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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260238, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526698

ABSTRACT

Simulation may be an effective educational strategy for undergraduate nursing students to experience evidence-based practice. The aim of this scoping review is to explore such simulations to discover the design characteristics that best achieve this goal. In this review, we will consider studies in which the focus was on evidence-based practice-related simulation programs for undergraduate students in academic, clinical, or virtual settings. We will also focus on the active learning strategies applied in such simulation programs. This scoping review will be conducted in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Studies will be searched in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE; PubMed), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and the Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE). Sources of unpublished studies/gray literature will not be included in this scoping review. Data extraction will be undertaken by using a data-extraction tool developed by the reviewers, based on the National League for Nursing Jeffries Simulation Theory. Via a narrative summary and tabulated results, we will describe how the simulation programs were designed or implemented in an undergraduate curriculum.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Students, Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Humans , Narration
2.
Acad Med ; 96(7): 954-957, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364834

ABSTRACT

Machine learning (ML) algorithms are powerful prediction tools with immense potential in the clinical setting. There are a number of existing clinical tools that use ML, and many more are in development. Physicians are important stakeholders in the health care system, but most are not equipped to make informed decisions regarding deployment and application of ML technologies in patient care. It is of paramount importance that ML concepts are integrated into medical curricula to position physicians to become informed consumers of the emerging tools employing ML. This paradigm shift is similar to the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement of the 1990s. At that time, EBM was a novel concept; now, EBM is considered an essential component of medical curricula and critical to the provision of high-quality patient care. ML has the potential to have a similar, if not greater, impact on the practice of medicine. As this technology continues its inexorable march forward, educators must continue to evaluate medical curricula to ensure that physicians are trained to be informed stakeholders in the health care of tomorrow.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Education, Medical/methods , Evidence-Based Medicine/history , Machine Learning/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Clinical Decision-Making/ethics , Clinical Trials as Topic , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , Liability, Legal , Male , Physician-Patient Relations/ethics , Physicians/organization & administration , Stakeholder Participation , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislation & jurisprudence
3.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e250-e265, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, medical students training in neurosurgery relied on external subinternships at institutions nationwide for immersive educational experiences and to increase their odds of matching. However, external rotations for the 2020-2021 cycle were suspended given concerns of spreading COVID-19. Our objective was to provide foundational neurosurgical knowledge expected of interns, bootcamp-style instruction in basic procedures, and preinterview networking opportunities for students in an accessible, virtual format. METHODS: The virtual neurosurgery course consisted of 16 biweekly 1-hour seminars over a 2-month period. Participants completed comprehensive precourse and postcourse surveys assessing their backgrounds, confidence in diverse neurosurgical concepts, and opinions of the qualities of the seminars. Responses from students completing both precourse and postcourse surveys were included. RESULTS: An average of 82 students participated live in each weekly lecture (range, 41-150). Thirty-two participants completed both surveys. On a 1-10 scale self-assessing baseline confidence in neurosurgical concepts, participants were most confident in neuroendocrinology (6.79 ± 0.31) and least confident in spine oncology (4.24 ± 0.44), with an average of 5.05 ± 0.32 across all topics. Quality ratings for all seminars were favorable. The mean postcourse confidence was 7.79 ± 0.19, representing an improvement of 3.13 ± 0.38 (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Feedback on seminar quality and improvements in confidence in neurosurgical topics suggest that an interactive virtual course may be an effective means of improving students' foundational neurosurgical knowledge and providing networking opportunities before application cycles. Comparison with in-person rotations when these are reestablished may help define roles for these tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/education , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/complications , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1586-1591, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246779

