reviewed. In addition, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects of dietary PC are studied. Moreover, the implications of digestion on the putative benefits of dietary PC against COVID-19 are presented by addressing the bioavailability and biotransformation of PC by the gut microbiota. Lastly, safety issues and possible drug interactions of PC and their implications in COVID-19 therapeutics are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Phenols/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Phenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacokinetics , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/pharmacokinetics , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1308: 127-136, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188049

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recognized in late 2019 in Wuhan, China. Subsequently, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. The proportion of potentially fatal coronavirus infections may vary by location, age, and underlying risk factors. However, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most frequent complication and leading cause of death in critically ill patients. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agents have received great attention as therapeutic strategies against COVID-19. Here, we review potential mechanisms and special clinical considerations of supplementation with curcumin as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound in the setting of COVID-19 clinical research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , China , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111578, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174104

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has become of striking interest since the number of deaths is constantly rising all over the globe, and the search for an efficient treatment is more urgent. In light of this worrisome scenario, this opinion review aimed to discuss the current knowledge about the potential role of curcumin and its nanostructured systems on the SARS-CoV-2 targets. From this perspective, this work demonstrated that curcumin urges as a potential antiviral key for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 based on its relation to the infection pathways. Moreover, the use of curcumin-loaded nanocarriers for increasing its bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency was highlighted. Additionally, the potential of the nanostructured systems by themselves and their synergic action with curcumin on molecular targets for viral infections have been explored. Finally, a viewpoint of the studies that need to be carried out to implant curcumin as a treatment for COVID-19 was addressed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanomedicine , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 12 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021948

ABSTRACT

The human serine protease serine 2 TMPRSS2 is involved in the priming of proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and represents a possible target for COVID-19 therapy. The TMPRSS2 gene may be co-expressed with SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor genes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Basigin (BSG), but only TMPRSS2 demonstrates tissue-specific expression in alveolar cells according to single-cell RNA sequencing data. Our analysis of the structural variability of the TMPRSS2 gene based on genome-wide data from 76 human populations demonstrates that a functionally significant missense mutation in exon 6/7 in the TMPRSS2 gene is found in many human populations at relatively high frequencies, with region-specific distribution patterns. The frequency of the missense mutation encoded by rs12329760, which has previously been found to be associated with prostate cancer, ranged between 10% and 63% and was significantly higher in populations of Asian origin compared with European populations. In addition to single-nucleotide polymorphisms, two copy number variants were detected in the TMPRSS2 gene. A number of microRNAs have been predicted to regulate TMPRSS2 and BSG expression levels, but none of them is enriched in lung or respiratory tract cells. Several well-studied drugs can downregulate the expression of TMPRSS2 in human cells, including acetaminophen (paracetamol) and curcumin. Thus, the interactions of TMPRSS2 with SARS-CoV-2, together with its structural variability, gene-gene interactions, expression regulation profiles, and pharmacogenomic properties, characterize this gene as a potential target for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asia/epidemiology , Basigin/biosynthesis , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/physiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/genetics , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Europe/epidemiology , Exons/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Pharmacogenomic Testing , Protein Interaction Mapping , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173551, 2020 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006190

ABSTRACT

The severity of the recent pandemic and the absence of any specific medication impelled the identification of existing drugs with potential in the treatment of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Curcumin, known for its pharmacological abilities especially as an anti-inflammatory agent, can be hypothesized as a potential candidate in the therapeutic regimen. COVID-19 has an assorted range of pathophysiological consequences, including pulmonary damage, elevated inflammatory response, coagulopathy, and multi-organ damage. This review summarizes the several evidences for the pharmacological benefits of curcumin in COVID-19-associated clinical manifestations. Curcumin can be appraised to hinder cellular entry, replication of SARS-CoV-2, and to prevent and repair COVID-19-associated damage of pneumocytes, renal cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, etc. The modulation and protective effect of curcumin on cytokine storm-related disorders are also discussed. Collectively, this review provides grounds for its clinical evaluation in the therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Curcumin/adverse effects , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety
11.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(7): 5325-5338, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995973