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent national events, including the COVID-19 pandemic and protests of racial inequities, have drawn attention to the role of physicians in advocating for improvements in the social, economic, and political factors that affect health. Characterizing the current state of advocacy training in U.S. medical schools may help set expectations for physician advocacy and predict future curricular needs. METHOD: Using the member school directory provided by the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors compiled a list of 154 MD-granting medical schools in the United States in 2019-2020. They used multiple search strategies to identify online course catalogues and advocacy-related curricula using variations of the terms "advocacy," "policy," "equity," and "social determinants of health." They used an iterative process to generate a preliminary coding schema and to code all course descriptions, conducting content analysis to describe the structure of courses and topics covered. RESULTS: Of 134 medical schools with any online course catalogue available, 103 (76.9%) offered at least 1 advocacy course. Required courses were typically survey courses focused on general content in health policy, population health, or public health/epidemiology, whereas elective courses were more likely to focus specifically on advocacy skills building and to feature field experiences. Of 352 advocacy-specific courses, 93 (26.4%) concentrated on a specific population (e.g., children or persons with low socioeconomic status). Few courses (n = 8) focused on racial/ethnic minorities and racial inequities. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that while most U.S. medical schools offer at least 1 advocacy course, the majority are elective rather than required, and the structure and content of advocacy-related courses vary substantially. Given the urgency to address social, economic, and political factors affecting health and health equity, this study provides an important and timely overview of the prevalence and content of advocacy curricula at U.S. medical schools.


Subject(s)
Health Equity/standards , Patient Advocacy/education , Racism/ethnology , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , American Medical Association/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Physician's Role , Politics , Prevalence , Racism/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Social Determinants of Health/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113756, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schools, depending on their access to and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and the implementation of healthy behaviours, can be critical for the control and spread of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Schools provide opportunities for pupils to learn about the importance of hygiene and WASH-related practice, and build healthy habits and skills, with beneficial medium- and long-term consequences particularly in low- and middle-income countries: reducing pupils' absenteeism due to diseases, promoting physical, mental and social health, and improving learning outcomes. WASH services alone are often not sufficient and need to be combined with educational programmes. As pupils disseminate their acquired health-promoting knowledge to their (extended) families, improved WASH provisions and education in schools have beneficial effects also on the community. International organisations frequently roll out interventions in schools to improve WASH services and, in some cases, train pupils and teachers on safe WASH behaviours. How such interventions relate to local school education on WASH, health promotion and disease prevention knowledge, whether and how such knowledge and school books are integrated into WASH education interventions in schools, are knowledge gaps we fill. METHODS: We analyzed how Kenyan primary school science text book content supports WASH and health education by a book review including books used from class 1 through class 8, covering the age range from 6 to 13 years. We then conducted a rapid literature review of combined WASH interventions that included a behaviour change or educational component, and a rapid review of international policy guidance documents to contextualise the results and understand the relevance of books and school education for WASH interventions implemented by international organisations. We conducted a content analysis based on five identified thematic categories, including drinking water, sanitation, hygiene, environmental hygiene & health promotion and disease risks, and mapped over time the knowledge about WASH and disease prevention. RESULTS: The books comprehensively address drinking water issues, including sources, quality, treatment, safe storage and water conservation; risks and transmission pathways of various waterborne (Cholera, Typhoid fever), water-based (Bilharzia), vector-related (Malaria) and other communicable diseases (Tuberculosis); and the importance of environmental hygiene and health promotion. The content is broadly in line with internationally recommended WASH topics and learning objectives. Gaps remain on personal hygiene and handwashing, including menstrual hygiene, sanitation education, and related health risks and disease exposures. The depth of content varies greatly over time and across the different classes. Such locally available education materials already used in schools were considered by none of the WASH education interventions in the considered intervention studies. CONCLUSIONS: The thematic gaps/under-representations in books that we identified, namely sanitation, hygiene and menstrual hygiene education, are all high on the international WASH agenda, and need to be filled especially now, in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Disconnects exist between school book knowledge and WASH education interventions, between policy and implementation, and between theory and practice, revealing missed opportunities for effective and sustainable behaviour change, and underlining the need for better integration. Considering existing local educational materials and knowledge may facilitate the buy-in and involvement of teachers and school managers in strengthening education and implementing improvements. We suggest opportunities for future research, behaviour change interventions and decision-making to improve WASH in schools.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water/standards , Health Education , Hygiene/standards , Sanitation/standards , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Behavior , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion , Humans , Kenya , Schools , Textbooks as Topic
6.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(6): 929-932, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225175