ABSTRACT

In novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the increased frequency and overactivation of T helper (Th) 17 cells and subsequent production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines result in hyperinflammation and disease progression. The current study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin on the frequency and responses of Th17 cells in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. In this study, 40 severe COVID-19 intensive care unit-admitted patients and 40 patients in mild condition were included. The frequency of Th17 cells, the messenger RNA expression of Th17 cell-related factors (RAR-related orphan receptor γt, interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-23, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and the serum levels of cytokines were measured in both nanocurcumin and placebo-treated groups before and after treatment. A significant decrease in the number of Th17 cells, downregulation of Th17 cell-related factors, and decreased levels of Th17 cell-related cytokines were found in mild and severe COVID-19 patients treated by nanocurcumin compared to the placebo group. Moreover, the abovementioned parameters were significantly decreased in the nanocurcumin-treated group after treatment versus before treatment. Curcumin could reduce the frequency of Th17 cells and their related inflammatory factors in both mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Hence, it could be considered as a potential modulatory compound in improving the patient's inflammatory condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Adult , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(2): 129801, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to lack of approved drugs and vaccines, the medical world has resorted to older drugs, produced for viral infections and other diseases, as a remedy to combat COVID-19. The accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have demonstrated that several polyphenols found in plants and zinc- polyphenol clusters have been in use as herbal medicines have antiviral activities against viruses with various mechanisms. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores have been considered as nutraceuticals and nutrients showing great antiviral activities with their medicinal like activities. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we discussed the potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores in treatment of viral infections including COVID-19. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Curcuminoids and Zinc classified as nutraceuticals under GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) by FDA can provide complementary treatment for COVID 19 patients with their immunity-boosting and antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Zinc/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Food , Humans , Inflammation , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Virus Replication
13.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(4): 213-218, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922287

ABSTRACT

The continued spread of 2019-nCoV has prompted widespread concern around the world. WHO formally named COVID-19 and International Committee on Taxonomy called it Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to this viral attack, the whole world is in lockdown. Presently, there is no effective way to control it, except social distancing and hygienic activity. World class scientists and researchers are trying to make vaccine and discover the medicine against the control and cure to this deadly viral disease. Our aim to presenting this article is kick-off deadly viral disease i.e COVID-19 by an easy way with minimum intervention and effort. Different ayurvedic therapeutic agents (Curcuma Longa L, Green tea and Piper nigrum) inhabit entry of virus in host cell, transmission of pathogen and improve the immunity. Curcumin and piperine (1-piperoylpiperidine) interact to each other and form a π-π intermolecular complex which enhance the bioavailability of curcumin by inhibition of glucuronidation of curcumin in liver. Both the molecules curcumin and catechin get bound directly to receptors binding domain of S-protein and ACE-2 receptors of host cell, due to which these molecules inhibit the entry of virus in host cell i. e. animal survives from being infected.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Humans , Piperidines/pharmacology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 876, 2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigates the effectiveness of curcumin-containing Nanomicelles as a therapeutic supplement in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and its effect on immune responses balance changes following treatment. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is conducted as a prospective, placebo-controlled with parallel group, single-center randomized clinical trial on COVID-19 patients. PARTICIPANTS: Patients are selected from the COVID-19 ward of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Real time PCR-approved positive COVID-19 test. 2. Both gender 3. Age between 18 and 75 years 4. Signing a written consent 5. Lack of participation in other clinical trials Exclusion criteria: 1. Pregnancy or lactation 2. Allergy to turmeric or curcumin 3. Smoking 4. Patient connected to the ventilator 5. SaO2 less than 90% or PaO2 less than 8 kPa 6. Having comorbidities (such as severe renal failure, Glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/min, liver failure, Congestive heart failure, or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) 7. History of gallstones 8. History of gastritis or active gastrointestinal ulcer INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In addition to the routine standard treatments for COVID-19, in the intervention group, 40mg nanomicelles containing curcumin (SinaCurcumin Capsule, Exir Nano Sina Company, Iran), four times per day (after breakfast, lunch, dinner and before bedtime) and in the placebo group as the control group, capsules with the same appearance and characteristics (Placebo capsules, Exir Nano Sina Company, Iran) are prescribed for two weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: The effectiveness of Nano micelles containing curcumin treatment will be evaluated as daily clinical examinations of patients in both groups and, on days 0, 7 and 14, complete clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including peripheral blood and serum parameters such as inflammatory markers will be measured and recorded. Moreover, in order to evaluate the balance of immune responses changes following treatments, serum level of IFN-γ, IL-17, Il-4 and TGF-ß serum cytokines will be measured in both groups at time points of 0, 7 and 14 days post treatment. Gene expression of t-bet, GATA-3, FoxP3 and ROR- γT will also be measured at mentioned time points to assess the shift of T helper1, T helper2, T regulatory and T helper 17 immune responses following treatment. RANDOMISATION: Randomized trials will be performed on 40 COVID-19 patients which will be randomized using encoded sealed boxes with computer generated random digits with 1:1 allocation ratio. In order to randomization, placebo and SinaCurcumin Capsules will be numbered first by computer generated random digits. SinaCurcumin and placebo will then be stored and numbered in sealed packages based on generated random numbers. Finally, according to the order in which patients enter the study, packages are given to patients based on their number. BLINDING (MASKING): The present study will be blind for all patients, physicians and nurses, laboratory technicians and statisticians. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 40 patients will be included in the study, 20 of them will be randomly assigned to the intervention group and 20 to the placebo group. TRIAL STATUS: This is Version 1.0 of protocol dated 21 May 2020. The recruitment was started June 24, 2020 and is expected to be completed by October 31, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This present clinical trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the registration code of "IRCT20200611047735N1", https://www.irct.ir/trial/48843 . Dated: 19 June 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coloring Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coloring Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Curcumin/adverse effects , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Humans , Interleukins/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Micelles , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt B): 107088, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an ongoing worldwide health issue, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been causing serious complications, including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ failure. However, there is no decisive treatment approach available for this disorder, which is primarily attributed to the large amount of inflammatory cytokine production. We aimed to identify the effects of Nano-curcumin on the modulation of inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients. METHOD: Forty COVID-19 patients and 40 healthy controls were recruited and evaluated for inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. Subsequently, COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients receiving Nano-curcumin and 20 patients as the placebo group. The mRNA expression and cytokine secretion levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-18 were assessed by Real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULT: Our primary results indicated that the mRNA expression and cytokine secretion of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-18 were increased significantly in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control group. After treatment with Nano-curcumin, a significant decrease in IL-6 expression and secretion in serum and in supernatant (P = 0.0003, 0.0038, and 0.0001, respectively) and IL-1ß gene expression and secretion level in serum and supernatant (P = 0.0017, 0.0082, and 0.0041, respectively) was observed. However, IL-18 mRNA expression and TNF-α concentration were not influenced by Nano-curcumin. CONCLUSION: Nano-curcumin, as an anti-inflammatory herbal based agent, may be able to modulate the increased rate of inflammatory cytokines especially IL-1ß and IL-6 mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in COVID-19 patients, which may cause an improvement in clinical manifestation and overall recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/genetics , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Micelles , Middle Aged , Nanotechnology , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Young Adult
16.
Comput Biol Med ; 126: 104046, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837907