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 brought telemedicine to the forefront of clinical cardiology. We aimed to examine the extent of trainees' involvement in and comfort with telemedicine practices in Canada with the use of a web-based self-administered survey. Eighty-six trainees from 12 training programs completed the survey (65% response rate). Results showed that before COVID-19, 39 trainees (45%) had telemedicine exposure, compared with 67 (78%) after COVID-19 (P < 0.001). However, only 44 trainees (51%) reported being comfortable or very comfortable with the use of telemedicine. Of the 67 trainees who were involved in telemedicine, 4 (6%) had full supervision during virtual visits, 13 (19%) had partial supervision, and 50 (75%) had minimal or no supervision. Importantly, 67 trainees (78%) expressed the need for telemedicine-specific training and 64 (74%) were willing to have their virtual visits recorded for the purpose of evaluation and feedback. Furthermore, 47 (55%) felt strongly or very strongly positive about incorporating telemedicine into their future practice. The main perceived barriers to telemedicine use were concerns about patients' engagement, fear of weakening the patient-physician relationship, and unfamiliarity with telemedicine technology. These barriers, together with training in virtual physical examination skills and medicolegal aspects of telemedicine, are addressed in several established internal medicine telemedicine curricula that could be adapted by cardiology programs. In conclusion, while the degree of telemedicine involvement since COVID-19 was high, the trainees' comfort level with telemedicine practice remains suboptimal likely due to lack of training and inadequate staff supervision. Therefore, a cardiology telemedicine curriculum is needed to ensure that trainees are equipped to embrace telemedicine in cardiovascular clinical care.


Subject(s)
Cardiology/education , Cardiology/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internet
7.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(4): 515-521, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168968

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During this forced down-time of COVID-19 pandemic, shift to virtual anatomy education is the solitary solution to support the learning of students. The purpose of this study was to understand the visible and invisible potential challenges being faced by the 1st year medical and dental students while attending digital anatomy classes. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 81st year medical and dental students who were admitted to their respective college in August 2019 and were willing to participate in the study. A multiple choice close-ended questionnaire regarding their opinion on virtual classes was designed and feedback was taken from the students. RESULTS: Majority (65%) of the students agreed that they missed their traditional anatomy learning i.e., dissection courses, face to face lectures and interaction with mentors. The students strongly felt the lack of confidence and difficulty in the topics completed without dissections, models, microscopic slides and other modalities. 83% felt lack of proper gadgets, high-band width and strong internet connections, a potential barrier in their digital learning. Lack of self-motivation was felt by 69% students. CONCLUSIONS: The current situation of anatomy education is not intentional, and is not the long term silver bullet solution for a visual subject like anatomy. Though learners face a lot of challenges, however, a shift to online must be supported at this time of health crisis. As the digital learning may go for indefinite period, the feedback of students may be helpful for relevant and timely modifications in digital anatomy education.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Dental/methods , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Dissection/education , Education, Dental/standards , Education, Dental/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/standards , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/standards , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Students, Dental/psychology , Students, Dental/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
8.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 24, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145667

ABSTRACT

Integrating global health (GH) training in medical education has become prevalent in the United States over the last two decades. Many medical school graduates participate in some type of international learning experience during their undergraduate/graduate training, with plans to make this a part of their life-long learning experiences. Recognizing this trend, many pediatric national organizations, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors, and the American Board of Pediatrics, have developed initiatives integrating GH education into existing curricula. We report our experience with using virtual learning on a cloud-based platform to remain connected with our GH training partners, and utilize this opportunity to further strengthen our existing relationships during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, our experience thus far shows that this is an effective way to maintain communication even when international travel is not possible. It allows for the ongoing exchange of ideas and the development of long-term sustainable relationships. There are many important lessons our trainees can learn from such partnerships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Pandemics , Global Health , Humans
9.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ; 51(4): 645-653, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087093