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious illness caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originally identified in Wuhan, China (December 2019) and has since expanded into a pandemic. Here, we investigate metabolites present in several common spices as possible inhibitors of COVID-19. Specifically, 32 compounds isolated from 14 cooking seasonings were examined as inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), which is required for viral multiplication. Using a drug discovery approach to identify possible antiviral leads, in silico molecular docking studies were performed. Docking calculations revealed a high potency of salvianolic acid A and curcumin as Mpro inhibitors with binding energies of -9.7 and -9.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Binding mode analysis demonstrated the ability of salvianolic acid A and curcumin to form nine and six hydrogen bonds, respectively with amino acids proximal to Mpro's active site. Stabilities and binding affinities of the two identified natural spices were calculated over 40 ns molecular dynamics simulations and compared to an antiviral protease inhibitor (lopinavir). Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area energy calculations revealed greater salvianolic acid A affinity for the enzyme over curcumin and lopinavir with energies of -44.8, -34.2 and -34.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Using a STRING database, protein-protein interactions were identified for salvianolic acid A included the biochemical signaling genes ACE, MAPK14 and ESR1; and for curcumin, EGFR and TNF. This study establishes salvianolic acid A as an in silico natural product inhibitor against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease and provides a promising inhibitor lead for in vitro enzyme testing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Caffeic Acids/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Curcumin/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Drug Discovery , Lactates/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , COVID-19 , Caffeic Acids/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Lactates/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
17.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(2): 489-508, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647880

ABSTRACT

We are being confronted with the most consequential pandemic since the Spanish flu of 1918­1920 to the extent that never before have 4 billion people quarantined simultaneously; to address this global challenge we bring to the forefront the options for medical treatment and summarize SARS­CoV2 structure and functions, immune responses and known treatments. Based on literature and our own experience we propose new interventions, including the use of amiodarone, simvastatin, pioglitazone and curcumin. In mild infections (sore throat, cough) we advocate prompt local treatment for the naso­pharynx (inhalations; aerosols; nebulizers); for moderate to severe infections we propose a tried­and­true treatment: the combination of arginine and ascorbate, administered orally or intravenously. The material is organized in three sections: i) Clinical aspects of COVID­19; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); known treatments; ii) Structure and functions of SARS­CoV2 and proposed antiviral drugs; iii) The combination of arginine­ascorbate.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Humans , Pioglitazone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Simvastatin/therapeutic use
19.
Phytother Res ; 34(11): 2911-2920, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324580

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is an ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with considerable mortality worldwide. The main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is the presence of respiratory symptoms, but some patients develop severe cardiovascular and renal complications. There is an urgency to understand the mechanism by which this virus causes complications so as to develop treatment options. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, could be a potential treatment option for patients with coronavirus disease. In this study, we review some of the potential effects of curcumin such as inhibiting the entry of virus to the cell, inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, as well as modulating various cellular signaling pathways. This review provides a basis for further research and development of clinical applications of curcumin for the treatment of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116799

ABSTRACT

Novel coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged periodically around the world in recent years. The recurrent spreading of CoVs imposes an ongoing threat to global health and the economy. Since no specific therapy for these CoVs is available, any beneficial approach (including nutritional and dietary approach) is worth investigation. Based on recent advances in nutrients and phytonutrients research, a novel combination of vitamin C, curcumin and glycyrrhizic acid (VCG Plus) was developed that has potential against CoV infection. System biology tools were applied to explore the potential of VCG Plus in modulating targets and pathways relevant to immune and inflammation responses. Gene target acquisition, gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were conducted consecutively along with network analysis. The results show that VCG Plus can act on 88 hub targets which are closely connected and associated with immune and inflammatory responses. Specifically, VCG Plus has the potential to regulate innate immune response by acting on NOD-like and Toll-like signaling pathways to promote interferons production, activate and balance T-cells, and regulate the inflammatory response by inhibiting PI3K/AKT, NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. All these biological processes and pathways have been well documented in CoV infections studies. Therefore, our findings suggest that VCG Plus may be helpful in regulating immune response to combat CoV infections and inhibit excessive inflammatory responses to prevent the onset of cytokine storm. However, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are warranted to validate the current findings with system biology tools. Our current approach provides a new strategy in predicting formulation rationale when developing new dietary supplements.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Curcuma/chemistry , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Drug Delivery Systems , Gene Ontology , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Systems Biology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
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