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The specific context related to the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the implementation of distance learning continuity for students. In France, teachers and radiography students in initial training, not specially prepared for this, had to adapt. An evaluation of the system was proposed to the students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire with 4 main sections (pedagogy, communication, learning and concerns) was sent to 91 students at the end of the semester. RESULTS: 91 responses were received. The slideshows with sound or presented during a virtual class are appreciated by the students. Online quizzes are ideal for learning/reviewing. For assessments, individual assignments and online questionnaires are appreciated. Teacher/student interaction via e-mail or video conferencing was considered satisfactory by the large majority of students. Student-student interactions via social networks, for course explanations or document exchange, are very suitable. The majority of students felt they were working a lot and much more compared to face-to-face teaching. Less than half of the students worked more than 20 h per week. Their motivation varied widely. Organizational habits were disrupted, but the autonomy granted was appreciated. The students were mainly concerned about the health of their loved ones and not about their own health. DISCUSSION: The use of distance education tools requires teacher commitment and technical skills. The frequency of communication by e-mail and/or videoconference between members of the teaching team and students must be adapted to the situation. Exchanges by e-mail allow for traceability, while videoconferencing allows direct interaction and a way out of isolation. Autonomy, appreciated by the students, was nevertheless combined with a strong variation in motivation; the anxiety-provoking period in which pedagogical continuity was built up may explain this contradictory observation. CONCLUSION: The results obtained largely confirm the data in the literature. The experience gained through this survey should lead teachers to continue their reflection by test/integrating and evaluating distance education systems, while continuing face-to-face activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Quarantine , Radiology/education , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Female , France , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Radiography , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Anat Sci Educ ; 14(1): 8-18, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938394

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic launched the use of online courses in Chinese medical schools during February 2020. To evaluate the state of gross anatomy education in China during the pandemic, a nationwide survey was conducted through convenience sampling by email or respondent invitations on social media. A total of 359 questionnaires were received from the respondents. The first response from a given school was included in the study to represent that school, thus, 77 questionnaires were used for analyses. Schools represented were from all provinces in mainland China as well as Hong Kong and Macao. The survey found that before the pandemic, 74.0% and 33.8% of the 77 schools conducted online theoretical and practical sessions, respectively, on gross anatomy, and 36 (46.8% of 77) had temporarily suspended practical sessions at the time the survey was conducted. Body donation programs were also affected with 26.0% and 27.3% of the 77 schools having suspended donation programs or saw a decreased number of donations. During the pandemic, 40.3% of the 77 schools kept or initiated the implementation of active learning, and online assessment was continued in 49.4% of the 77 medical schools. Another 26 (33.8%) schools initiated online assessment during the pandemic. A total of 359 answers were included for the analysis of the "teachers' perception of the online teaching experience." Over half (51.0%) of the 359 responded teachers were very statisfied or satisfied with the effectiveness of online teaching during the pandemic. A total of 36.2% of these respondents preferred to implement online teaching of theoretical sessions after the pandemic, and 89 (24.8%) teachers were keen to return to traditional face-to-face anatomy education.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Curriculum/trends , Education, Distance/trends , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/trends , Faculty/psychology , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tissue and Organ Procurement/statistics & numerical data , Tissue and Organ Procurement/trends
12.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ; 51(4): 639-644, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653522

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Problem-based learning (PBL) has been reported to be a valuable student-centred learning approach across the globe. In PBL students first encounter a problem, which triggers discussion, followed by student-centred inquiry. Makerere University College of Health Sciences has been using PBL for radiography students since 2002. Over the years, the learning landscape may have changed, including the significant disruption of learning by the coronavirus disease 2019 global pandemic. The study aimed at exploring the perceptions of undergraduate radiography students about the PBL curriculum at Makerere University almost two decades after its introduction. METHODS: This exploratory qualitative study involved 18 radiography students sampled purposively, from whom data were gathered using focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was subsequently used. RESULTS: Three key themes emerged from the data: (1) quality of teaching, (2) curriculum efficiency, and (3) curriculum expectations and rating. All students were generally positive about the curriculum. Most agreed that the curriculum was efficient to a greater extent and had met their expectations and desired objectives. Students, however, faced challenges; for example, with limited learning resources during the learning process. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the significant role of PBL in enhancing student's problem-solving, critical thinking, literature search, and, most of all, their practical skills. Prioritization of teaching based on practical relevance and learning objectives is of great importance. The radiography students believed that their curriculum program was generally beneficial to them; however, it was affected by limited resources and limited availability of teaching personnel, which needs to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Radiology/education , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Focus Groups , Humans , Radiography , Uganda , Universities
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